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According to a household survey conducted by the Department of Statistics, more Singaporeans are now living in condominiums. The proportion of Singaporeans living in condominiums is likely to increase given that median monthly household income is on the rise.

First time homeowners looking to buy a condominium may not be able to differentiate between the different classes of condominiums. It is therefore crucial to take note of the different classifications as there are several subtle differences between condominiums in each classification; these distinctions, if unnoticed, may end up being costly mistakes.

This article will introduce the 3 main categories of private condominiums in Singapore – mass market (Outside Central Region, OCR), mid-market (Rest of Central Region, RCR) and high-end (Core Central Region, CCR).

Mass market condominiums

As its name suggests, these condominiums are marketed to the masses and is the cornerstone of Singapore’s private property market. These condominiums are generally more affordable than the those in the other categories, with prices per square foot starting from S$600. However, these condominiums are far away from the Central Business District (CBD), and are typically found in districts 18 (Tampines, Pasir Ris), 22 (Jurong) and 27 (Yishun, Sembawang).

Some mass market condominiums include One Canberra, Skies Miltonia and Lake Grande. It is commonplace for condominiums of this category to provide basic facilities like swimming pools, jacuzzis, gymnasiums, barbeque areas, carparks and round-the-clock security.

Source: City Developments Limited

2017 had been an astounding year for the private residential market as indications of a recovery have become clearer with an increase in volume of transactions and prices. The main driver of this recovery is the purchasing activity in suburban areas (i.e. mass market condominiums), where units are more affordable across the board. An in-depth analysis showed that there were 6,499 units sold in the mass market in the first half of 2017; 77.8% higher than in the first half of 2016. It seems that the surge in transaction volume is driven by a relatively higher proportion of owner-occupier and local purchases since cooling measures are unlikely to have substantial impacts on buyers in the mass market. Another reason for the increase in transaction volume could be the 0.4% dip in prices of residential properties in this market segment.

In an investment perspective, increased investment activity in the mass-market industry has led to a higher supply of units for lease, coinciding with the introduction of policies that increases the criteria for the hiring of expats and an economic slowdown. Hence, while the condominiums in the mass-market are affordable investment assets, realizing reasonable returns is the real challenge.

Mid-market condominiums 

Condominiums in this tier are often located along the fringe of the prime districts. Upper Bukit Timah (District 21), East Coast (District 16), Novena (District 11) and Newton (District 11) are some areas in which mid-market condominiums are situated in. The first difference between mass market and mid-market condominium then lies in the proximity of condominiums to the city centre.

Prices per square foot of mid-market condominiums begin from S$800, slightly higher than mass market condominiums. This difference is likely attributed to location of the condominium and facilities provided. Mid-market condominiums are likely to provide additional amenities like tennis and squash courts, function rooms, sauna and basement carpark. 6 Derbyshire, Buckley Classique and Archipelago are some examples of mid-market range condominiums.

Source: Meinhardt Group

The mid-market is the second driver for the upswing in transactions in the private property market, with a 55.1% increase in volumes from the first half of 2016 to the first half of 2017. Unlike the mass-market, prices in the mid-market saw an increase of 0.5% in the first half of 2017, as shown in URA’s flash data. The increase in transaction volume may be due to the improvement in sentiments after revisions were made to the seller’s stamp duty.

It is noted that private rents in the RCR has fallen by 2.3% year-on-year. Property consultants speculate that the discrepancy between supply and demand will continue to weigh on private rentals. This implies that take a longer time may be taken for investors to recoup their investments. Nevertheless, head of research at Edmund Tie & Company, Dr Lee Nai Jia believes that overall rents are likely to be stable.

High-end condominiums

Lastly, on the impossible end of the spectrum lies luxurious condominiums. These condominiums are situated in districts 4 (Sentosa Cove), 9 (Orchard, Cairnhill, River Valley) and 10 (Ardmore, Bukit Timah, Holland Road, Tanglin). Unlike mid-market condominiums, these condominiums are located in the city centre.

The minimum price per square foot for high-end condominiums is S$1000 and can even be more than S$2,800. At such exorbitant prices, you are compensated with state of the art facilities like sky gymnasiums/gardens, infinity pools, private lifts and even a marina to dock your personal yacht. The Oceanfront @ Sentosa Cove, The Marq and Gramercy Park are some, to name a few.

Source: Propertyfishing.com

Despite the 40.6% increase in transaction volumes in the high-end market, URA’s flash data showed a 0.9% dip in prices of high-end condominiums in the second quarter of 2017. According to a report released by Colliers International, the two top-selling private residential projects in October were both in the CCR – Sophia Hills and Martin Modern. This reflects the improved sentiment towards high-end homes, possibly accounting for the increase in transaction volumes mentioned earlier.

Based on a report released by Knight Frank, average gross rental yields for the high-end market stabilized in the second quarter of 2017 at 2.95%. Average gross rental yield in this market segment is the lowest of the three market segments, with the mid-market at 3.23% and the mass-market at 3.30%.

Now that you are equipped with more information on the different types of condominiums in Singapore, you will be able to make better decisions when purchasing your desired condominium. Just remember, higher purchase price does not necessarily equate to higher returns!

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BREAKING: With effect from 20 Feb 2018, Buyer’s Stamp Duty on residential properties more than $1 million will be increased from 3% to 4%.

The BSD rate today ranges from 1% to 3%, and the new rate of 4% will be applicable to the portion of the property which exceeds $1million. Rates are as follows:

  • Remissions are granted to purchased residential properties that have been granted an Option to Purchase (OTP) on or before 19 Feb 2018, and exercised before the date of expiry of validity period OR 12 Mar 2018.
    • Applications for remissions should be submitted within 14 days from the exercise date of the OTP.
  • Acquired residential land for non-residential development may also qualify for BSD remission, on the assumption that remission conditions are met.
  • Acquired residential land restricted from residential use/development may also qualify for BSD remission, subject to conditions that include, but are not limited to:
    • X% of the gross floor area (GFA) is to be developed for non-residential purposes
    • IRAS to be notified immediately should there be a change in use/development of the said X% of GFA
  • Acquired residential land that is entirely developed or used for non-residential purposes may also qualify for BSD remission, subject to conditions that include, but not limited to:
    • Not to develop/use the property for residential purposes
    • IRAS to be notified immediately should there be a change in use/development of the property for residential purposes

For more information, refer to the Buyer’s Stamp Duty page on IRAS here.

