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A trip to the Argentine capital is not complete without perusing the palatial architecture that lines the streets. Buenos Aires has been dubbed the "Paris of South America" for its wide range of stately, European-style architecture. From Baroque-inspired churches to French-style buildings, beyond the famed presidential palace, there are countless historic buildings in Buenos Aires. Here are seven you shouldn't miss:

1. Teatro Colon

This symmetrical, millennial pink building is like something out of a Wes Anderson film. Inside, this opulent building is a 19th century opera house that has seen legendary singers like Maria Callas and Luciano Pavarotti take its palatial stage. It was restored in 2010 and stands as a beacon of Argentinian design. It also has notable materials shipped from Italy, like marble, mirror and Venetian glass for mosaics. They have tours in English, so check their website for bookings.

2. Catedral Metropolitana

This grand church is just steps away from the city's National History Museum in the city centre of San Nicolas. It’s known as the place where Pope Francis came to pray and is the main cathedral of Buenos Aires. Once you step inside this 18th century gem, it reveals a stunning collection European mosaics, paintings and stained glass, as well as a golden light projected on its ceiling, giving it a grandiose vibe.

3. Basilica de Nuestra Señora Del Pilar

This ornate church is somewhat Venetian in its gold-encrusted baroque design. Just steps away from the city's famous Recoleto cemetery. It's the go-to place for high society couples to wed, and this cathedral is steeped in history and is free to visit. It was built in 1732 and is filled with countless marble sculptures, a sacred altar, and religious artifacts.

4. Palacio Barolo

This beautiful building was first used as a fashion headquarters for a textile company in the 20th century and was designed to look like a building from Dante's Divine Comedy. The basement and ground floor represent the gates of hell, while the levels above represent purgatory. The highest area, which goes up to the 22nd floor, represents heaven, and are covered entirely in white. Tours in English and Spanish are available of this building, listed as a historic monument in 1997.

5. Cabildo

This historic building on the waterfront looks like a church, but it isn't. It's home to the National Museum of the Cabildo, which traces the history of Argentina's independence from Spain the 18th century. As the city’s former town hall, there are weapons, official outfits and hand-penned letters, detailing the 1810 May Revolution. Catching a guided tour here will bring to light many overlooked details from the city’s history.

6. Palacio de Aguas Corrientes

In English, this palace is called the “water palace.” This palace is enormous, it spans an entire city block, so it cannot be missed. Originally designed as a water pumping station, it was built in the style of a French renaissance palace and is covered in thousands of terra cotta ceramic tiles imported from England. The facade, facing Cordoba Avenue, is unlike most in the city; it's washed in the colours of orange, blue and green.

7. Casa Rosada

Another grandiose pastel building, this one is dubbed the "Pink House." Set across from the famed Plaza de Mayo, this once-housed palace is now home to the office of the Argentinian president. It also has a section which is home to the Casa Rosada Museum, which traces the country's political history. From oil paintings of past leaders to memorabilia and old photos, there are countless objects like old furniture, swords and books used throughout Argentinian history.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Argentina here.

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For travellers, a first foray into public nudity isn’t always easy. You’re far from home, and what feels like only slightly less farther from the clothes that typically cover your body in a public setting. Onsens, the Japanese-style communal hot spring baths, require travellers and locals alike to bare it all. Be brave — the experience is worth it. After a day of sightseeing, there’s nothing like soaking your tired body in a spring-fed pool.

Knowing what to expect ahead of time helps to make a trip to the onsen way more relaxing — which is the whole point of visiting. Onsen etiquette is pretty specific but there’s almost always someone on hand to give you a quick crash course on what to do (and what not to do). In the onsen town of Kinosaki there are public onsens, private onsens, and, like at the serene Nishimuraya Honkan, onsens inside large hotels and small ryokans (traditional Japanese inns). Here’s a quick guide to mastering them all:

Your yukata and you

Japan is a country with no small amount of respect for history and tradition. To experience some of it, book a night at a ryokan, some of which have stood on the same spot and been run by the same families for generations. In certain areas of the country, ryokans will often have their own onsen which makes easing into the bathing experience convenient and simple. Your yukata (a casual cotton robe and belt) will be waiting for you in your room. It’s expected (though not required) that guests wear a yukata for the length of their stay — even to dinner. (This is a culture that knows how to relax.) At Nishimuraya Honkan we were even invited to go for an evening walk through the town in our yukatas, visiting public onsens along the way.

Yukata sizes are measured by height. Ask for a large if you’re tall or a small if you’re shorter. Cross the left side of your yukata over the right, loop the belt around your waist twice, tie it in the front, and that’s it — you’re ready to onsen. In colder weather, leggings and a long-sleeved t-shirt can be layered underneath and a hip-length jacket called a haori is provided to wear over the yukata.

