The follicle must fulfill the following criteria if it is to survive the period between early embryonic life and the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak. It should (i) be surrounded by pregranulosa cells; (ii) complete the first meiotic division and become dormant; and (iii) continue metabolism during the dormant stage. Interaction between the natriuretic peptide precursor type C (Nppc) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2), affects female fertility through the production of oocytes with developmental capacity and maintain oocyte meiotic arrest. While Nppc is expressed in mural cells, cumulus cells express Npr2. Nppc/Npr2 system exerts its biological function on developing follicles by increasing the production of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). This pathway not only contributes to the development of ovary and the uterus, but aids the formation of healthy eggs in terms of their morphological and genetic aspects. A defect in this pathway leads to asmall ovarian size, string-like uterine horns, and thin endometrium and myometrium. Disorganized chromosomes, abnormal cumulus expansion and early meiotic resumption occur in animals with defective Nppc/Npr2 signaling. The types and number of oocytes also decrease when there is incompetent Nppc/Npr2 signaling. This paper extends on most recent and relevant experimental evidence regarding Nppc/Npr2/cGMP signaling with regard to its crucial role in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest and the production of oocytes with developmental capacity. We further discuss whether the agonist or antagonist forms of the members of this exciting pathway can be usedfor triggering final oocyte maturation.
Effect of ginkgetin on proliferation of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and the underlying mechanism were investigated. Human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were cultured at 37 °C in 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) were determined using Western blotting. Treatment of HeLa cells with ginkgetin significantly and time- and dose-dependently inhibited their proliferation (p < 0.05). The invasion of the cells were also significantly and dose-dependently decreased, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). The expressions of p-p38 and p-NF-κB were significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated, relative to control group (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of p38 and NF-κB in ginkgetin-treated cells were not significantly different from those of control group (p > 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that the levels of expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly and dose-dependently reduced in HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment with ginkgetin, when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The anti-proliferative effect of ginkgetin on HeLa cells is exerted via a mechanism involving the p38/NF-κB pathway.
To study the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination treatment on apoptosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (NB4), inflammation and prognosis. The effect of ATRA - ATO combination on the proliferation of NB4 was determined using MTT assay. Apoptosis of NB4 cells was assessed with TUNEL assay. The effect of ATRA-As2O3 combination on the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α in NB4 cells was determined using ELISA kits, while its effect on the quality of life of 25 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients admitted to our hospital was scored, as an index of prognosis. The combination treatment with ATRA and ATO significantly inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells and promoted their apoptosis, relative to the model group. In addition, the combination treatment reduced serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, and improve their quality of life and survival. Combination treatment with ATRA and ATO significantly inhibits the proliferation of NB4 cells and promotes their apoptosis, and reduces inflammatory responses in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, while improving their quality of life and prognosis.
Seed priming improves seed performance in many crop species. In this study, the influence of hydrothermal priming on seed parameters of sugar beet is investigated in both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the treatments consist of a combination of cultivars (Arya and Shokoofa), hydro-priming at two temperatures (10 and 15 °C) for 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 hours. Germination traits and seedling growth were measured for determination of optimum hydro-thermal priming. Also, the protein pattern in the optimum hydro-thermal priming treatments and unprimed seeds were compared by electrophoresis. In the field experiment, the percentage and rate of emergence of primed and unprimed seeds were measured. Results showed that hydro-thermal priming had a positive effect on final germination percentage, mean germination time and uniformity of germination. Optimum hydro-thermal priming time and the temperature were 6 and 10 hours at 15 °C for Shokoofa and Arya cultivars respectively. Hydro-thermal priming increased the seed emergence percentage in the field by 15%. There was no significant difference in protein pattern between primed and unprimed seeds. In general, hydro-thermal priming not only increases sugar beet seed germination in the laboratory but also has a more positive effect on the emergence in the field condition.
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) improve neovascularization and endothelium regeneration. Transplantation with EPCs is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic diseases. However, the transplanted EPCs are susceptible to adverse environments such as hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of transplanted EPCs greatly reduces their therapeutic efficacy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a highly immunogenic antigen. Recent findings suggest that low dose of LPS pretreatment has protective effect against apoptosis. In this study, the role of LPS in apoptosis of EPCs was investigated. Pretreatment with 1µg/ml LPS prevented oxidative stress-induced EPCs apoptosis and ROS generation, which effects were abolished by TAK-242, a specific TLR4 antagonist. Further investigation of the mechanisms demonstrated that the activation was mediated by TLR4, and that PI3K/Akt/ NF-κB p65 signaling pathway may play a critical role in the process.
The immune system is an important physiological defense system. Its balance and stability are closely related to the body’s health. Once the immune system loses its dynamic balance, the immune response will be blocked, which will lead to the occurrence of various diseases. Hesperetin is a kind of natural flavonoids extracted from citrus fruits of Rutaceae and it has many pharmacological activities. However, its water solubility and liposolubility are poor, and it is easy to be quickly metabolized in vivo, so it is difficult to maintain high blood drug concentration. Therefore, its derivative (HES) was found by structural modification. In this study, THP-1 cells were used as experimental model to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of HES in vitro. The results showed that HES participates in immune response by enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages to promote the release of NO, IL-6 and IL-1β, and enhancing immunity by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. This study provides a theoretical and practical basis for the development of HES as an immunomodulator in the future.
