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A research team that included scientists from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) recently announced a major breakthrough in immunotherapy gene editing. UCSF is one of the top medical schools in the country and is an important resource for mesothelioma patients because the UCSF Medical Center’s Thoracic Oncology Program includes specialists in malignant mesothelioma.

Scientists are working on cancer treatments that leverage the human immune system in a number of ways. Treatments that involve immunotherapy gene editing have moved forward slowly, because this type of therapy was time consuming and expensive. The recently announced immunotherapy gene editing research could change all that. What follows might be a big leap forward in the treatment of numerous diseases, including mesothelioma.

What Is Mesothelioma Immunotherapy?

Before describing the new immunotherapy gene editing study, it’s helpful to consider what the term “immunotherapy” means and how mesothelioma immunotherapy helps attack this rare form of cancer.

The human immune system is more powerful than any chemotherapy drug at killing foreign invaders, viruses, and rogue cancer cells. To survive, cancerous tumors hijack your natural immune defenses and use them to flip the “off” switch on your body’s immune response.

Mesothelioma immunotherapy drugs, such as Keytruda, Opdivo, and Yervoy, down-regulate or suppress proteins that cancer cells use to hide from your immune response. These so-called checkpoint inhibitors unmask the cancer and stimulate your immune system to go on the attack.

Checkpoint inhibitors have been very successful for a minority of cancer patients, including some mesothelioma patients, but most people get little or no benefit from these drugs. Mesothelioma immunotherapy researchers are trying different approaches in hopes of discovering ways to make immunotherapy drugs effective for many more cancer patients.

At the same time, researchers are pursuing other ways to help enlist the human immune system into the fight against cancer. Because immune system cells, especially T cells, can target just the cancerous cells, immunotherapy treatments may have fewer side effects and be more effective at removing all cancerous cells, even after they have spread or metastasized to other parts of the body.

The latest immunotherapy gene editing study looked at one of these alternate approaches. Gene editing allows doctors to create a therapy that hones in on the specific mutations of an individual patient’s cancer cells. The benefit of this type of personalized medicine is that it is quite targeted and (researchers hope) more likely to be effective. The down side is that personalized therapies are very expensive and can be time-consuming to create. This immunotherapy gene editing study could revolutionize personalized immunotherapy because, if it proves successful in human trials, it will reduce the time it takes to create treatments and, ultimately, lower the cost.

Immunotherapy Gene Editing Study is Shocking – Literally

Immunotherapy gene editing is not new. As Mesothelioma Circle recently reported, one patient with inoperable Stage 4 breast cancer that had metastasized throughout her body experienced an amazing recovery. After she enrolled in an immunotherapy gene editing clinical trial, researchers removed some of her immune system’s T cells, modified them to recognize and attack her cancer, grew billions of these modified T cells, and then reinjected them into her body. Her tumors shrank then disappeared; this patient with advanced, terminal cancer is now in remission.

That patient’s success story was due to a monumental effort in the lab. Researchers used viruses to inject modified DNA into her T cells. Viruses are effective DNA delivery systems, but they have significant drawbacks. It can take months to create the virus needed to serve as a vector for a specific patient’s cancer fighting cells. In addition, viruses insert the DNA haphazardly; scientists can’t control where in the T cell the replacement DNA is injected.

In this recent immunotherapy gene editing study, scientists tried something new. They used a burst of electrical current to relax the membrane that protects the cell from foreign invaders. While the shock loosened the cell wall, researchers used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to cut the T cell’s DNA and splice in a new sequence that would activate its ability to seek and identify cancer cells.

CRISPR-Cas9 is the molecular equivalent of a pair of scissors: it cuts apart a DNA strand then removes or inserts DNA code. CRISPR-Cas9 is limited to inserting small segments of new DNA. With the electric shock technique developed in this immunotherapy gene editing study, researchers were able to use CRISPR-Cas9 to insert much larger segments of DNA.

This new immunotherapy gene editing technique is much more accurate than using a virus to deliver the DNA edits because scientists can place the replacement DNA at a precise point in the DNA of the T cell. It’s also much quicker, because it doesn’t require the development of a new virus. It could reduce the time needed to create personalized T cells to attack a specific cancer from months down to a couple of weeks.

The scientific community has hailed this research as a major breakthrough. For patients with rare forms of cancer such as mesothelioma, this potential advance in cancer treatment is exciting news.

Many Diseases Can Benefit from Immunotherapy Gene Editing

The scientists who conducted this immunotherapy gene editing research studied the response of their edited T cells in the petri dish and got positive results. They also put human melanoma cells in mice and created modified T cells to hone in on the melanoma. The T cells did what they were programmed to do and eradicated the melanoma in the mice.

This technique has not yet been tried on human subjects, but it could have far-reaching implications for human health. Already, the researchers have created modified T cells to replace the mutated T cells that have caused an autoimmune disorder in three siblings. The scientists are waiting on approval from the FDA to administer the gene edited immune cells to these young people. If it works, it could be a far better treatment for their disorder than the current treatment, a bone marrow replacement.

Researchers suggest that clinical trials on humans will be coming, perhaps as soon as a year from now. In addition to the treatment of rare cancers such as mesothelioma, immunotherapy gene editing has the potential to cure HIV (which damages T cells). Other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus could also benefit from this breakthrough in medical technology.

What Could Immunotherapy Gene Editing Mean for Mesothelioma Patients?

 If you have mesothelioma, every potential new tool to combat this serious form of cancer is a cause for hope. Immunotherapy gene editing has already helped one patient with very advanced cancer. While an immunotherapy gene editing mesothelioma treatment has not yet been developed, the increasing speed of advances in cancer treatment means that mesothelioma patients could have new options in years rather than decades. If you are able to enroll in a clinical trial, you could have access to new immunotherapy gene editing treatments even sooner.