So fresh and so clean!

Sharing a big bath with a bunch of strangers means you need to go in clean. Outside of the onsen bath you’ll find shower facilities typically equipped with soap, shampoo, and conditioner. There will be a stool to sit on and a bucket you can fill and use to rinse yourself with. There’s also a shower attachment that Western travellers might be more familiar with. However you do it, just be sure to scrub yourself thoroughly before you hop in the bath.

What to do with that tiny towel

Onsens will provide you with a small hand towel to take into the bath with you. Walking in, the towel will provide a modicum of modesty — you can use it to cover the front of your body (or some of it, anyway). Once you’re in the bath, leave the towel on the edge nearby or fold or wrap it around your head. Afterwards, use it to dry off — not every onsen facility will have larger towels to use, especially the public ones.

Tattoos: ask first, avoid getting kicked out later

Because of the connection between tattooing and the Yakuza (Japanese organized crime rings) tattoos are not allowed in many onsens. Visitors who don’t follow this rule can be asked to leave (which is super awkward). With both the 2020 Olympic Games coming to Tokyo and the Rugby World Cup landing in Japan this fall, rules around tattoos in onsens are relaxing somewhat. In Kinosaki, the public onsens in town permit tattoos while at Nishimuraya Honkan, the large in-hotel onsen did not allow them but the three private onsens (which you can rent for an hour at a time) were perfect for people with body art and for those who aren’t ready to get naked with a group of strangers. They’re also a great space for couples, families, or groups of friends to hang out together away from the crowds.

Hungry? You will be

There’s something about a steamy soak that truly sparks the appetite. If you’re staying at a ryokan, you’re in luck. Japanese inns are known for serving delicious multi-course meals called kaiseki. At Nishimuraya Honkan we were treated to a post-bath seasonal meal of sashimi, Japanese pickles, grilled fish, crab legs, fresh soba noodles, and more. Dinner was served in our room where we sat at a low table on soft tatami mat floors sipping sake and getting very full. It’s the decadent kaiseki meal makes the onsen experience complete.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Japan here.

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Every country has its national food, though few are so clearly defined by the dish they are cooked in as Morocco's tajine. A cookery class in a Moroccan kitchen is a great way to learn about this endlessly versatile meal named for the dish it is prepared in.

A tajine is a shallow terracotta dish, with a conical lid terminating in a knob that serves as its handle. Tajines are traditionally cooked over charcoal, and its here that the simple design turns out to be fiendishly clever. The thick base holds and distributes the heat from the coals, while the design of the heavy lid traps steam and allows it to freely circulate. This way, you can use less water in the stew to concentrate your dish's flavours until they reach mouth-watering perfection, while slow-cooked meat falls gently off the bone.

The best cookery lessons start with a trip to the markets to buy fresh produce for the kitchen. If you haven't shopped in a Moroccan souk before, be aware that this an experience quite removed from a regular supermarket. Stalls are piled high with fresh vegetables, to be weighed and possibly haggled over. Elsewhere, a butcher carves cuts and puts them down on his tiled counter with a slap.

Best of all is the spice shop, where you'll pick up those special ingredients that give Moroccan food its special flavour. Jars of preserved lemons are plucked from jars, while heaps of ras el hanout are scooped into bags. Every shop produces its own particular blend of this mix, often containing more than 20 spices. It's name in Arabic means 'head of the shop', alluding to where the exact make up of the secret blend is stored. Moroccan palates would undoubtedly be much duller without it.

Back in the kitchen, it's time to cut and chop. Preserved lemons go into the tajine dish with joints of chicken and a handful of green olives. The ras el hanout can be used to season vegetables or mixed with ground beef to make a kefta (meatball) tajine with tomatoes, that will have eggs cracked into it to bake near the end of the cooking process. Lamb tajines is often matched with prunes and a sprinkle of sesame seeds.

A tajine is one of the great one-pot meals where you assemble the ingredients in the dish and then just leave it alone for the heat to work its magic. The most traditional way of cooking is over a charcoal brazier specially designed to hold the dish. You'll see this low-and-slow cooking method outside street restaurants, often with a blackened onion or tomato on top of the cone to show that things are cooking inside.

While charcoal is more authentic, you can easily pop your tajine onto a low gas burner instead until it's done its business. But (whisper it) plenty of commercial kitchens in Morocco actually cook everything in half the time in a pressure cooker, before serving in a pre-heated tajine dish.

