Eatology | Healthy Diet Meal Plan Delivery in Hong Kong
At Eatology, our mission is to provide you with the highest quality health food, and the endless positive benefits that come along with it. We want to help you reach your optimal level of fitness, boost your energy, improve your mood, and ensure that you live a fit, happy and long life.
Once again, Japan ranked first in the life expectancy index in 2017 (WHO, 2017). Wondering what factors make Japan always come first in this index? Is it their eating habits? Lifestyle? Or environmental factor? Well, eating habits play a vital role in longevity; “You are what you eat”. Eating the right foods can lead to a healthier and longer lifespan. The following factors contribute to longevity from picking the right foods.
Sex hormone Status
The average life expectancy of men tend to be lower than women. This could be due to the different in sex hormone levels. Research revealed that low serum testosterone, a male sex hormone, increases the risk of early death (Laughlin, 2007). Meanwhile, in both male and female, estrogen is highly associated with fractures (Kuchuk, 2007). In other words, sex hormones are related to injury. Sex hormones are synthesized from cholesterol, so consuming adequate amount of cholesterol is fundamental for sex hormone productions. It is thus unwise to exclude fat intakes.
Fatty acid content of cell membrane (mitochondrial, Red Blood Cell)
Choosing the correct type of fat is key. Our body needs fatty acids for cell growth, recovery and energy generation. Fatty acids such as omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid are response for oxidative stress and lead to the deterioration of cell nucleus. The monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids help remove free radicals produced from oxidative stress (Jose, 2006).
The same effect can also be found in blood vessels. The composition of fatty acid in blood vessel membrane is even more vital, as it directly affects the inflammatory response in humans. Unsurprisingly, omega-3 is better than omega-6 PUFA. As the inflammatory product produced is less harmful, the chance of developing chronic disease is lower if taking more omega-3 PUFA. In view of this, the study suggests intakes of omega-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid like fish and olive oil over saturated fatty acids. High proportion of omega-6 fatty acid also produces red blood cells more susceptible to oxidative damage, in turn reducing the amount of oxygen carriers in the body (Yuan, 2015). Meanwhile the chance of developing colon cancer is less if there are more omega-3 than omega-6 in red blood cell (Rifkin, 2017).
HDL is so-called the good type of cholesterol in your body, while triglyceride is the end product of fat digestion. Cholesterol intake is vital in longevity and cell growth. The difference between good(HDL) and bad(LDL) cholesterol are their composition, where triglyceride content is much higher in bad cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is anchored on blood vessels and increases the chance of having cardiovascular disease which limits the amount of blood flowing back to heart. While HDL is responsible for removing the bad cholesterol out of blood. High triglyceride to HDL ratio implies the chance of developing heart disease is high. Choose a better source of fat, prioritize omega-3 PUFA over other type of fatty acid. Meanwhile, avoid intaking excess cholesterol-dense food, instead eat more fiber-rich food that reduces the level of triglyceride or LDL. Maintaining a normal triglyceride to HDL ratio is crucial for longevity (Vnitr, 2006).
Maintaining an ideal waist circumference is important to longevity. A high waist circumference increases the chance of becoming overweight or obese. Visceral fat is associated with inflammation, and the inflammatory products are directly associated with aging-related diseases (Adriaensen, 2015). Individuals with apple-shaped body, where fat is accumulated above waist, have an increased chance of getting diseases. Various health agencies recommend the waist circumference should be limited to 40 inches or under for men, 35 inches or under for women.
Low fasting Insulin
High fasting insulin level is also related to a higher risk of cancer mortality. People with high blood glucose level are more susceptible to cancers (Tsujimoto, 2017). Limiting the amount of glucose intake is important to prevent cancers. Diabetes can also be prevented by reducing sugar intake.
So, what are the keys for longevity? Switching omega-6 fatty acids with more omega-3 and monounsaturated fatty acids in your diet is one. Fish, which is high in omega-3 fatty acids is a common ingredient in the Japanese cuisine. It may explain their high their life expectancy. Other than being concerned with the food you eat, a healthy lifestyle is also vital. Doing moderate exercise, sleeping well, and most importantly having a positive mindset are also factors that will contribute to your longevity!