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While every Singaporean talks and dreams about owning multiple properties across the sunny island, and then retiring comfortably on the stable stream of rental income – how many actually achieve it?

And why is it tough for those who are struggling to achieve it?

As for majority of the population, after saving the bulk of your salary for years to finally be able to put the down payment on your first property, congratulations! You have now successfully landed yourself in the biggest debt of your life! It makes it so much harder to save up for the down payment for subsequent properties-to-come as you will now be tied up with your first mortgage.

Also, with the cooling measures in place, the above mentioned dream is shattered for most. Today, I’ll share a little more on what I find is an alternative way to kick-start this journey. For a start, the entry to this highly sought after way of life is to first get a dual-key unit.

What is a Dual-key unit?

First introduced in 2009 to the private property market, dual-key units are two homes sharing a common main door and foyer under a single title.

Most commonly seen is a studio attached to a 3- or 4-bedroom unit, and there are various ways in which this feature is beneficial to the owner. Let’s take a look at some examples.

Scenario 1: Newly-wed couple and their parents can stay together without compromising on privacy.

There are many perks to having your parents staying with you, especially for newly-weds whom are planning for kids. There are no better nannies than your own parents who had brought you up, they will know what is good for your precious little one(s), not forgetting the joy your parents get from looking after their grandchildren.

There are also other perks such as having warm and hearty home-cooked food every day after a long day at work; it also puts aside other worries such as the perils of aged parents living alone in their own homes.

Now comes the monetary benefits – your parents can then rent out their existing home and have their own source of income! If the rental is good, they may even split it with you to help cover part of your mortgage. Win-win for all!

Scenario 2: Couple with no plans for kids (at least in the near future), a bachelor or bachelorette living alone.

Since you’re living alone, or with your partner, a studio is likely sufficient – and you can then rent out the 3- or 4-bedroom unit. And since it’s a bigger unit, the rental income is most likely able to cover the entire mortgage monthly instalment!

A few years down the road, should you require a bigger living area assuming there are new additions to the family, you can then move over “next door”, and have the studio rented out instead.

Scenario 3: Currently staying with parents and would like to maintain existing arrangement, at the same time looking out for an investment property.

Why look out for an investment property when you can have two?

Not exactly two units but with a slight premium, you get a studio and a 3- or 4-bedroom unit without having to pay for the Additional Buyer’s Stamp Duty (ABSD).

Why is a Dual-key unit ideal?

At the end of the day, why should you consider purchasing a dual-key unit? Firstly, both units come under a single title deed. Thus, there would not be any imposition of ABSD. This allows you to have more flexibility when you’re planning for future purchases.

Being able to collect rental income from your first property will help with the cash flow and financial planning for the second property (maybe even another Dual-key unit?). With rental income being able to cover most, if not the entire mortgage instalment, it helps tremendously with saving up for the second property. You need not fork out extra to pay your mortgage, and you can continue saving your salary for the next down payment.

Due to the desirability to investors as well as the fact that they are still a rather new concept, Dual-key units are usually priced at a slight premium. But more often than not, this is usually offset by the boosted revenue potential.

Finally, don’t forget to keep your finances in check and ensure your affordability before putting your money down on a new property!

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Coming off an interesting 2017 where rental prices were gradually declining in the Singapore commercial office market, the market is presenting itself as an excellent time for rental opportunity.

As of Q2 2017, the market has deemed to bottom out completely – meaning now is the best situation for tenants looking for new office spaces.

It is important to understand that the main reasons for the declining rental rates is down to 2 underlying factors: a huge incoming supply and a trend of decentralisation, backed by moderate demand for commercial office rental space. Nevertheless, it is important to first explain the aforesaid underlying factors:

Large incoming new offices spaces:

Source: Colliers International Singapore Research

Firstly, it is important to understand a simple concept – the demand and supply concept. To explain it briefly, here are 2 simple concepts you should take note of:

  • Should there be more supply backed by less or moderate demand, prices will fall
  • Should there be less or moderate supply backed by high demand, prices will increase

The former scenario is occurring to Singapore’s office market right now, as a result of a huge supply plus moderate demand, which in turn leads to higher vacancy rates, and in turn leads to more rental incentives and lower rental rates by landlords as they seek to entice new tenants.

It was reported in 2016 that there would be an incoming whopping supply of 2.1 million sq ft of Premium or A-Grade office supply in CBD in 2017, with a total of about 3.1 million sq ft island-wide. Notwithstanding that, more spaces will be entering the CBD market over the next few years (till 2021).  There will be a total incoming supply of about 8.1 million sq ft of new office spaces streaming in till 2021, with 6.2 million sq ft in the CBD, and about 1.9 million sq ft at the suburban and fringe areas. This means more choice for places to rent for tenants such as the incoming Guoco Tower, Frasers Tower and V on Shenton.

While the amount of supply is tremendous, demand otherwise remain moderate. This is due to the current uncertain economic climate which has seen a slowing economy, announced job losses in the financial services industry and thus inevitably the downsizing of office spaces. As a result, remembering the simple demand-supply concept mentioned earlier, occupancy rates has decreased consecutively over the last few quarters, as depicted in the table below.

Nevertheless, it is because of these occurrences that a rising ‘flight-to-quality’ trend will occur, which means a rising increase in tenants moving in to higher-quality offices (especially in the CBD) as they seek to take advantage of the lowered rental prices.


On the other hand, decentralisation refers to office tenants relocating from the CBD to the suburban and city fringe areas. As major tenants such as Google, Microsoft, Daimler and Beca adopt to this trend, the reducing supply in the CBD means an increasing vacancy rate in the region, in turn leading to landlords having to reduce rents and offering attractive incentives to remain competitive in the tenants market.

Based on data up to Q2 2017, the decentralisation trend is continuing, resulting in rental rates continuously declining for 9 consecutive quarters. In general, rental values especially for Premium and Grade A office spaces have all currently fall below S$10 psf (which is a rare occurrence especially for Prime Grade Raffles Place offices) presenting itself as an interesting proposition for newer tenants.