But there's no need to for such short cuts when you're the cook. That slow simmer leaves plenty of time to anticipate sitting down for lunch with fresh bread to soak up those rich tajine juices, and new friends from your cooking class.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Morocco here.

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The jungle is real here. A thick green mesh of seemingly impenetrable palms and brush and vines that dangle over a tight muddy path crossed by gnarling tree roots. Ahead is a gaping hole running up a mountainside, big enough to fit a 30-floor skyscraper standing upright. Inside, lime-green ferns cling to terraced formations built over hundreds and hundreds of thousands of years. And past it, the sandy path leads into a huge void. Going on almost feels like stepping into outer space.

This is Vietnam?

Yes. More specifically, it’s the new Vietnam. After all, Quang Binh Province, just north of Hue in Central Vietnam, was a mere blip on travelers’ radars even five years ago. Now it’s the fasting-rising destination in Southeast Asia.

The area is stunning, but the reason people are coming is the caves. They’re beautiful –— and really really big.

Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park and the nearby Tu Lan system (both Unesco-protected) are home to the first-, third- and fourth-largest caves in the world. Dozens are available to visitors, with new opens opening each year (only 35% of the area has been explored as of yet). The world’s new cave capital has so many because of he reliable mix of heavy fall rains and pure limestone that dates 450 million years. Plus a few million years of time.

“It’s the perfect geology for caves,” says Howard Limbert, a British cave expert who has explored the area since 1992 and is responsible for opening many to tourism with Oxalis cave tours. “Straight away we knew it. This is the best area in the world for caves. They’re just so huge. We were amazed.”

Many outsiders know of Son Doong, the world’s largest, but truly it plays the “Mt Everest” to a whole Himalayas-worth of less strenuous, equally rewarding cave options. Some can be reached by motorbike or boat, with lit-up formations and walkways. Wilder, often grander, ones with underground rivers to swim or campsites inside involve strenuous jungle hikes to reach.

Here’s how to plan your trip, broken down by types of caves.

DIY CAVES

The easiest way to see some of Quang Binh’s geological subterranean wonder can more or less be done on your own or via organized tours too.

Paradise Cave, or Thien Duong, is 9 miles into the national park from the village. From the entrance, where you’ll find a dozen eateries, you can hike 15 minutes or take a golf cart to reach the ramp walk that switchbacks up a mountainside shrouded in jungle. At the top, steps lead through a narrow opening in the rocks and descend into the whopping 18 miles of caverns. Walkways access about three-quarters of a mile (some tours go deeper in), where you’ll see a staggering array of giant, lit-up stalactites and stalagmites.

To avoid (most) tour buses, be there when it opens at 7am. Entry is 250,000 VND (about US$11); the return ride on the golf cart is 100,000 VND (about US$4).

Also in the national park, the Dark Cave (named so for its lack of artificial light) is more about softball adventure than its geology. A guide joins you after you pay the 450,000VND (or US$20) entrance fee. You reach the cave by zip line over the river, then a short swim. You’ll pass a series off natural pools and calcified formations inside, capped with a narrow mud-filled passageway where you soak, neck-deep, before exiting for a short kayak ride an a drop into the river from zip line.

Phong Nha Cave, the world’s largest “wet cave,” is easiest to visit, as “dragon boats” go inside it directly from the market in Phong Nha village. It’s been used by locals for over a century – and served as a hospital during the Vietnam War – and became the first cave attraction for visitors in 1995.

Self-guided tours of its dramatic, lit-up formations take in only a portion of the cave’s five miles, though organized tours that venture deeper are available too. The boat is 360,000VND (US$16) for up to a dozen people; individual entry to the cave is another 150,000VND (US$6).

ONE-DAY TOURS

For about US$70 per person, a one-day tour offers the sweet spot for cave options for those wanting to go deeper and see caves in their natural state, yet still be back to your accommodation for a shower and dinner than night.

Elephant Cave & Ma Da Valley trek gets a little bit of everything. You get picked up at your accommodation in a Soviet-made transport vehicle from the Vietnam War, ride along the old Ho Chi Minh Road to start your trek in (and up) the thick jungle canopy. It’s a short hike up a steep path doused in vines to the opening of Elephant Cave. Inside you’ll find relics left by North Vietnamese soldiers who hid out here in the war — and a short dark hike past mammoth formations to the gaping exit of the cave.

The trek then follows the Ma Da Valley, where you wade knee-deep and take log bridges to criss-cross a clear-water river to reach a cliff-backed swimming hole for a dip and lunch. Then the trek toughens on a steep ascent and descent over a jumble of incredible limestone boulders to reach the “wet cave” of Tra Ang, where you put on life jackets and head torch and swim several hundred meters in the dark, as bats occasionally squeak above you.