Adriaensen, W., Matheï, C., Vaes, B., Van, G., Wallemacq, P., & Degryse, J. M. (2015). Interleukin-6 as a first-rated serum inflammatory marker to predict mortality and hospitalization in the oldest old: A regression and CART approach in the BELFRAIL study. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051931
Dobiásová, M. (2006). [AIP--atherogenic index of plasma as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk: from research to practice]. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16526201
Kuchuk, N. O., Van, N. M., Pluijm, S. M., Smit, J. H., De, W., & Lips, P. (2007). The association of sex hormone levels with quantitative ultrasound, bone mineral density, bone turnover and osteoporotic fractures in older men and women. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17555504
Perseghin, G., Calori, G., Lattuada, G., Ragogna, F., Dugnani, E., Garancini, M. P., . . . Piemonti, L. (2012). Insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and cancer mortality: the Cremona study at the 15th year of follow-up. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22215126
Quiles, J. L., Barja, G., Battino, M., Mataix, J., & Solfrizzi, V. (2006). Role of Olive Oil and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Aging. Nutrition Reviews,64. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00261.x
Rifkin, S. B., Shrubsole, M. J., Cai, Q., Smalley, W. E., Ness, R. M., Swift, L. L., . . . Murff, H. J. (2017). PUFA levels in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids are differentially associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28660850
Yuan, T., Fan, W. B., Cong, Y., Xu, H. D., Li, C. J., Meng, J., . . . Zhao, J. N. (2015). Linoleic acid induces red blood cells and hemoglobin damage via oxidative mechanism. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26191198
“Stop using medicine to treat your food”: perspective from a kidney specialist
By Dr. King-Wing Ma
There is a Chinese proverb that says, “Disease enters through the mouth.” Ludwig Feuerbach stated that “man is what he eats”. In the past few decades, we have witnessed a dramatic surge in obesity and type 2 diabetes. This is largely attributed to our “modern diet”, which is characterized by excessive intake of saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acids, salt, and refined sugar. According to a recent study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, there were a total of 107.7 million obese children and 603.7 million obese adults globally in 2015. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries since 1980. Obesity has been shown in various studies to be a significant risk factor of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, liver and kidney disease, sleep apnea, and depression. In Hong Kong, diabetes is the leading cause of end stage kidney disease.
I still remember vividly the first patient who was admitted to medical ward when I was an intern. Mr. Chan was a middle-aged security guard. He came to the hospital complaining of shortness of breath and leg swelling. He was morbidly obese. He had high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and chronic kidney disease. He had protein in his urine and his kidney function was impaired. Chest X-ray showed that his lungs were filled with fluid. When I checked his medical records, he was just discharged from hospital a month ago for the same problem. Over the past 10 years, he was given increasing number of medications, but his condition kept deteriorating. Since he was readmitted to hospital shortly after discharge, I was a bit doubtful about his drug compliance. To my surprise, he took all his medications on time and almost never missed a single dose. I knew he was not lying. We treated him with the best medications available, but why did he get worse? It was all about his diet! He consumed a lot of carbohydrate and he was unaware of the hidden sugar in many food he ate. His diabetes got worse and more medications were added, some of which caused significant weight gain. A few years later, I met him again in the corridor of the hospital. He was heading to the renal unit to receive dialysis.
History repeats itself. I met many other patients like Mr. Chan in the subsequent years of my clinical practice. As a kidney specialist, I manage many patients who need dialysis. We are trained how to optimize the efficacy of dialysis and control various parameters, but we still lose many of these patients in a few years no matter what we do. In contrary, I do see some highly motivated diabetic patients who follow their dietary restrictions consistently and persistently. They have significant weight reduction and do not have any complications 10 years after diagnosis of diabetes. Some of them are able to reduce their medications after controlling their diet.
This is now accumulating evidence which suggests that type 2 diabetes is a potentially reversible disease. The key is “intensive dietary management”. When people substantially cut down their carbohydrate and sugar intake, weight reduction and improved blood sugar control will follow. In some cases, patients are able to stop all their diabetic medications. As a doctor, we always want to provide the best treatment to our patients. Perhaps in the battle against obesity and type 2 diabetes, the first thing we need to remind ourselves is to “stop using medicine to treat our food”.
What came to mind when you saw the words, “rainbow diet”? Colour? Food? Colourful platter of food?