On the flip side, despite the decentralisation trend, the narrowing rental price gap between CBD and outer CBD office spaces are making CBD office spaces for rental more worthwhile and attractive, thus starting a trend of ‘flight-to-quality’. Occupancy pre-commitment of the new spaces have shown a heathy increase. For instance, within H1 2017, the 1.88 million sq ft Marina One as well as V on Shenton were already 70% pre-leased, while Guocco Tower were 93% pre-committed and almost all of the 130,000 sq ft left vacated by Google at Asia Square Tower 1 has already been backfilled. This trend is noticeable based on occupier trends as depicted below:

So why is now the best time for prospective office tenants?

It is simply this – rents are at its lowest right now. Hence, having bottomed out, it will only increase in the mid to short term. Based on these data and analysis presented to you after having cross-referenced from several renowned research sources, there are 2 recommended options for prospective office tenants:

  • Grab an office space right now at this opportunistic timing
  • Take a risk with a wait-and-see approach for even lower rents in the short term

Indeed rents have bottomed out, but there are signs of a market recovery slowly picking up and brewing. There is a chance that more rental incentives or lower rental prices can be obtainable as landlords scramble to improve their property’s office vacancy rates. However, of course, this is a slightly risky move to take but remember the golden investment rule – the higher the risk, the higher the rewards.

We hope this article has given you a good insight on the current ongoing. On that note, should you require any sound advice on commercial property loans, it would be wise to contact a trusted local mortgage advisory company such as Redbrick so as to obtain the most feasible and optimal financing solutions. However, if you are interested in investing in residential properties as well, our blog offers various forms of insights as well as comprehensive how-to-do guides pertaining to the topic as well.

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Private properties make up approximately 26.7% of Singapore’s residential market. These are privately owned properties that may be landed or non-landed properties. More details on landed properties can be found here.

In this article, we will focus more on the non-landed private properties in Singapore. These include apartments, condominiums, executive condominiums, etc. Apartments and condominiums take about 20.4% of Singapore’s total residential land. Shophouses and other take about 0.9%. The remaining 5.4% are landed properties in Singapore.

As such, we will first look at what are apartments, condominiums, executive condominiums, Singapore Improvement Trust (SIT) flats, Housing and Urban Development Company (HUDC) units, cluster housing and town houses.


Apartments are a block of units that are mainly for residential purposes that may or may not come with shared facilities like swimming pools. These have a minimum plot size of 600 to 800 square metres – with the exception of certain areas (Joo Chiat, Kovan and Telok Kurau) that have a minimum plot size of 1,000 square metres. Some may still be walk-up apartments as the buildings are really old.


Condominiums, on the other hand, are usually guarded by a security guardhouse with shared facilities, and they are also usually high-rise living (unless its height has been restricted by the government).These have a minimum plot size of 4,000 square metres. Condominiums are also coined as one of the “5Cs” that Singaporeans aim to attain.

Executive condominiums

Executive condominiums are a hybrid between the Housing and Development Board (HDB) and the private sector. These homes are first sold under HDB by a private developer who had developed the residential blocks. At the same time, these executive condominiums will become privately owned after a period of 5 years.

Singapore Improvement Trust

SIT flats are heritage housing, the most popular being in Tiong Bahru. These are low-rise walk-up apartments that have been developed by the British. In addition, these have been privatised with a short lease term left.

Housing and Urban Development Company

HUDC units are also a hybrid between private and public housing. HUDC flats were built in the 1970s and the 1980s as another housing option for middle-income families but these have been phased out of development by HDB in 1987 due to a fall in demand. There were a total of 18 HUDC estates with a total of 7,731 residential units and 23 shop units.

These flats have been privatised as early as 1 November 1996 (Gillman Heights Condominium) to the latest on 17 March 2017 (Braddell View). In between, 11 of these developments have undergone en bloc sales and some have already been developed. Meanwhile, others are in the midst of putting up these estates for collective sales.

What should we look out for when purchasing a non-landed private property?

First, we should consider whether we are looking at living in the unit or purchasing it for investment purposes. After which, we should look at the type of property that we want (and are able to afford). Next, we should look at the property and also its surrounding amenities.

When we are looking at a new place to live in, we should be more stringent in our requirements. After all, it will be our new living environment for the next few years. Some considerations that we can look at are: accessibility, amenities and also neighbourhood. When looking at accessibility, we should not just look at the nearest MRT station but also roads leading to our homes. We all have days that we may not take public transport and hop into an Uber, Grab or taxi to get to places that we need to be at, just because. As such, looking at accessibility to major roads and expressways are important – whether or not you own a car.

In addition, we would also want to consider the surrounding amenities around the unit. These include police stations, fire stations, clinics or hospitals; on top of our usual shopping centre, hawker centre and supermarket or wet market. Having a police station, fire station and hospital can help in emergency situations that we do not expect or want to happen but things do happen, so this is just a precautionary measure.

At the same time, besides looking at transport, there are other things that we need when living such as food, one of our basic necessities. This could be cooked or raw food as we have days that we may not want to cook or for those who are unable to cook. At the same time, since most are looking at living a healthier lifestyle, cooking our own food may be better for our health.

Photo credits: Lee Chee Chew

Moreover, with some neighbours who may be nasty to existing neighbours (the above is just a caricature of a situation), we should also be aware of the neighbourhood that we may be moving into. We should take note of this when we are looking to purchase a resale unit – public or private.

Other than wanting to purchase a new house, we should also be aware of some regulations that may affect us. This includes that the legal age to purchase a unit (21 years old), taxes such as stamp duties and property taxes, and leasehold or freehold property.

Some taxes that affect us when purchasing a new property would be the Buyer’s Stamp Duty and Additional Buyer’s Stamp Duty – part of the government’s measures to cool the heated property market in 2013. These have to be paid within 14 days after signing the sales and purchase agreement if signed in Singapore or 30 days after receiving the document in Singapore if the document is signed overseas.

Property taxes on the other hand will affect us when we own the house. These are calculated based on the annual value of the property, and tax rates are calculated based on whether the property is owner-occupied not. These taxes are paid in advance each year and are payable to Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) – who determines the annual value of the property.

Leasehold and freehold tenures of a property will affect not just your decisions when purchasing but also how long you will be able to hold the property for. Freehold properties are often properties that you can own for perpetuity and are private properties in Singapore. These freehold properties are also rare in the market as the government no longer issues freehold tenures. On the other hand, leasehold properties can be private or public properties. It is more common for a 99-year leasehold to be sold and at the end of the lease, the ownership of the property reverts to the government.

All in all, when purchasing a property, we should always make our own decisions and always take a look at the property (as pictures may be deceiving at times). Thus, the above mentioned are not a comprehensive list of things that we should look out for when purchasing a property but are rather some things that we can consider before getting property – private or public.