For a really big cave, the excellent Hang Tien trek gives a taste of Tu Lan cave system, an hour ride’s north. You begin by listening out for flying foxes in the treetops as you make a sharp descent on a muddy trail to the gaping entrance of the cave that stretches up hundreds of feet. Lime-green moss clings to terraced limestone formations built over hundreds of thousands of years, if not more. Ahead, abyss.

The walk passes a series of unreal towering formations — one looks like a giant coiled snake — below a ceiling a few hundred feet above. Above you can see a groove, carved by an eddy of rainwater-fed river that incredibly fills this enormous space every fall. You hike back, stopping at a swimming hole for lunch, then climb back up out of the jungle — about six miles in all.

For a more historic cave experience, the Vo Nguyen Giap Cave, an hour south of Dong Hoi outside the national park area, just opened to visitors in January 2019. This author was the first American to ever venture into the site used but General Giap (who grew up nearby), and North Vietnamese soldiers, during the Vietnam War. You’ll visit an indigenous community, and two, sometimes cramped caves with some war-era construction in both to see.

MULTI-DAY TOURS

For about US$240 and up (about 10% the cost of the four-day Son Doong trek), you can take a two-day trip. Trips include all food and camping supplies, and are usually near lovely swimming holes to rinse off the day’s grime.

One of the overnight highlights is Hang En, the gateway to Son Doong, and a huge attraction in its own right. It is the world’s third-largest cave after all — and a stunner, with a dramatic arch entrance, filled with swifts, that’s cut open from the lime green mountains.

You begin with a hard hike over jagged stones then lunch in an indigenous village only connected with the outside world by foot. You explore its colossal darkness with helmet’s torch lights, and the occasional beam of sunlight piercing the dark from unseen openings above. Porters bring all camping gear and food, and set up a campsite by an inside beach – as dramatic as it gets. Book through Oxalis.

One of the newest options, that sees even fewer visitors, is a two-day trek to see the world’s fourth-largest cave, Hang Pygmy, a “sister cave” of Son Doong, which opened to the public in 2018. The campsite is just inside the jungled opening to the cave.

THE BIG ONE: SON DOONG

A local accidentally discovered the opening to the world’s largest cave, Son Doong, in 1991, and in 2009, the British Cave Research Association, led by Howard Limbert, finally explored inside. It runs 5.5-miles (and counting – in April, British cavers discovered new depths) with subterranean jungle forests, entrances wide enough for jets to fly in (not advised), and inside caverns 300-feet tall. Four years later, tourists starting going in.

Trips aren’t for beginners — or the budget-conscious. The three-night trek (with two nights inside Son Doong) run US$3000 and are capped at 1000 visitors a year, max. It involves 15 miles of jungle trekking, often over jagged rocks, plus another 5.5 miles of caving involving rope climbs and scrambling up a 300-foot wall – and constant surprises, such as lunch at a minority village deep in the jungle, a night at Hang En’s cave beach (see above) or walks through surreal underground jungles of 100-foot trees and monkeys in the bottom of the cave’s sinkhole. Book through Oxalis.

IN BRIEF

When to go: Cave season lasts from mid December through August. Avoid the epic monsoon season (mid September through mid November), when cave tours are suspended and floods regularly fill villages and caves.

Tour operators: Local tour operators have exclusive access to many caves, so whom you go with depends on where you go. The clear stand-outs are Oxalis (the cave pioneer organization, who gets you to Son Doong and Hang En) and Jungle Boss (whose local guides have discovered many local caves themselves). Both are almost fully employed by locals, have detailed safety briefings and provide everything from water bottles, cooked meals on trail, transport and a helping hand on slippery bits.

Safety & concerns: You don’t have to have caving experience to do any of these tours, but you should mind the scope of the jungle trek. Five miles or more over limestone paths is quite strenuous, and it’ll be very hot. There may be log bridges to cross too, plus poison ivy to avoid and — full disclosure — a leech or two to flick off.

The sheer size of the caves means you won’t have to crawl or squeeze through tight chambers in most cases. Some caves are “dry,” where you’re scramble past and over giant formations, sometimes with ropes and safety harnesses. In “wet caves” you swim underground rivers! All tours provide helmets with torches and life jackets.

Read their trip descriptions (and packing list) carefully before making a decision right for you.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Vietnam here.

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Did you know that Finns drink a world-leading 12 kilograms of coffee a year? Surely not by coincidence, Finland was also named the world’s happiest country in 2018 and 2019. If you value both quantity and quality when it comes to coffee consumption, you’re sure to find a coffee shop that makes you smile in Helsinki, the Finnish capital. (Full disclosure: my mother is from Turku, Finland’s oldest city, which legally obliges me to drink six kilograms a year.)