It basically is that. A diet which believes in including different coloured foods in a meal. The colours are associated with micronutrients and minerals and so consuming a meal with a variety of colours included will theoretically ensure the adequate consumption of nutrients for the day. It’s an easier way for people who do not have enough knowledge about nutrition to obtain their micronutrients and minerals for the day.
What do the different colours represent?
The yellows, the greens, the oranges, the purples and even the whites offer a lot of nutritional benefits.
Nutritionally speaking, the yellows and the oranges offer a good amount of vitamin C for your immunity and wound healing. Foods of this colour are oranges, lemons, grapefruits, yellow peppers, carrots and more.
Greens have always been the kings of the colour kingdom. They are great sources of vitamins A, B, C and K. Vitamin A is good for the eyes, while the B-vitamins help with energy metabolism. Vitamin C as mentioned in the previous paragraph provide you with immunity while vitamin K is essential for bone development. Greens are also alkalising, so if you have been consuming the typical acidic western diet, it’s a good idea for you to pick up on some green veggies.
Whites such as onions, cabbages and mushrooms, contain a good amount of flavonoids.
What are flavonoids?
They are important for preventing free-radical damage formation in your body and thus protect your body cells from damage. Not being able to control free-radical formation can lead to numerous negative health impacts, the most life-threatening one being, cancer.
The basis of this diet is to make you consume a variety of fruits and veggies so you can obtain your daily recommended micronutrients and minerals. So if you have been finding it difficult to determine whether you have been obtaining enough nutrients or not, just think if you’ve been consuming a variety of colourful foods!
MACROS! Do I really need to count them? Can’t I just eat less and lose weight? Let’s look at some facts and research.
Yes, a calories deficit will make you lose weight. Consume less calories or spend them on exercising and you’ll see yourself losing weight.
Is losing that weight your only goal?
You might be losing weight, but what’s the weight you really want to lose? Fat or your lean body mass?
❖ Lower carbs vs higher carbs
A study carried out showed that the group that consumed a smaller percentage of carbohydrates was seen to have 4.4% less total fat mass when compared to the group consuming a higher percentage of carbohydrates.
❖ High-protein, High-fat, Low-carbs
➔ If you are looking to lose some serious weight, this macro ratio could help.
➔ The higher ratio of protein will produce a satiating effect. The quicker you feel full, the less you will want to eat, the closer you will be to losing weight!
➔ Low-carbs will enhance the break down of fat for energy and high-protein will preserve your lean body mass!
Keep in mind though, this method is good for people who are on the obese side however if you are an athlete, having an adequate amount of carbohydrates is crucial for your optimum performance.
Macros do matter if you want to lose that weight efficiently and effectively!
The Ketogenic diet, or keto as it’s commonly called is getting a huge amount of traction these days, with many celebrities joining the bandwagon including Kim Kardashian, Mick Jagger, LeBron James, Halle Berry, Tom Jones... to name just a few. Unlike other fad diets, there has been substantial research carried out on the ketogenic diet and it has been around for nearly a hundred years!
I first came across the ketogenic diet 14 years ago, when my son was diagnosed with epilepsy. Initially, my preconception that fats are bad deterred us from trying it out. However, after witnessing how heavy doses of anti-convulsing drugs were affecting his development, I revisited the diet six years ago. After doing extensive research and experimenting with the diet myself, I discovered that it not only benefits people with epilepsy but everything from type II diabetes, arthritis, to skin conditions. After discovering the powerful effects of this diet, I have included it in my weight loss program alongside kinesiology treatments and exercise, which has not only helped clients lose weight, but has greatly improved their general state of health.
Here are a few commonly asked questions regarding the ketogenic diet and my program:
Could you describe briefly what is the Ketogenic Diet?
Typically, it’s referred to a high fat, moderate protein and very low carbohydrate diet. Nowadays, it’s quite far from the original version, which was extremely high in fats, and calorie restricted. What we call keto now is any dietary approach that will turn the body into burning fats as its primary fuel source.
Any dietary changes must be dealt with caution. Children with epilepsy are generally put on the diet for 3 years, and so far, no adverse effects on health have been shown. Temporary side effects may occur during the initial adaptation period, mainly due to the loss of sodium, but increasing salt intake and other electrolytes usually does the trick. A well formulated keto diet is very nutrient dense and shouldn’t lead to any deficiency.