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When he was still in school, Kazumasa Tomita never envisioned himself in the finance industry, let alone pursuing his entire career in finance. He pursued a degree in Economics, was made Co-Captain and subsequently Captain of the University’s Soccer Club, and even found time to start IN2, an advertising agency that connected companies with students.

Kazumasa’s foray into the finance industry started when he joined Nomura Securities fresh out of school, but the drive to make a difference happened because he witnessed his circle of friends struggling with their finances when they began to settle down and started families of their own.

He believed in the importance of financial literacy, and made it his personal mission to help his peers and people around the world to tackle financial literacy deficiency.

Today, slightly more than 10 years since he first joined Nomura, he is the Founder and CEO of ZUU Online, a financial-focused media technology platform that has been reported as the platform with the #1 growth rate in Japan.

We had the opportunity to meet with Kazumasa when he was visiting Singapore in late December 2017, and managed to snag a short interview with him. Here’s how it went:

The Redbrick Team (RB): What is ZUU, and when and why was it founded?

Kazumasa Tomita (KT): ZUU online is a financial-focused media platform. On a monthly basis, our site records more than 3.5 million unique users and over 10 million page views. ZUU was launched almost 5 years ago in April 2013, after I left Nomura Securities.

Whether you are in Japan, Singapore, or anywhere – most people lack financial literacy. This is what’s keeping them from making the right decisions in the financial area. That is why we decided to create this kind of financial literacy, media and education platform. The concept of ZUU online is different from other financial media; we do not only focus on equity or forex.

I used to be a private banker, and private bankers take care of all assets of their clients – be it banking products, insurance, properties, etc. The asset management aspect of private banking is basically taking care of everything.

Essentially, this means managing individual profit & loss (P&L) statements and balance sheets (BS). Most of the time, P&L and BS are used in corporate financial management, but in private banking, P&L and BS are used in financial management for individuals.

Thus, the concept of ZUU online is to equip individuals with the information for their personal P&L and BS; this is why we take care of deposits, credit cards, insurance, loans, and other intangible assets.

RB: What were you doing prior to starting ZUU?

KT: My experience in Nomura was not only limited to private banking. I started working as a private banker in Tokyo’s headquarters and then subsequently in Singapore. Also, after my experience in Singapore, I moved to Nomura Thailand in Bangkok, and I was in charge of Corporate Strategy of Southeast Asia. At that time, I also visited Malaysia, conducting research on how to start Nomura there.

Even before that when I was in University, I considered myself to be an entrepreneur. Back then, I built a social networking marketing startup. There was no Facebook in the past, so I used a mixture of social media networks available at that time. So you could say that my experience was firstly as an entrepreneur, then a private banker, and then ZUU.

RB: What made you decide to start ZUU?

KT: When I was around 27 or 28, my friends told me that they were facing financial challenges. At that age, some people got married, some people had kids; most of them were telling me that they have wives and children to take care of and provide for. They were worried about money.

So I thought about how financial knowledge could changes lives. Everybody has their own goals and dreams that they strive to work towards, but financial challenges may hinder them from achieving these goals. This is why financial literacy supports each one of us in this world. I felt that my experience in the financial industry can solve this problem. That’s why I started this company.

RB: What does a regular work day look like?

KT: There are more than 70 of us in the team, including the ones in Singapore, so currently my focus is mostly on management tasks. On the other hand, I’m committed to creating new businesses too.

In Japan we started a financial-focused HR** business just half a year ago, and we are #2 in Japan already. I’m in charge of creating this new model as well. And we also have a P&L manager.

I have also written 4 books so far, and most of these books are #1 in their respective categories, e.g. private banking. Some of these books have also been republished in other languages.

(**financial-focused HR refers to a recruitment site for financial professionals/positions)

RB: What kind of challenges do you face?

KT: We aim to be #1 in the world, so we need to move quicker, and do things at a faster speed.

Last year, Deloitte announced that ZUU was the company with the #1 growth rate in Japan, under the Technology category. Under the same category we came in #8 in Asia pacific, out of 500. A lot of people say that we’re a fast growing company, but for me, I always feel that there’s still a lack of speed. We can never grow fast enough, and this is one of the biggest challenges I’m facing.

Global expansion is also a challenge we face. ZUU was set up in Singapore 1.5 years ago, and our next target destinations will be Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

RB: What are your plans for the future?

KT: On the back of my name card, it has my goal for ZUU, to be achieved by 2038.

Our dream is to make everybody in this world challenge their own goals and dreams, and work towards it. I believe that financial literacy stands in the way of our goals, and by removing this barrier, we can work towards our dreams.

For us, it’s a lot about the empowerment of financial literacy; we try to empower users with financial literacy, so that they can pursue whatever they want in life, to have a more fulfilling life.

RB: How is ZUU Singapore different from the ZUU Japan platform?

KT: Here in Singapore, we only started on the financial media platform with no advertising model. We are focusing solely on content marketing so far.

On the other hand, in Japan, it’s a wider scope, from B2C to B2B. The B2C model, ZUU online, is exactly the same as Singapore. The only difference is that it has a lead generation model where users can create accounts and manage activities such as apply to attend seminars, etc.

On the B2B front, it’s more of Fintech support. In Singapore we are presently supporting the content marketing side, but the Japanese team has a larger product offering including marketing automation, portfolio/asset management, consulting and strategy, data marketing, as well as HR training.

RB: ZUU is a provider of financial education. As the CEO, what is your personal financial/investment portfolio like?

KT: I don’t have a property portfolio at the moment. Almost all of my assets are in company shares at the moment, as I own more than 70% of the company. I’m also investing in some equity in listed companies in Japan or the US. Right now, I’m focusing on the entertainment, IT, and education sectors. At the present moment I need liquidity, as we’re planning to IPO in the near future.

I wish I had property; in my private banking days, my work revolved around asset management, and most of my clients had a property portfolio as part of their assets. At that time, entrepreneurs would have their property portfolio in REITs because they need the liquidity. However, entrepreneurs in the later stages have stocks and lots of assets, so most of their assets were in property.

RB: What do you do in your free time?

KT: Work. I don’t have free time (laughs). Kidding, but not kidding. I’m always committed to my dream, which is of course, ZUU’s dream. Of course, I love visiting new places. I’ve visited most places in Southeast Asia. I also love going to cafeterias; here in Singapore, my favourite is P.S. Café.