For one-stop coffee shopping, check out the Helsinki Coffee Festival. Founded in 2015 and staged each April at the Cable Factory cultural centre, it’s the largest coffee festival in the Nordic countries. With seminars on coffee-making, cutting-edge coffee machines for sale, DJ performances, and dozens of brands to sample, it’s a java junkie’s dream.

Year-round, here are six must-visit coffee shops in Helsinki:

1. Kaffa Roastery

Named Finland’s best coffee shop at the 2018 Helsinki Coffee Festival, Kaffa Roastery is a welcoming enclave for connoisseurs. Outside, you can catch the rich, heavenly scent of artisan coffee when you disembark from a nearby tram in the hip Punavuori neighbourhood.

Handcrafted coffees — like my dark roast Ethiopian espresso — delight Kaffee Roastery regulars. You can watch the roasting process through floor-to-ceiling windows, five days a week from 7 a.m. to mid-day. Barista Kaisa Kokkonen represented Finland in the 2019 World Barista Championship in Boston.

It’s a very civilized environment. Novels by Sofi Oksanen and Milan Kundera sit on the windowsill. Leashed bulldogs and German shepherds relax at their owners’ feet. Conversations in English and Finnish bubble among tech entrepreneurs, artists, musicians, and other creative types.

2. Moomin Cafe

Featuring the cute, hippo-like creatures invented by Finnish children’s author Tove Jansson, the Moomin Cafe is a perfect place for coffee lovers with kids. It’s also fashionable among hockey fans, as Finland won the 2019 IIHF World Championship with 6-foot-8 captain Marko Anttila, who’s nicknamed “Mörkö” for resembling that ominously looming character in the books.

I got a latte with a Moomin picture on top, served in a mug depicting an apartment building full of other classic characters like Moominpapa, Snufkin and the Snork Maiden. I enjoyed my drink with one of the cafe’s famous cinnamon buns.

This cozy space on Fabianinkatu is decorated with huge black-and-white drawings by Jansson, whose whimsical sense of fantasy recalls Edward Lear and Roald Dahl. There’s a play area for little ones with big green pillows, a swing, and puzzles. Plush toys, miniatures, and Moomin books are also for sale. You can buy bags of coffee beans with flavours like blueberry and mint-chocolate.

3. Paulig Kulma Cafe

The Paulig Kulma Cafe is an ultra-contemporary showcase for an 1876-founded Finnish coffee company, which includes an on-site coffee roastery and barista institute. It occupies a two-storey, street-facing location in the Kluuvi Shopping Centre, and patrons can sit in white wicker swings or cubicles that resemble Finnish summer cottages.

Knowledgeable servers help you analyze the flavour profiles of numerous coffees, imported from as far afield as Uganda, Kenya, Honduras, and Guatemala. I ordered an innovative light roast coffee with strawberry notes.

The cafe also has an extensive menu. Through the floor-to-ceiling windows, I watched green-and-yellow Helsinki street cars going by on Aleksanterinkatu as I devoured open-faced salmon and avocado sandwiches and blueberry cheesecake with my coffee. Yes, it’s a rough life at Paulig Kulma.

4. Roasberg

At Roasberg, the location is as much of a draw as the excellent cappuccinos, lattes, and double espressos. This independently owned, cosmopolitan cafe sits within eyeshot of the Ateneum, Helsinki’s classic Finnish art museum, and the Eliel Saarinen-designed central railway station.

Whether you’re devouring Roasberg’s Sunday buffet or just downing a slice of chocolate cake topped with lingonberries and blueberries, it’s a satisfying experience in a friendly environment.

The cafe, which features surreal glass light fixtures, is named after a fictional globe-trotting character. A private downstairs room, which accommodates up to 100 guests, mingles art-deco elegance with the ambience of Captain Nemo’s submarine.

5. El Fant

White walls and piped-in jazz music give El Fant a cool contemporary feel. It’s a popular brunch hangout and wine bar. However, I relaxed with a cup of Dalecho coffee from Ethiopia, produced by Turku’s Frukt Coffee Roasters. Its floral and fruity notes complemented my hearty slice of carrot cake. The wifi password was “Never2late4acoffee,” and it was hard to disagree with that slogan.

El Fant is steps from both the Helsinki harbour and right next door to the Helsinki Museum — in fact, you can see the museum gift shop through an adjoining window. You may feel a little more contemplative and adult than usual as you sip your coffee here.

