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Théodore Simon was born. Along with Alfred Binet, Simon created and introduced the first scale of general intelligence (The Binet-Simon Scale) based on a series of thirty tests designed to measure the intellectual development of young children.
See following link to learn all about the history of psychology.
The Burghölzli, a world renowned psychiatric hospital in Zürich, Switzerland was founded. Among the many eminent figures to work and train there were Eugen Bleuler, Adolf Meyer, Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones, Hermann Rorschach, A. A. Brill and Carl Jung who is pictured standing in front of the Burghölzli in 1909.
See following link for Carl Jung information and resources.
Hugo Münsterberg was born. One of the most engaging thinkers in the history of psychology, Münsterberg conducted pioneering work within industrial (I/O), experimental, applied and clinical psychology.
Münsterberg was also a passionate advocate of forensic psychology, a field in which he conducted landmark research into such things as witness memory, false confessions and the role of hypnosis in court. One of his earliest experiments tested subjects’ ability to discriminate between sounds heard in quick succession, the findings of which almost sixty years later were included as part of the preparation for the trial (which for obvious reasons never actually took place) of Lee Harvey Oswald to help address the question of how many shots had been fired during the assassination of President Kennedy.
See following link to to read 'On The Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology & Crime by Hugo Münsterberg in full for free.
Translated by Margaret Cook, Jean Piaget's landmark work from 1936 'Origins of Intelligence in Children' was first published in the United States. Ranked among the most important books in psychology, this classic text is where Piaget describes in detail the growth of intelligence according to six sequential stages, namely:
1. The use of reflexes.
2. The first acquired adaptations and primary circular reaction.
3. Secondary circular reactions and the child's procedures for prolonging spectacles interesting to her/him.
4. The co-ordination of secondary schemata and their application to new situations.
5. Tertiary circular reaction and the discovery of new means through active experimentation.
6. The invention of new means by mental combination.
Donald B. Lindsley was born. Professor of psychology, physiology and psychiatry at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and founder member of the world renowned Brain Research Institute at UCLA, Lindsley was one of the most influential physiological psychologists of the 20th century. Best known for his revolutionary neuroscientific studies on the reticular activating system, Lindsley also conducted groundbreaking research on the human electroencephalogram (EEG).
Donald Lindsley was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1952 and he received the American Psychological Association (APA) Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1959.
Gail Wyatt was born. Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Dr. Wyatt was the first African-American woman to be licensed as a psychologist in the state of California. A pioneering and influential researcher, Dr. Wyatt has testified on numerous occasions before the United States Congress in relation to health policy issues.
In 1992, Gail Wyatt received the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contribution to Research in Public Policy, part of the official citation for which read: 'Her research significantly advanced our understanding of the effects of abortion, childhood sexual abuse, sexual assault, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual practices among women, particularly African-American women, and establishing research methods and tools to create culturally appropriate measures of these critical issues.'
See following link to learn about some of the most eminent women in the history of psychology.
Morton Prince was born. A pioneer in the field of abnormal psychology, Prince is best known for his classic text 'The Dissociation of a Personality: A Biographical Study in Abnormal Psychology' which he wrote in 1905.
The following year, Prince founded and edited the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, the first volume of which included original articles from such luminaries as Pierre Janet and Carl Jung.
See following link to learn all about 'abnormal psychology,' including an important discussion on whether the term abnormal psychology should be used..
George W. Albee was born. A pioneer in the field of clinical and community psychology, Albee is best known for his passionate advocacy of the view that social and environmental factors such as poverty and racism; rather than biochemical brain defects, are the primary determinants of mental illness. Albee is also renowned for his tireless efforts to enhance and uphold the independent standing of professional psychology.
A highly respected thinker and scholar, Albee was elected president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1970, received the APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions in 1975, was a member of President Carter's 1977 Commission on Mental Health and was presented with the American Psychological Foundation, Gold Medal Award for Lifetime Contribution in the Public Interest in 1993.