The post Immunotherapy Gene Editing Breakthrough Electrifies the Scientific Community appeared first on Mesothelioma Circle.

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When you get a cold or the flu, you probably want to get in bed and stay there until you feel better. Rest and sleep are important when we are battling illnesses, including mesothelioma. But movement is also important. There are many benefits of exercise for mesothelioma patients.

You don’t have to run a marathon (but you can if you feel like it). Gentle exercise for mesothelioma patients is a vital part of your treatment plan. Best of all, your workout can be one of your most positive experiences during mesothelioma treatment.

The Upsides of Exercise for Mesothelioma Patients

It’s hard to overstate the benefits of exercise for mesothelioma patients. Getting your body moving will improve your health and well-being in a variety of ways. Here are just a few:

  • Reduced fatigue. It may seem counter-intuitive that exercising will make you less tired. If you’re already feeling exhausted, it’s hard to imagine that more activity will do anything but drain your already depleted reserves of energy. But it’s true: regular exercise will give you back all the energy you spend and then some. You may be more tired the first few times you exercise, but you will soon find that the heaviness of fatigue lifts. It can be hard to overcome inertia if mesothelioma has knocked you off your feet, but it gets easier each time you get up and move.
  • Improved mood. Depression and anxiety are common among mesothelioma patients. While counseling can be extremely helpful for these symptoms, one of the best ways to relieve depression is through exercise. The more you are able to move, the less you will feel helpless and hopeless. Exercise for mesothelioma patients can bring a sense of well-being and renewed self-esteem. Depression can feel like extreme fatigue; you may not want to get out of bed or up off the couch. But once you do, you’ll find your mood improves.
  • Protection against muscle wasting. During chemotherapy, many mesothelioma patients find it hard to keep down food. Weight loss is common; for some people, this includes wasting away of muscle tissue. Muscle wasting complicates recovery and can worsen your prognosis. If you can keep moving during and after chemotherapy, you get the blood flowing to your muscles and help keep them – and you – healthy.
  • More appetite, less nausea. Chemotherapy can take a toll on your digestive tract. Exercise may help reduce the nausea that sometimes accompanies mesothelioma chemotherapy and increase your appetite, so you are able to maintain a healthy weight and keep yourself strong.
  • Reduced risk of other illnesses, such as heart disease and diabetes. Exercise is at the top of the list of ways to prevent common, chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease. These and other illnesses can complicate your mesothelioma treatment.
  • Additional health benefits of exercise for mesothelioma patients. When you are inactive, you can become wobbly and more prone to falling. A fall can lead to a broken bone and more time in the hospital. Exercise will improve your balance and help you build muscles that are strong enough to keep you upright. Your lymphatic system, which carries wastes away from your cells, is an important part of your immune system. Your body doesn’t have a pump to move lymph the way your heart pumps blood; lymph relies on your movement. Every time you swing your arms or move your legs, you help your lymphatic system do its job. Each movement improves your overall health and helps you fight mesothelioma.

These are just a few of the ways that exercise for mesothelioma patients can lead to better health, which is even more important during cancer treatment than before.

Best Forms of Exercise for Mesothelioma Patients

People who are in good physical shape tend to be more resilient when faced with a serious illness like mesothelioma. But you can benefit from exercise even if you were a couch potato before you became ill.

Here are four tips for exercise for mesothelioma patients, to help you build your strength and feel better.

  1. Pick your favorite exercise.

If you enjoyed swimming before your mesothelioma diagnosis, find a pool with a walking lane where you can get back in the water. If you were a runner, put on your running shoes and get outside. If you love to dance, play some of your favorite music and shimmy! Any exercise that you enjoy will be beneficial, as long as you respect your physical limitations and take it easy at first.

If you didn’t exercise much or at all before mesothelioma, try a few different things to see what you like. Many cancer patients benefit from a gentle yoga class or tai chi. Simply getting up and walking can be great exercise for mesothelioma patients.

  1. Start small.

If you’re in the thick of mesothelioma treatment, you may feel like you can’t move at all, but there’s almost always something you can do. Flex your feet and hands while you’re lying down. Get a squishy ball and squeeze it. Practice standing up and sitting back down a few times.

Do one movement the first day and two movements the next. Build slowly. It may seem like so little that it’s not really exercise, but you will surprise yourself with how much stronger you feel, one baby step at a time.

  1. Stick to it.

The results from exercise for mesothelioma patients don’t happen overnight. You might feel no different at first and wonder why you are putting in the effort. If you stick with it and increase slowly, however, you will wake up one day and realize that you have more energy and vitality.

  1. Celebrate tiny victories.

Every day that you are able to exercise is a victory. If you could only walk across your living room at first, celebrate the day you feel strong enough to go outside. Celebrate the day you make it around the block, the day you don’t need a cane, the day you can make it to a nearby park. You’re not in training for a marathon but for something much more important: you’re fortifying your body to stand up to mesothelioma.

Cautions about Exercise for Mesothelioma Patients

Exercise provides many benefits for mesothelioma patients, but there are risks if you overdo it. When you are in recovery from surgery, follow your doctor’s orders on what kinds of movement you can and can’t do. Don’t do anything that overtaxes your energy or puts you in danger of getting injured.

The key to exercise for mesothelioma patients is to listen to your doctors and to your body. Do what you can and don’t judge yourself. Every time you move your body, you’re improving your survival time.

The post Benefits of Exercise for Mesothelioma Patients appeared first on Mesothelioma Circle.

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