6. Andante

Marking its 30th anniversary in 2020, Andante is popular among young professionals and students in Helsinki’s Design District. I soaked up the homey ambience, including a big window full of vintage china and a green shag rug.

Andante is a musical term that means “played at a moderately slow tempo,” and this certainly isn’t a grab-and-go environment. It’s all about savouring. A card at the front counter reads: “No Milk. No Sugar. Enjoy!” There are detailed tasting notes on each coffee, and coffee diplomas adorn the walls.

As I recharged with my lovingly prepared Americano, I felt my coffee IQ going up.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Finland here.

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Brazil boasts countless rolling mountains, volcanic hills, shell-mountains and massifs. Some can be climbed, others can't. One is an active volcano.

Brazil is a sprightly 517 years old, but has some of the oldest geology on the planet, including the Tumucumaque, Imeri and Pacaraima mountain ranges. These misty peaks are also where some of the world's most precious crystals are mined, from quartz to tangerine crystal, from amethyst and green tourmaline, while other mountains have cable cars to get you quickly to the top. Here is a quick guide of what you see across the country, from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and beyond:

Sugarloaf Mountain

Probably the most well-known mountain in Rio de Janeiro, it’s found along the Guanabara Bay peninsula facing the Atlantic Ocean. It’s likely the most photographed mountain in the city, too, as it can be not only viewed from various points in the city, but it has a cable car that fits 65 people runs along 4,600 feet between the mountain and the Morro de Urca (which takes only three minutes to reach). The mountain got its name for looking like a mound of loaf sugar, though it’s also a quartz mountain, known for its clear crystal rock.

Pico da Bandeira

Perched between the border of the two neighbouring states of Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais, this mountain is the third tallest in the country. It’s also one of the most beautiful ones, so if you're visiting the Caparao National Park, you can’t miss this main attraction. It can be climbed to reach its 3,000-foot plateau, but there are also roads, which cars, trucks, motorbikes and even bikes can ascend (the road to the top stretches five miles). It’s accessible through the nearby town of Alto Caparaó.

Pico da Neblina

Though this mountain’s peak can't typically be seen because it's often covered in dense clouds, it overlooks the Venezuelan border and faces a national park, the Yanomami reservation. Since the mountain itself is in a national park, climbing it is often restricted (unless one gets a special permit from the local biodiversity conservation). It's in such a remote location (a river basin), it has been called “the secret mountain” for centuries. It was only discovered in the 1950s, after Brazil was fully mapped.

Pico das Agulhas Negras

This rocky mountain is an Instagrammer's dream come true. It has segregated rock points, a fantasy film-like atmosphere and misty clouds that cover the nearby landscape. It's the firth-tallest mountain in Brazil and is in the Itatiaia National Park, which is wedged between the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. It's known as the “Black Needles Peak” because of the dark-colored rocks at its peaks, which give it a sharp peak. If you're driving on the Via Dutra highway between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, this is the mountain that you see between the two major cities (but only as some parts, as the highway is mostly low).

Pico dos Marins

This mountain is in an arid, dry area of the country, set between the small cities of cities of Piquete and Cruzeiro in the state of São Paulo. This mountain was first climbed in 1911 and is known for having not one but three rocky cliffs, one of which is accessible to rock climbers. This landmark is known for its deep valleys, canyons and vegetation. The three peaks are named Marins, Maria and Mariana.

Pedra da Mina

This mountain range is known as the highest in São Paulo, and is part of Brazil's most important mountain range, the Mantiqueira mountains. It also has a reputation for being one of the hardest to climb because of its remote location, rocky terrain and that it's set in a cold region. What sets it apart? It has four creeks of spring water around the top of the mountain and its southern slope is a private farm and ature reserve, so much of it is 'no trespassing.’

Mount Roraima

This misty mountain looks like something from a Paolo Coelho book cover, but what really makes this peak famous is that it inspired Paradise Falls in the Pixar film Up. Set along the Pakaraima chain of tepui plateaus, it was first recorded in 1595 by British explorer Sir Walter Raleigh, who learned about it from local indigenous people. It's set in the Brazilian state of Roraima and is noted for its agriculture. Spot some pitcher plants, a special bellflower called a Campanula and a rare heather called a Rapatea on the mountain's summits. It's also one of the most wet mountains in Brazil, as it rains almost every day here, and is made almost entirely of sandstone and is covered with algae.

Getting there

Check out our small group tours to Brazil here.