I like spending my time at the beach as well. I love Tanjong Beach Club in Singapore. In Japan I go to the beach as well, and likewise, I’ll be working there. I enjoy the environment, and it helps me to focus on my work.

With Kazumasa’s sheer tenacity and diligence, it’s no surprise if ZUU Online is able to achieve their ultimate goal well before it hits 2038.

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Since 2009, you may have heard countless times about Singapore adopting several ‘property cooling measures’. Have you ever wondered what the hype is with cooling measures, and why are so many people concerned about them? Let’s face it, most of us do not even know what some of these cooling measures are, and how they can affect us. Well – fret not, we will be explaining to you what the latest ones are in this article!

Firstly, it is important to reiterate the purpose of cooling measures: as the word ‘cooling’ suggests, the measures implemented serve to moderate demand for residential properties while increasing supply. This prevents speculative buying as well as mitigate the rate of increase in prices which, if left uncontrolled, might result in soaring prices and a risk of destabilising correction in the future. Besides, these measures also promote tighter home ownership and prevent over-borrowing which was the main cause of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis; caused primarily by sub-prime lending.

Since 2009, there have been 9 rounds of property cooling measures, with the latest one being introduced on 10 March 2017. It has to be noted that every round of cooling measures take into consideration the conditions of the residential property market. The cooling measures are as follows:

ABSD (Additional Buyer’s Stamp Duty) and Loan to Value (LTV) Limits

The Additional Buyer’s Stamp Duty (ABSD) was first introduced on 8 December 2011. It was imposed on top of the Buyer’s Stamp Duty (BSD), and applied to the purchase price, or the current market value of the property, whichever is higher. In short, the ABSD taxes individuals who are looking to purchase more than 1 property. The current ABSD rates are as follows:

In the latest announcement of cooling measures, the Government decided to maintain the current ABSD rates as it is. One reason for this is that transaction volumes within the private residential property market has remained stable. Demand for private residential properties are healthy as a result of a low interest rate environment, as well as continuous income growth. Nevertheless, the Government still reminds households to be financially prudent and work on their savings so as to cushion any possible impact of higher interest rates or lower income purchasing power in the future, the former being more prevalent moving forward into 2018.

TDSR (Total Debt Servicing Ratio) Framework

The Total Debt Servicing Ratio (TDSR) framework is another major measure which has been tweaked. This aim of this measure is to encourage prudent borrowing by households, while protecting and strengthening the credit underwriting standards of financial institutions.

Under this scheme, property loans extended by a financial institution should not exceed a TDSR threshold of 60% – this means that financial institutions are restricted from lending to an individual if his/her outstanding debt repayments (all debts, including property loan) exceeds 60% of his/her gross income.

However, according to the Government, they have received feedback from some borrowers that the TDSR framework has mitigated their flexibility to monetise their properties in their retirement age (for instance, to borrow against the value of their properties to obtain additional cash). As such, changes were made to relax the measure. The TDSR framework is no longer applied to mortgage equity withdrawal loans with LTV ratios of 50% and below.

SSD (Seller’s Stamp Duty)

Before 10 March 2017, Seller Stamp Duty (SSD) is payable by those who sell their residential property within 4 years of their purchase, with tax rates ranging from 4% to 16% of the property’s value. This proved to be an effective measure against individuals who were looking to “flip” their properties to make short term profits; the number of sales transacted within the 4 years window has dropped significantly since the introduction of this measure.

As such, the government has decided to revise the SSD as follows:

  1. Impose SSD on holding periods of up to 3 years, down from the current 4 years
  2. Lower the SSD rate by four percentage points for each tier. The new SSD rates will range from 4% (for properties sold in the third year) to 12% (for those sold within the first year)

To give you a clearer view of this topic, the SSD rates will be as follows:

If your property was purchased between 30 August 2010 and 13 January 2011, the SSD rate is about 1%.

If your property was purchased between 14 January 2011 and 10 March 2017, the SSD rates are as follows:

  • If you sell less than 1 year after purchase: 16%;
  • If you sell between 1 year and 2 years after purchase: 12%;
  • If you sell between 2 and 3 years after purchase: 8%;
  • If you sell between 3 and 4 years after purchase: 4%.

If your property is purchased on or after 10 March 2017, the SSD rates are as follows:

  • If you sell less than 1 year after purchase: 12%;
  • If you sell between 1 year and 2 years after purchase: 8%;
  • If you sell between 2 and 3 years after purchase: 4%.

Henceforth, these new SSD rates will be applied to all residential properties purchased on and after 11 March 2017.

Stamp Duties on Transfer of Equity Interest in Entities whose Primary Tangible Assets Are Residential Properties in Singapore

At this round of cooling measures, legislative changes were introduced in parliament with the aim of treating transactions in residential properties on the same basis irrespective of whether the properties are transacted directly or through a transfer of equity interest in an entity holding residential properties.

As such, owners of residential property-holding entities or PHEs (Property Holding Entity) are liable to pay for the usual stamp duties when they transfer equity interest in such aforesaid entities, going through the same process as if they are purchasing or selling the properties directly.

Extra restrictions with respect to Public Housing

In this case, government housing (such as HDB flats) are imposed extra restrictions in terms of

the Mortgage Servicing Ratio (MSR). The MSR is now capped at

  • 30% – if the loan is granted by a private financial institution (such as banks)
  • 35% – if the loan is granted by HDB
  • On the other hand, other restrictions imposed are as follows:
    • Permanent Residents (PRs) are disallowed to sublet/rent out their entire HDB unit
    • PRs who own a HDB flat must sell their flat within 6 months of purchasing a Singapore private residential property

This pretty much sums up the latest property cooling measures in Singapore. As you can see, the overall rationale for such measures is to moderate the demand for both public and private residential properties, maintaining it at an optimal and healthy level. On that note, should you be a homebuyer or in need for any advice pertaining to financing issues in the purchase of your property, it would be wise to contact a renowned local mortgage advisory firm such as Redbrick to assist and advise you on the processes.

Want to find the best mortgage rate in town? Check out our free comparison service to learn more!

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The post What are Singapore’s latest property cooling measures? appeared first on Redbrick Mortgage Advisory.