Fruit and vegetables aren’t fatty, does that mean they are not part of the diet?
Vegetables are essential as they are packed with vitamins, minerals and fibers, but starchy ones should be avoided because of their high carb content. Most fruits are high in fructose, a sugar that triggers fat storage, and should be avoided. However low carb fruits such as blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, lemons can be consumed with moderation.
Most people do very well on this diet, but people with the following conditions should avoid a low carb diet: porphyria, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, genetic disorder of fat metabolism. If you are under any medications, you should consult with your primary care physician first.
Not really, but there’s a learning curve. It should be a lifestyle rather than a diet. It can take up to 6 months to really wrap your head around it, enabling you to eat outside easily.
How will it help me lose weight?
Fats are very satiating, making you less hungry throughout the day. By stabilizing insulin levels, consuming fats and training your body to use that as a primary fuel source, actually prevents lipogenesis (fat storage) and promotes lipolysis (fat burning)(Dashti and al, 2004, JAMA, 2018).
Should I avoid saturated fats?
Until recently, saturated fats have been vilified , but the amount of evidence showing their safety and their importance is now overwhelming (Annals of Internal Medicine 2014, The Lancet 2017). Just like monounsaturated fats (e.g. olive oil) and Omega-3 oils (from oily fish), saturated fats (e.g. butter, coconut oil) should be opted for! On the other hand, polyunsaturated oils such as canola(Domenico Praticò and al, 2017), corn, grape seed oils should be kept to a minimum as they are highly inflammatory (Calder, 2006).
Studies of low carb diets and its positive effects on sports performance have also been revisited. While the body is able to store about 2000 Kcal in the form of sugar and glycogen, it can store more than 40,000 Kcal in the form of fat! This spikes interest among many sportspeople, especially endurance athletes(Volek and al, 2015, McSwiney and al, 2017)
If I stop this diet, will I regain all the weight I have lost?
Everybody has heard about the yoyo effect. You go on a diet, lose weight, stop, and regain everything back and usually more. This is common with every diet, if you go back to your old habits. Therefore, a successful diet requires a change of lifestyle, which is a lifetime commitment. After the weight loss phase, it can be relaxed to a maintenance phase where only monitoring and fine tuning is required to sustain your weight.
What type of exercise will be most complementary?
Exercising is crucial to ensure muscle mass is maintained or increased during weight loss. Lots of the recent research in sports science show High Intensity Interval Training to be the most effective for weight loss and overall health(Boutcher et Al, 2010).
How does kinesiology fit into this intervention?
Stress is an incredible obstacle for weight loss and achieving good health in general. Emotional blockages, negative beliefs, poor self-esteem are very powerful forces that can sabotage one's weight loss journey. Kinesiology works very well on dealing with these mental issues while also addressing gastrointestinal stress, poor thyroid function, nutritional deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, that generally prevent weight loss.
Oliver runs a successful Keto program at Kinesiology Asia in partnership with Eatology. Hundreds of clients have already experienced the Ketogenic health benefits in their life. Read more about the program at http://kinesiologyasia.com/keto/
Ketogenic diet is a special diet that being famous for its high fat and low carbs diet which first developed as a treatment for epileptic patients to control their epileptic episodes. Now the diet is still using for epileptic management and also using for body weight reduction. Unlike other diets, calorie level is one of the important elements of weight reduction diet; the fat to carbs & protein (by weight) ratio of the ketogenic and Modified AtkinsDiet is the key. The fat to carbs & protein ratio forces human body metabolise nutrients in a different pathway than a normal diet, thus the weight reduction effect.
Eatology helps our clients to do all the time-consuming preparation and calculation the meal plan. Ketogenic snacks are not only limited to cheese & nuts, tuna with olive oil on top or meatballs.
Ingredient (4 servings)
200g Goat Cheese
20g Pitted Kalamata Olives
50g Sundried Tomatoes
3 Tbsp Olive Oil
1. Slice the zucchini thinly and grill until soft
2. Put cheese and olive oil into food processor
3. Chop the basil and sundried tomatoes and add it themixture
4. Fill the zucchini with the stuffing and roll it
5. Rest 1 hr in the fridge, then cut
Nutrition per serving
279 kcal, 5.5g Carbs, 10.9g Protein and 23.6g Fats. 1 : 0.69 Fat to Carb& Pro Ratio
With the increasing popularity of boutique gyms that have provide intense training, high-performance sports aren’t exclusive for elite athletes anymore. But unfortunately not all of us can have personal nutritionists and chefs creating unique meals that can boost your athletic performance and recovery. Vegans and vegetarians especially, might feel like they’re falling short due to diet-related issues. If this sounds like you, then here are a few things to keep in mind.