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When planning a trip, it’s easy to romanticize. We think about mouth-watering meals in France, gorgeous scenery in Greece, history in Peru, all-night salsa parties in Colombia. From far away, the next travel destination is alluring and fun -— an adventure taking us away from banalities of life at home. Many of us glorify our vacation destinations in the weeks leading up to take-off and in doing so, overlook large hurdles that so often come with travel. Language barriers are one such example. Arriving in, and navigating, a new country can be especially intimidating when the native tongue is different from your own. When verbal communication is taken away from you, even the simplest tasks like ordering a salad or purchasing a bottle of water become difficult. Fumbling through these confusing situations is par for the course for any explorer but there are some things that travellers can do to lessen the stress of misunderstanding. Below, some hacks to overcome the hurdle of language whilst abroad.

Many hostels and tourist districts have beginner language classes. Sign up!

It hardly needs to be said that you’re not the first foreigner to have rolled into town. Locals who work in hostels around the world have seen others deal with the language barrier problem many times before. In that sense, they will actually understand your struggles before you encounter them. Hostel owners and volunteers are used to dealing with the needs of tourists which is why a large percentage of them will have beginner language classes on offer. Sign up. By taking even just a class or two, you’ll learn common phrases and questions like how to order in a restaurant, ask where the bathroom is or ask for the price of a freshly squeezed juice on the beach.

Learn basic pronunciation rules first

One often overlooked but incredibly important aspect of getting familiar with a language is mastering the pronunciation. The letters you see on a page will not be pronounced the same as they are in your native language. Learn the differences and practice saying them out loud. Using the sound function on language app Duolingo is one way to do this by yourself ahead of your trip. Duolingo is one of the most used education apps in the world and for those learning the basics of a new language, it has tests specifically designed to improve pronunciation. Of course, after arriving at your destination, the best way to get used to the language to pay close attention when hearing locals speak. It can be tempting to try to learn as many words as quickly as possible but remember speaking with an improper accent or intonation likely means that no one will be able to understand. It’s better to slow down, and make sure you’re saying things correctly.

Put yourself in situations where you must use the language

The best way to get used to dealing with language barriers is to start using the language bit by bit. When travelling to foreign places, it can be easy to stay on the well-beaten tourist path where tour guides and servers speak English, but sooner or later, you’re going to have to communicate with someone who only speaks the local language. You might as well put yourself in that situation as soon as possible so that you can get comfortable… with being uncomfortable. This could be as simple as going out to dinner alone and ordering from the menu or walking to a corner store to buy beers for you and your travel buddy. Speaking of travel buddies, if yours speaks better French, Spanish or whatever the local language may be, make a point to branch out on your own every so often so as not to become over reliant on their language skills. Since cab and uber drivers don’t work in tourism, having a conversation with yours is a great way to do this. Another idea: keep an eye on where the locals go for lunch and drop by.

Study Gabriel Wyner’s list of common words

A word of advice from language guru Gabriel Wyner: when learning a new language, give it life. After trying and failing to learn Hebrew and Russian, Wyner chalked his failures down to being a poor language learner. He became fluent in German and Italian shortly after and went on to found Fluent Forever - a language learning tool. Rather than pure memorization, Wyner suggests associating new words with a picture or memory to ensure it sticks. He has also composed lists of the 625 most common words. So, someone new to a language would do well to familiarize themselves with that vocabulary. Included on the list are words like moon, Friday, woman, dog, park, river, parent and night.

Consider shame expert Brene Brown’s tips on vulnerability

If by now the wise words of Brene Brown haven’t impacted your outlook, it’s time to get familiar with this researcher’s work. Brown has devoted her life to understanding the ways we experience shame and vulnerability and her findings can absolutely be applied to vulnerable situations like speaking a new language. One of Brown’s suggestions is to reframe thinking to see intimidating situations (like navigating cultural and language difference) as acts of courage rather than weaknesses. She also encourages people to embrace feeling uncomfortable because venturing outside comfort zones is respectable in and of itself. So, when putting your Spanish or Italian to the test, rather than allowing mistakes or lack of fluency hold you back, see it as a strength that you’re even speaking your second (or third) language in the first place.

Don’t overestimate the power of body language

There’s one universal language that crosses all borders, continents and cultural differences and that’s body language. People communicate both verbally and non-verbally in all parts of the world and when fussed about language differences, it can be easy to forget just how much is communicated through facial expressions, gestures or the nod of a head. When language is taken away, a traveller will quickly recognize the power of body language. When asking for directions, for example, a person usually points and gestures as they’re explaining the route. A server asking if you want coffee refills usually nods towards empty cups on the table. If a restaurant no longer offers a menu item, again you’ll understand based on gestures alone. Bottom line: use these actions and non-verbal cues generously and if unable to communicate with words and phrases, relax and see how far you can get with non-verbal communication. You’ll probably be surprised.