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As with all products, condominiums too – especially upmarket, rather than mass-market ones – require innovative or additional features to differentiate themselves and stand out from neighbouring developments in the face of stiff competition. Keeping in mind the lifestyle of target homebuyers, developers often strive to build a residential project with strong value offerings and develop a unique selling proposition.

In general, Singapore condominiums consist of a swimming pool, gymnasium, function rooms, car parks, tennis courts, BBQ areas, clubhouse, concierge and viewing deck. Depending on the developer and tier of the development, a condominium may have higher quantities of, or more extravagant facilities to bring prospective homebuyers closer to both their dream home and ideal retreat.

Are developers becoming increasingly creative in Singapore? In this article, let’s look at some of the plush swimming pools in recent residential developments and be sure to be impressed by lagoon-like, resort-themed or even Greek Islands inspired pools!

1. Kingsford Waterbay

Source: Kingsford Waterbay

Located along the idyllic and scenic Sungei Serangoon, Kingsford Waterbay is a 99-year leasehold development with expected date of Temporary Occupation Permit (TOP) no later than December this year. Not only does it have over 400 metres of mesmeric view within the development, but it is also a stroll away from the tropical greenery of Punggol Park.

This is where home is a water paradise and more; with lush greenery, calm and serenity as well as varied recreational offerings for you and your family. In just 27,295.3 sqm, you’ll find six sensorial zones with so much to offer: The Stream, The River, The Cove, The Waterfall, The Promenade and The Club.

The Stream features one of the longest man-made river in a Singapore private development. There are also the Sunset Pavilion, Zen Garden, Ecological Pond, Sky Bar, a 50m lap pool, etc and the list doesn’t stop here.

At the other zones, an extensive range of facilities can be found to enhance your quality of life, namely the BBQ sun deck, outdoor gym, lagoon deck, water slide playground, aqua gym, outdoor game room, waterfall ridge, function deck, multi-purpose room, meditation lawn, afternoon tea court, chess garden, a variety of pools and many more!

2. The Santorini

Source: The Santorini and SRX Property

As its name would suggest, The Santorini is a contemporary Mediterranean themed development which drew its inspiration from the island of Santorini, the top destination in Greece and one of world’s most romantic attractions. The 99-year leasehold condominium is situated at the junction of Tampines Avenue 1 and Tampines Avenue 10 while in close proximity to water bodies such as the Tampines Quarry Park and Bedok Reservoir.

With Santorini-inspired façade and landscaping, the development offers an aegean arrival, lap and kid’s pool, lounge deck, aegean splashes, clubhouse gymnasium, drift-away hammocks, grand lawn, a 25m lap pool and an aqua gym, reflective pool, tennis court, alfresco BBQ plaza, kiddie playground, fitness zone, sunken pavilion and verdure berms.

3. The Clement Canopy

Source: The Clement Canopy

With a total of 505 units in two forty-storey towers, The Clement Canopy is located at Clementi Avenue 1 and jointly developed by UOL and Singland. Inspired by the beauty of nature, the development is adorned with abundant greenery and water features that will make you feel like you are at an all-inclusive resort!

Coupled with its proximity to renowned schools such as the National University of Singapore, NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, Nan Hua High School and ISS International School, it is no surprise that there has been buzz surrounding this new project.

The development of The Clement Canopy is expected to complete by 2021 with poshly designed pools like family pool, island pool, bubble pool, kids’ play pool and lap pool. Its communal areas also include waterfall spa, waterfall pods and swing garden — just like what you’ll see in overseas resorts! If you want to enjoy eco-living in the sky, this property is definitely one of the options you can consider.

4. Grandeur Park Residences

Source: Grandeur Park Residences

Besides being just a stone’s throw away from Tanah Merah MRT Station, the Grandeur Park Residences is also located near the Changi Jewel, an upcoming iconic attraction with retail outlets and a 40-metre artificial waterfall.

A wide array of facilities is available within the development, serving residents of all ages. From the day bed grove, waterfall terrace, fireflies forest, to bubbling reflection pool, a total of 90 facilities is just few steps away — all dedicated for your Body, Mind and Soul, the three categories of Grandeur Park Residences’ features segregated according to each of their functions.

Not to forget, there is also a central landscape space whereby residents can indulge in relaxing chit-chats, or unwind and immerse in surrounding lush greenery after a long day of work.

This development will receive its TOP by 1 March 2021.

5. Seaside Residences

Source: Seaside Residences

Here, we’ll discover a tropical paradise just a few minutes away from East Coast Park, one of Singapore’s most popular urban getaways! Residents of Seaside Residences will gain access to seafront living all year round with abundant scenic views, as most of the units are able to have unobstructed view of East Coast.

Designed for the young and old alike, the condominium features a pirate ship playground, sunset and sunrise lawns, lagoon pool, spa alcove, sea view deck, sky lounge, etc under the classification of Sun, Sea, Sand and Sky. Accompanied with ample natural lighting, its strategic location and variety of facilities will certainly assure residents an enviable lifestyle, thus redefining modern living when this development receives its TOP in April 2021.

While unique or visually appealing features may come with additional price premium and higher maintenance fee, some homebuyers find it worthwhile due to the increased convenience and better quality of life. Whichever type of homebuyer you are, you can check out the Best Home Loan in Singapore, to help you save more on your property purchases!

Want to find the best mortgage rate in town? Check out our free comparison service to learn more!

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Are you interested in buying a BTO flat, but not sure how to go about doing it? Is this your first time attempting to apply for it? Fret not! We have summarized and created a quick guide for you; ranging from a step-by-step of the procedure for you, as well as the available schemes.

Background of BTO system

Firstly, we will provide a little bit of background on what the BTO system is about. The Built-To-Order (BTO) system was introduced by the Housing Development Board (HDB) on 15 April 2001 as an alternative mode to sell its new flats at a subsidized cost for Singapore citizens, to replace the previous Registration for Flats System (RFS).

Under the previous RFS, buyers were only allowed to select the broad geographical zone of their desired flat location, as the exact location and cost of the flat were only made known after buyers were invited to select their flats.

As such, buyers were unable to predict the exact completion date for their flats, resulting in the problem of some buyers being unable to pay the down payment in the event that their flats were completed earlier than anticipated. In addition, some buyers were also unhappy with the final location of their flat given.

Hence, the BTO system addressed these issues by letting buyers know upfront when their down-payment was expected, and providing them with the flexibility to select the location and type of flat desired.