Am I eating enough?
The amount of energy (ie. calories) you need depends greatly on body composition, sex, type of sport, and how vigorous training levels are. For example, strength or power athletes might tend to eat more in order to build lean muscle mass, while endurance runners or cyclists may eat enough just to make up for calories burnt from exercise in order to maintain a lower body weight (Position Paper, 2016). Regardless of what your energy requirements are, vegetarians and vegans may find it more difficult to consume enough calories, because their diets tend to be lower in calorie-dense foods. If you find that yourself hungry often, or often feeling fatigued after a workout, carrying snacks with you throughout the day could help. Mixed nuts, dried fruit, healthy trail mixes, whole grain crackers, and cheese (for vegetarians) are all good options. Another method of boosting energy intake is to drink your calories! For example, a smoothie made out of frozen whole fruits (and/or veg) plus a soy/coconut/dairy milk or yogurt base is something you could drink throughout the day. Add some wheat germ or ground flax seed for a fiber boost!
As we mentioned in the Sports Nutrition: Carbs blog post, carbohydrates are our body’s main source of energy during exercise. The good news for athletes is that a vegetarian/ vegandiet is comparatively higher in carbs, which could give you greater endurance fro muscle glycogen stores. However, it’s worth paying extra attention to the type of carbs you’re eating before exercising, as high fiber foods (including most fruits and veggies) may increase the chances of gastrointestinal problems during exercise, especially when paired with the nerves during a competition or event.
In the Sports Nutrition: Protein blog post, we had already said that an average healthy adult would require about 1 - 1.2g of protein per kg of body weight per day, and a weight training athlete would probably want as much as 1.5 - 2g/kg/day. While this is absolutely true for most people, vegetarians and vegans actually need to increase their protein by another 10% or so, to 1.3 - 2.2g/kg/day (Dietitians of Canada, 2013). This is because our bodies can’t digest and absorb plant proteins as well as animal proteins. On top of that, certain plant proteins might have lower levels in one of the 20 amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins (for example, legumes tend to be lower in the methionine amino acid). So it’s important to eat from a variety of sources, rather than relying solely on tofu or peanuts for protein. Aim to eat a mix of tofu/ soy products, seeds, lentils, whole grains, mixed nuts, and even faux meats.
Vitamins and Minerals
Although this is not specific to athletes, it’s worth reiterating that vitamin B12 is essential for our bodies function, but we can only get it from animal sources. If you don’t eat eggs or dairy products, it important to take a dietary supplement or eat B12 fortified foods.
Iron is an especially important for athletes because it helps maintain muscle function and can reduce fatigue during recovering. Because our bodies can’t absorb plant iron (also known as non-heme iron) as efficiently as animal iron, we usually advise vegetarians/vegans to intake a higher level than the normal recommended daily allowance (RDA). Beans, pulses, soy products, whole grains and fortified grains are all good sources of plant iron. It’s also important to eat plenty of vitamin C rich foods (eg. citrus fruits, bell peppers, broccoli) because they can help with iron absorption. Because the range of recommended iron intake can vary so much, it’s strongly suggested that blood iron levels are checked before any iron supplements are taken. This is especially true for female athletes, whose requirements can be up to 70% greater than the RDA (Position paper, 2016). All vegan/ vegetarian athletes should also screen their iron levels periodically.
Still on the fence about plant-based diets?
With careful planning and preparation, it’s absolutely possible to maintain high athletic performance while on a meat-free diet. For the uninitiated, it can seem daunting to come up with a meal plan that incorporates enough energy, macro, and micronutrients. But no fear because nutritionists and dietitians who specialise in sports nutrition can help you in that department! But at the end of the day, whether you’re seriously considering transitioning to a meat-free diet or not, it’s most important to listen to your own body and see what works for you!