Keep your phone charged and with data

If all else fails, have your smartphone charged and with data. This will always be a reliable tool that can help you out of any sticky situations that may arise. If you get lost and are unable to understand directions, having Google Maps as an aid will be a relief. If you’re trying to ask for something in a pharmacy but just don’t have the vocabulary, translation apps will come in useful. When travelling to new places, it’s advisable to not become over reliant on technology, but with that said, have it ready just in case you need it.

Getting there

Ready to hit the road? Check out our full roster of small group tours here.

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Who would have thought you could find love in the rainforest of Costa Rica? Tarantulas, yes. Sloths, most definitely. The haunting call of the howler monkeys, every day.

But under a moonlit night, glistening in the glow of my headlamp, I find two lovers: red-eyed tree frogs cheek-to-cheek on a broad palm leaf, looking as contented as can be.

Our guide lowers his voice. As the rainy season gets underway, he whispers, this is mating time for the bright green amphibians, which snooze all day. By night, they’re ready for some action.

And so are we as we set out on a nocturnal hike in the lush rainforest known as the Selve Verde Rainforest Reserve in the Sarapiqui region, about two hours north-east of Costa Rica's capital city of San Jose. This is just one of several after-dark jungle walks you can take.

Being in the rainforest by day is cool enough, but under a moody night sky and amid towering trees, your senses become highly attuned. You pick up on rustlings in the leaves — maybe that was a sloth! — the sing-song of birds and the unsettling call of howler monkeys, which sound a bit like a mob of barking dogs.

Tourists may be much more familiar with the Pacific Coast beach towns of Papagayo and Nicoya, but the Sarapiqui region of Costa Rica is appearing on the radar of more travellers as an adventure-filled ecotourism destination. The region in the Heredia province is famed for its massive banana plantations, but it also grows coffee and cocoa. From here, you’re just about a couple of hours’ drive to the even mellower Caribbean side.

Here are a few more ways to experience the Sarapiqui.

Elixir of gods and mere mortals

The next time you eat real chocolate — not your impulse candy bar in the grocery store lineup but real 65%-plus chocolate — consider it took more than four years to get to your taste buds. All the more reason to savour it and the mood-lifting hormones it releases in the brain.

On a two-hour cocoa plantation tour at Trimbina Reserve, we get a real appreciation for what we’re about to taste walking beneath the broad leaves of a cocoa plant. It takes four years for a plant to flower and another six months for it to bear fruit – and only one per cent of the starburst-shaped flowers actually become fruit. Only 30, chocolate bars (100-gram size) can be made from one plant.

We also learned that several Costa Rican indigenous tribes used cocoa beans as currency until the 1930s.

Our guides ground the cocoa seeds into a fragrant dark mash and mix it with steaming water to make hot chocolate. Sprinkled with fresh vanilla or a hint of chili pepper, it tastes like a drink for the gods.

Workaholics of the rainforest

Watching thousands of tiny leaf-cutter ants march endlessly along a length of tree is an incredible sight. Thankfully, they don’t bite unless threatened.

These industrious insects take their job of stripping leaves from trees, flowers and bushes so seriously that they keep 10-hour days and can carry 20 times their weight, says Leo Herr, an entomologist who has studied the ants for 25 years. He runs Aguas Bravas, where you can take the one-hour tour and then go river rafting on the Sarapiqui River, which runs along his property. Herra became fascinated by the leaf-cutters after they destroyed his farm. He learned along the way they are also a vital part of Costa Rica’s ecosystem because they cleanse the forest, making way for new growth. This is the only way you get to see the elusive queen leaf-cutter of Herra’s million-strong colony, something you’d never spot in the rainforest.

Dining al fresco on a farm

The Costa Rican way of life known as pura vida — translated as the pure or simple life — is much more than a catchy phrase. Most Costa Ricans follow that motto in their daily lives, which is why the country consistently lands in the top spot on the Happy Planet Index.

Pura vida also involves eating fresh food, which we discover first hand during an al fresco lunch at Marzarella’s House. It’s an agri-tourism operation which hosts day and overnight guests looking for an authentic rural Costa Rican experience.

You are fed so generously, you might feel like you’ve dropped into an old friend’s place. Platter after platter of fresh peppers, tomatoes, wood-fired grilled plantains and meats and hand-made tortillas just keep coming to the table under an open-air shelter. The final course is bottles of hand-made vino de mora, a berry wine with a kick. After a few sips, we are definitely feeling the pura vida we came here for.

Getting there

[Check out our small group tours to Costa Rica here](https://www.gadventures.com/destinations/central-america/costa-rica/0.

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