Process for buying a BTO flat

Under the BTO system, buyers have the option of choosing 2-room Flexi, 3-, 4-, 5-room flats, and 3Gen flats. After applying for their preferred flat and town, a ballot will be conducted to determine whether their flat application is successful. The process of obtaining a BTO flat can be summarised as follows:

  1. Announcement of flat sales launch
    • For BTOs, launches are done on a quarterly basis.
    • As such, keep a lookout for what will be launched and if it suits your preferences
  1. Check for eligibility
    • This should be done while awaiting and keeping a lookout for the BTO flat sales launches
    • Also, for application periods, you can do it via HDB’s website (www.hdb.gov.sg)
    • You should be checking your eligibility for:
      • Meeting the criterion for the intended BTO flat
      • HDB or bank loans
      • Whether you have the finances
  1. Submit application for your BTO flat
    • Do submit your application during the 1 week application period when it opens via the following platforms:
      • hdb.gov.sg
      • HDB Hub (walk-in)
      • Any HDB Branches (walk-in)
    • Your application will then be sent for balloting
  1. Outcome of Ballot
    • Results of the ballot will be known about 1.5 months after the application period closes
  1. Booking a flat
    • This will occur 1 to 2 weeks from the release of the ballot results, depending on your queue position
    • At this point, you will be invited for an appoint to book a flat
    • However, if you decide to take the HDB Loan, you will need a valid HLE (HDB Loan Eligibility) Letter
  1. Signing Agreement for Lease
    • Upon the previous step, HDB will provide a time period within 4 months for this
    • In the signing of agreement of the lease, it is important to note that if you are taking a loan, you need to submit either one of the following:
      • A valid HLE Letter (for HDB loan)
      • A Letter of Offer (for a bank loan)
  1. Key Collection
    • In about 3 years’ time, the BTO flat will be ready for occupation

As such, the process above are the general procedure of what goes on for first time homebuyers of BTO flats. Next, we will be sharing with you what are the available schemes for first-time BTO flat buyers.

It is imperative to note that for first-timer applicants, there lies two main types of schemes to assist them: privileges and grants. These are utilized concurrently to ensure not only the increased success rate for application in terms of privileges, but also to ease the affordability in purchasing the intended BTO flat.


Under the BTO system, HDB will allocate a higher proportion of flats for first-timer applicants, while unsuccessful applicants with two or more application will be given additional ballot slots to increase their chances of obtaining a flat.

·       Higher proportion of flat supply

·       More ballot chances

·       Additional ballot chances for unsuccessful attempts

·       May be eligible for Staggered Downpayment Scheme

95% of flat supply is set aside for first-timer families during the initial launch period (1 month) 70% of flat supply is set aside for first-timer families during the initial launch period (1 month)

Furthermore, in order to ensure a more fair allocation of flat units to buyers of different profiles, HDB has introduced priority schemes to increase the chances of certain profile groups to obtain a flat, as depicted below:

Priority Scheme Available For
Parenthood Priority Scheme (PPS) Yes No No
Multi-Generation Priority Scheme (MGPS) Yes No No
Married Child Priority Scheme (MCPS) Yes Yes No
Third Child Priority Scheme (TCPS) Yes Yes No
Assistance Scheme for Second-Timers (Divorced/Widowed parents) (ASSIST) Yes No No
Tenants’ Priority Scheme (TPS) Yes No No
Senior Priority Scheme (SPS) Yes


No No
*The DBSS developer will only make known the flat quota during the initial project launch, and has flexibility in how it administers the priority schemes. Please check with the developer for more details.

It is important to note that buyers are able to obtain up to 2 priority schemes from the list above. However, of course, applications will be reviewed to verify your eligibility for the applied schemes. A further elaboration on the details of each schemes can be further found on the HDB website.


HDB currently provides many grants to mitigate the financial burdens of purchasing a flat in Singapore. The following section includes the existing Central Provident Fund (CPF) grants available for different housing types, subjected to eligibility of individuals:

Additional CPF Housing Grant (AHG) and Special CPF Housing Grant (SHG)

Under this grant, the Central Provident Fund (CPF) offers grants to various individuals such as:

  • First-timer applicants
  • Second-timer applicants
  • First-timer and second – timer couple applicants
  • Non-citizen spouse scheme
  • Single Singapore citizen scheme
  • Joint singles scheme or orphans scheme

However, in determining the amount of grants the government would provide, this would be done according to their profile such as age, income, marital status, citizenship, frequency of application, and others depending on the criteria for the respective aforesaid grants.

CPF Housing grants for DBSS

Furthermore, the CPF Board also provides grants for BTO flats under the Design, Build and Sell Scheme (DBSS), which includes:

  1. Family Grant*
  2. Half-Housing Grant*
  3. Singles Grant
  4. Additional Housing Grant (AHG) for Family
  5. AHG for Singles
  6. Proximity Housing Grant

* These 2 grants also apply to Executive Condominiums, another type of housing under the BTO System.

Other Payment Schemes

Finally, HDB has also implemented several payment schemes to assist buyers to purchase their flats within their means/comfortably. The available schemes are as follows:

Staggered down payment scheme

Buyers can pay their down payments in 2 instalments – when the Agreement for Lease is signed and when the key for the new flat is collected. The table below indicates the phases for the payment with respect to taking either a housing loan from the bank, HDB or if you are not taking any loans at all:

Housing Loan from HDB/Not taking any loan Housing Loan from Bank
Loan ceiling of 80% Loan ceiling of 60% or 40%
Down payment 10% 20% 20%
1st payment:

Signing of Agreement for Lease

5% using CPF Ordinary Account savings or cash 5% in cash

5% using CPF Ordinary Account savings or cash

10% in cash
2nd payment:

Collection of keys

5% using CPF Ordinary Account savings or cash 10% using CPF Ordinary Account savings or cash 10% using CPF Ordinary Account savings or cash

Temporary loan scheme

Buyers can make use of their sales proceeds from their existing flat to pay off this loan. This will exempt them from taking on a long-term mortgage loan, as this loan will be redeemed with the net proceeds from the sale of their existing flat. Should the temporary loan amount be in sufficient to cover the new flat cost, buyers have to top-up the shortfall in cash within a stipulated period.

Fresh start housing scheme (Fresh Start)

This scheme aims to help second-timer families with young children, who are currently living in public rental flats. It assists them in owning a 2-room Flexi flat by integrating financial assistance with personal responsibility and social support.