In the Paleo Diet, you should not eat the food that caveman did not eat. In other words, food after agricultural revolution including farming, agriculture and processed foods should be forbidden. You can lean a healthier life by adopting the Paleo Diet as it is believed that common diseases like obesity and heart diseases are caused by eating excess modern foods (Wolf, 2017).
In general, in the Paleo Diet, farmed, cultivated and processed food are prohibited, instead, whole, unprocessed food are included. Foods including grass-fed meats, fishes, fruits, vegetables and eggs, nuts, seeds and healthy oils are allowed to eat. In contrast, what you cannot eat are grains, dairy products and especially processed foods composing of trans fat. In paleo diet, 55% of daily calories come from lean meat and seafood while 15% come from fruits and vegetables (Wolf, 2017).
Paleo diet encourages us to eat like our ancient ancestor, and to eat simple! As people back then did not suffer the same disease as now. The incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been escalating over the past 50 years (Klonoff, 2009). The modern diet contains more packaged, processed food, for example, artificial sweeteners, alcoholic drinks, barbecued and fried foods. It is the modern diet that contributes to the increase in disease incidence. By adopting the Paleo diet, you will eat like your hunter ancestor, and minimizing the chance of developing modern diseases.
There are various benefits in adopting the Paleo Diet. First, as grain is excluded in the Paleo Diet, the carbohydrate intake is mainly from fruits and vegetables, which are high in dietary fibres. High level of dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre can help maintain blood glucose level as fibre is capable of binding to sugar and slowing down its absorption. Thus, lowering the chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, high fibre diet also aid in lowering blood cholesterol, particularly the bad type LDL-cholesterol, thus reducing risk of heart disease (Klonoff, 2009). What’s more, high fibre diet also help maintain weight or promote weight loss as high-fibre food is more filling and your stomach is easier to be filled, in turn eating less food.
In adopting the Paleo Diet, the primary type of fat intake is polyunsaturated fat omega-3 fats such as EPA and DHA, rather than saturated fat. Lean meat, healthy oil are preferred over vegetable oil and fatty meat. “You are what you eat”, the type of fat you consume is represented highly in your body, specifically in your cell membrane. The ratio of omega-3 fat to omega-6 fat is vital and too much omega-6 can be worse for your health (Klonoff, 2009). Modern diet usually contains higher level of omega-6 fat than omega-3 fat, altering the ratio. In contrast, the Paleo diet encourages eating high quality seafood which is rich in omega-3 fat. Omega-3 fat is among the best type of fat, as it helps lower the risk of heart disease by lowering blood pressure and improving cholesterol profile. While saturated fat raise bad cholesterol level in blood.
The Paleo diet also reduce processed food intake, which is good for one health. As many by-products formed during processing are either toxic or carcinogenic, for example, the high level of nitrosamine in processed meat is carcinogen. Meanwhile, the salt intake in the Paleo diet is much lower than modern diet, lowering the chance of high blood pressure. By adopting Paleo diet can we reduce exposure to these bad compounds (Klonoff, 2009).
Apart from fish, seafood is also allowed in the Paleo Diet, not only seafood is a rich source of omega-3 fat, it also provides various micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which are the vital nutrient to one’s health as well.
Fruits and vegetables contribute to around 15% of the daily calorie in the Paleo diet, they are good source of antioxidant, phytonutrient and vitamin, which helps in reducing the chance of degenerative disease.
When it comes to vegetable, starchy vegetables like potatoes should not be prioritized as they tend to have high amount of carbohydrate and sugar. If you wish to avoid weight gain, try to consume more vegetables and less fruits as fruit itself contain fructose, which is calorie-dense and will contribute to weight gain.
These nuts are Paleo diet-friendly as well, and nuts contains numerous nutrients, including the mineral Selenium, it would be a great snack addition to the Paleo Diet. But be aware that the fat content of nuts and do not consume it excessively if you are trying to lose weight.
Klonoff, D. (2009). The Beneficial Effects of a Paleolithic Diet on Type 2 Diabetes and other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Journal Of Diabetes Science And Technology, 3(6), 1229-1232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/193229680900300601
Wolf, R. (2017). What Is The Paleo Diet?. The Paleo Diet - Robb Wolf on Paleolithic nutrition, intermittent fasting, and fitness. Retrieved 25 May 2017, from https://robbwolf.com/what-is-the-paleo-diet/