Objective of this study was to investigate the sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine and to observe whether its mechanism is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and GABA. The sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine on mice were observed with mouse autonomic activity test, direct sleep test, pentobarbital sodium in suprathreshold and subthreshold dose sleep test. The content of GABA and 5-HT in brain homogenate was determined by ELISA method. Mouse brain specimens were observed by immunohistochemistry for 5-HT expression in the nucleus of mouse brain. Palmatine could reduce spontaneous activities of mice, prolong the sleep time of mice induced by pentobarbital sodium in suprathreshold dose and shorten the sleep latency. And it could increase the number of mice falling asleep induced by pentobarbital sodium in subthreshold dose and the incidence of falling asleep, but with no direct sleep effect. In addition, it enhanced the 5-HT content in brain, but had no effect on GABA content, and had no toxicity to PC12 cells. Palmatine plays a significant role in sedation and hypnosis, which may be associated with the increase of intra-cerebral 5-HT.
In order to estimate the efficiency of SRAP markers for identifying the performance of seed quantity and quality in maize single crosses, 13 inbred lines obtained from CIMMYT germplasm bank were crossed to A679, K166B, K18 and MO17 testers using the line×tester method. The inbred lines and derived hybrids were evaluated in two experiments separately in a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. In order to evaluate genetic variation in the inbred lines, 25 SRAP markers were also used. The results of variance analysis between inbred lines were showed a significant variation (P≤0.01) for seed quantity and quality. The analysis of variance among the hybrids derived from inbred lines was showed a significant variation (P≤0.01) for oil percent, starch content, protein content, seed yield and thousand seed weights and a significant variation for the dry matter (P≤0.05). The maximum Euclidian distance between the two lines was 24.5 times greater than the minimum distance between two lines. The PCR amplification for the 17 parentallines with the 25 combinations of SRAP primers generated a total of 205 clear and scorable bands, of which 135 were polymorphic (65.75%). The average distance between the studied lines was 0.324 on the bases of the Jaccard coefficient and maximum distance between two lines was 2.87 times greater than the minimum distance between two lines. The M1E1, M1E5, M5E3, M5E4, and M5E5 were superior to other primer combinations in expressing genetic diversity based on the primer information indices. The banding pattern of the studied primer combinations related to the genetic variation of the inbred lines based on the studied traits revealed that the M5E1 primer pair can predict the distance of inbred lines for dry matter better than other primers. Also, the primers combination of M4E4 for protein percentage, M4E4 for starch percentage, M2E3 for crude fiber, M4E3 for oil percentage, M2E5, M4E1 and M5E1 for thousand seed weight and M3E1 for seed yield, can be introduced as informative primer combination, to estimate genetic distance determination of inbred lines based on these traits. Due to the relationship between inbred lines variation based on primers combinations with the traits in hybrids progenies showed that the M2E1, M2E2, M4E1 and M5E3 for dry matter and M2E4 for starch percentage have the ability to detect hybrid performance for these traits. For traits, protein percentage, crude fiber and oil percent no suitable primers combination were found. Also, for the seed yield, three primer combinations of M1E5, M2E2 and M3E2 had the highest negative correlation. Therefore, the hybrids derived from the inbred lines with high genetic distance based on these primers combinations will have a low seed yield. The M1E2, M2E3 and M5E5 can be introduced to identify the prediction of higher thousand seed weight.
Thyroid hormones regulate the development and maturation of the brain by maintaining levels of neurotransmitters and their related metabolites. The present work emphasizes the neural dysfunction in the brain caused by hypothyroidism and the potential role of Hordeum vulgare (water soluble barley, (B)) in ameliorating these effects. The study was conducted on euothyroid and hypothyroid adult female rats. The induction of hypothyroidism was conducted by oral-administration of neo-mercazole (5.0 mg.kg-1) daily for thirty days prior the study and terminated at the end of the study. The groups were assigned as; euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (H) groups and other two groups were treated with 100 mg.kg-1 water soluble barley; daily for one month and assigned as (EU+B) and (H+B) groups. Compared with EU and EU+B groups, a reduction in fT4, and ERK1/2 levels and elevation in TSH in brain tissue, Moreover, a significant elevation in 8-OH deoxyguanosine and caspase-3 levels, confirmed with increase percentage DNA-damage in the brain and thyroid tissues in hypothyroid control rats. Furthermore, a significant decrease in all monoamines levels in different brain areas and downregulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytreptamin receptors transcription, with a significant increase in excitatory amino acids and no significant change in the levels inhibitory amino acids were recorded in control hypothyroid group. Treatment of hypothyroid group with Hordeum vulgare improved the above-mentioned adverse impact by ameliorating the thyroid hormone levels with depleting the DNA-degradation and elaborating the levels of neurotransmitters with related receptors and amino acids in brain areas. Water soluble Hordeum vulgare as a phytonutrient, is safe and efficient agent in ameliorating the neural dysfunction resulting from hypothyroidism status in adult female rats.
Candida species are considered as one of the important cause of nosocomial and community infections. Candidacies are fourth caused by septicemia in some countries and possess extra cost to the health care system. The aim of this study was survey the presence of virulence factors associated with various candida geniuses in samples which have been collected from the intensive care unit. In this cross-sectional study, various clinical specimens have been collected from patients which hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Milad hospital, Tehran, Iran. The species of candida has been determined by CHROM agar. Finally, adherence factors genes and proteinase gene have been detected by PCR. In this research, 100 samples have been collected from patients that colonized with candida. C. albicans (63%) and C.glabrata (19.4%) are the most identified species, respectively. The species of four specimens have been not detected according to the color of CHROM agar candida medium and two different genus of candida has been isolated from 7 patients. The frequency of Als1, Als3, HWP1 and SAP1 genes among C. albicans was (92%), (94%), (95%) and (88%), respectively. The most detected virulence factor was HWP1 and SAP4 was the lowest one. At least two virulence factors have been detected in 95% of different Candida species that can cause invasive fungal properties. These results are important for infection control committee in the hospital because invasive fungal diseases can make a serious problem for patients that hospitalized in ICU.