All in all, the BTO system aims to provide sufficient housing for the public, and also provide fair opportunities for all eligible applicants to purchase a flat in Singapore, especially so for first-timer buyers. Nevertheless, it is important to ensure that you check that you meet the eligibility requirements for application for your new BTO HDB flat. Make sure you have the finances to sustain the payments required upon successful acquisition of your new home.

On that note, we have briefly covered the various schemes available to make your BTO flat purchase more affordable. However, financing your purchase is very important as well, as it is the key to reducing the costs of your purchase. As such, it would be wise to contact us, to assist and guide you with your financing needs.

Want to find the best mortgage rate in town? Check out our free comparison service to learn more!

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The post Quick Guide: First-time home buyers of BTO HDB flats appeared first on Redbrick Mortgage Advisory.

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Singapore’s retail property market has faced a challenging climate over the past 2 years. In general, the retail scene has faced constant challenges by the rising popularity of e-commerce,

where consumers and shoppers can simply make purchases online and delivered right at their doorsteps. This is a threatening situation to retail tenants – why travel to the mall when the shopper can just order goods from home?

This has caused a huge impact to retailers everywhere, to the point where even renowned companies faced the prospects of being bankrupt. Toys ‘R’ Us, the largest toy chain in the United States has already filed for bankruptcy protection in US and Canada due to a combination of fierce online competiton as well as a long-term debt of more than US$5 billion (S$6.7 billion).  On a more local scale, shopping malls everywhere are facing ever-increasing vacancy rates as more retailers are unable to sustain their business. Just recently in September 2017, Singapore’s popular restaurant cum bar, Lepark, had shut its operations with its co-owner citing that the business is ‘unable to stay own’. Likely, it suffered from high rental cost which made it challenging to be profitable.

Queue at Lepark (Photo credit: Burpple)

As depicted by the graph below from DBS’ Retail Real Estate (Singapore) report, Singapore is not spared from this situation, with the past 4 years being especially tough for landlords and tenants alike in the retail scene. Occupancy rates shown a general downwards trend since 2013, and it is projected to continue in the short to mid-term as well. As such, you can expect to see more and more vacant spaces around Singapore’s shopping malls, especially in the central areas of the country.

Nevertheless, despite all the gloom and doom, therein lies an opportunity for retail tenants to capitalise on: the bottomed out rental rates. Of course, from a landlord’s perspective, these are rather pessimistic and bearish times – most are scrambling to offer extra incentives and lower rental rates so as to improve their occupancy rates and gain more rental income. It is precisely because of this that an opportunity is presenting itself to prospective retail tenants – the prospects of lower rents.

As we all know, the property market works in a cycle and based on the latest statistics and circumstances, backed by Savills’ latest research findings in the graph above, rental prices for the tenant market has seemingly bottomed out. This is the best time to for tenants, new or old, who are looking for new spaces to take advantage of (before it starts to rise again!)

However, we do not wish for you to capitalise on the situation blindly. We will explain to you briefly the current market ongoings which have contributed to the situation of bottomed-out rents. Firstly, to put it briefly, this can be explained via a simple economic concept: demand and supply. Allow us to explain to you 2 simplified scenarios (which occurs all the time in any markets):

  • Should there be more supply backed by less or moderate demand, prices will fall
  • Should there be less or moderate supply backed by high demand, prices will increase

Currently, Singapore’s retail market is facing the former scenario. Rental prices of retail spaces have been on the lowest ever over the past 10 years, and it seems to have bottomed out. Furthermore, steps have been undertaken by most landlords, current tenants alike and even the government to boost their footfall. Singapore’s tourist inflow have always been correlated and a key pillar for the retail industry, and the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) has been very successful and still implementing more marketing strategies to boost visitor arrivals. In 2016, Singapore’s international visitor arrivals amounted to a new record high of 16.4million and tourism receipts of about S$24 million.

Simultaneously, in order to ride on this increasing tourists wave, malls are upgrading themselves into tourist attraction worthy places, such as the upcoming Jewel Changi Airport which will not just a host an array of retail tenants, but also house Singapore’s largest indoor garden and the world’s largest indoor waterfall, as well as a daily light and sound show. Also, the new Funan DigitaLife Mall will be the first commercial building in Singapore to allow patrons to cycle through the building and have rooftop farms as a recreational area for visitors. In summary, the point here is that landlords are taking an out-of-the-box approach to renew interest and footfall by offering an experience that otherwise can’t be obtained if you merely shop at the comforts of your home (or hotel, for tourists).

Image: Jewel Changi Airport (Credit: AsiaOne)

Nevertheless, despite the generally weak consumer sentiments as explained, there are positive signs that it is being resilient and slowly stabilising. According to Savills, average rents in suburban areas has recorded a 0.7% increase from the previous quarter to S$28.30 per sq ft, while average rents in the prime shopping street of Orchard held firm at $29.20. Now, what is significant is the fact that the gap in rental prices between suburban malls and Orchard is a mere 90 cents difference currently

As such, before the market shows more signs of recovery, now may be the most optimal time to enter the rental market for new spaces especially in the Orchard area, and ride on the waves before rental prices will begin to recover in the mid to long term. Furthermore, as of June 2017, Singapore’s retail sales has continued growing, depicted by a 2.7% increase Year-on-Year (YoY), partly attributed by the sales of jewellery and watches which grew by 15.2% YoY as well.

With bottomed out market rental rates and a continuously increasing economy and retail sales, conditions are almost perfect to be taken advantage of – prime retail spaces are there for the taking. Also, the fact that more retail malls are taking approaches to upgrade shoppers’ experiences, this can potentially increase the footfall of consumers and patrons over the next 2 or 3 years. As such, there are 2 ways to go about doing it now for prospective tenants:

  • capitalize on the extremely low rents now
  • take a wait-and-see approach for further rental declines, although one should not wait for too long until the market recovery begins.

We hope this article has given you a good insight on the current ongoings of the tenant market in the retail industry. On that note, should you, as a prospective retail tenant, require any sound advice on commercial property loans, it would be wise to contact a trusted local mortgage advisory company such as Redbrick so as to obtain the most feasible and optimal financing solutions. However, if you are interested in investing in residential properties as well, our blog offers various forms of insights as well as comprehensive how-to-do guides pertaining to the topic.

Want to find the best mortgage rate in town? Check out our free comparison service to learn more!

Read more of our posts below!

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