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In contemporary urban planning and designing the places are highly influenced by local cultural values, image of the city, forming an integral part of the design process. When we travel to different towns and cities, we observe local variation in its socio-economic structure, making design more vibrant and meaningful to the local culture. This diversity in design make places interesting with ever changing vista by the observer. The design is further influenced by other factors such as geographical location, local climate, historical importance in terms of heritage value and strategical importance with nearby towns and villages for its economy. The morphology of the city gets reflected in its built environment, architectural style and most importantly with social institutions, public places and how they are developed as an image of the city. The cultural values are deeply rooted in the social structure and factors such as cast, religion, have a strong influence on functioning of the cities. Such a comprehensive though may seem utopian to many but unconsciously, is a part of the planning system. However, the question is how efficient, progressive and adaptive the systems are in a continuously moving timeline and how various actors in the system act in a given situation. The impact is not just restricted to actors as bureaucrats but citizens as well with a strong voice in public participation.


The implementation of the city planning starts with a land use map which is published for 20 to 25 years. Land use maps is a comprehensive land management system which caters to the primary and secondary needs of the citizens, facilitating investment opportunities in certain strategically important locations on one hand and puts restrictions on land which are of heritage value both in terms of natural and built environment on the other. The transport corridors, industrial development and other social institutions such as universities, hospitals, post offices, fire stations become the integral part of the land use map. These zones are identified on map as per spatial planning strategies i.e. proximity of land use based on their function. Land use map is then supplemented with planning policies which enable people to take advantage of the land in question. Thus, a business cycle is complete and cities start functioning. Furthermore, suggestions and objections are invited from the citizens and amendments are made for a reasonable claim. To make day to day business more ethical, credible and accountable several compliance are made mandatory to establish order and security. 

The artistic expression of a city is part of modern movements in art, architecture and planning such as ‘city beautiful’, ‘garden city’, ‘new towns’ and ‘broad acre movement’ that took place in Europe and America. The garden city movement for instance talked about social cities with different functions which were integrated to form a network of cities separated by green belt. In the late 20thcentury after the world war II most of the British colonies became independent nations, and administrative towns were built during this period. The modern movement also led to development of industrial towns which were well connected with railway and vehicular routes to places of raw material nearby. Over the period of time with decline of modern movement and the natural resources, increase in population cities also disintegrated and new age of information technology dominated the skyline with steel and glass buildings. The consequences of the IT culture brought sudden change in the lifestyle of the people and social life further declined. People became more fragmented in their own way and the purpose of building cities to live a comfortable and glorious life itself shattered. ‘Smart cities’ tried to fill this gap but lost popularity in a very short time as the concept was not well researched before its implementation. It proved to be superficial in many ways and lack of cohesive, comprehensive and pragmatic approach.

In conclusion, solution to the current planning issues lies in the diversity in planning that we used to enjoy few decades ago. The local tradition and culture should reflect in built environment, combined with newly evolved styles and movements in art and architecture. The cities of the future should be more life oriented, more spiritual rather than only materialistic gains. We need to be more creative and constructive in our ideology of towns and cities and the way we approach our lives. The aim of urban planning should be to bring in such changes in ‘place making’ that will enhance the quality of life we live. For instance, A public plaza where people can enjoy their leisure time in the evening can help to improve quality of their own life and their family. Walkable places, in a neighbourhood can be a good solution for healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, the solution should be ‘system based’ which will enable large scale planning issues broken down into smaller workable systems. The implementation should be inductive in nature and monitoring should be deductive in nature. This requires planning theories in place and definitions associated with it to identify the direction in which the planning process is heading. The governance thus obtained will automatically identify and eliminate any criminal ideology working within the system known as ‘spiritual or social cleansing’ of the cities.

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Beginning in the 1980s there was renewed interest in the micro-macro linkage. Despite the early integrationist tendencies of the classical theorists, much of 20th-century theory was either micro-extremist or macro-extremist in its orientation. On the macro side are theories such as structural functionalism, some variants of neo-Marxian theory, and conflict theory. Conversely, symbolic interactionism, ethnomethodology, exchange and rational-choice theory are all examples of micro-extremism. Thus micro- and macro- extremism can be seen as a development in modern theory, and indeed, many of the classical theorists can be understood as having an interest in the micro-macro linkage.

Macro theories are broader in scope and encompass an extended range of levels.  Theories of society, culture and institutions constitute the tradition of macro sociology and Emile Durkheim is its major exponent. The distinction between two types of theories is based on the size of the unit of analysis rather than the level of analysis Macro deals with society as a whole. Lastly Macro is the analysis of either large collectivities (The City, The Church) or more abstractly of social systems and social structures.

Micro theory, this level of sociological analysis is concerned with face to face social encounters in everyday life and with interpersonal behavior in a small group.  In the Macro – Micro debate Rational choice theory has recognized that one of the principal challenges for social theory is to find an analytical bridge between individual social actions and their structural outcomes.

There are two strands of work on micro-macro integration. The first involves attempting to integrate various micro and macro theories, such as combining structural functionalism and symbolic interactionism. The second involves creating theory that effectively combines the two levels of analysis.

Therefore, we can understand these two different positions with the help of Duality and Dualism.  Paradigmatic Duality is where (Giddens duality of structures), where by actors unreflexively enact rules and where rules are both the medium and the outcome of social action therefore lack of distance between subject and object.

Paradigmatic dualism: is where actors for the external analytical purposes distance themselves (stand back) reflexively from a virtual body of rules.  The essence of paradigmatic dualism is distanced between actors and rules known and followed by the subject in which case the actors’ reflexivity is enhanced or the distance may be vice a versa rule that other agents adopt and follow and which the actor wants to explore and or change.

Syntagmatic duality is where the actor is vital to the existence of a social context (i.e. to the existence of an actual not virtual social system)  or social games with syntagmatic duality, the actor contribute very significantly to the construction and reproduction of interaction in a social system.  Here the context is not external to the actor e.g. factory workers related to a small shop floor work group of which he is a member.  Syntagmatic duality refers to writings of Mead and Shutz where systems and actors activities are seen as inseparable.

Syntagmatic dualism refers to the state of affairs where the actor is not vital to or has little effect upon the social context (a junior clerk in a multinational company) therefore the context is ‘external’ to the actor in the sense implied by Durkheim ‘Social fact suigeners where society is regarded as external to the individual.  Syntagmatic dualism applies where actors’ orientation focuses on interactions or social systems to the production or reproduction of which they contribute but slightly.

The agency-structure perspective is the European alternative to the micro-macro perspective in America. Agency generally refers to micro-level, individual human actors, but it can also refer to collectivities of that act. Structure usually refers to large-scale social structures, but it can also refer to micro structures, such as those involved in human interaction.

One of the key differences between micro-macro and agency-structure theory is their respective images of the actor. Micro-Macro theory tends to have a behaviorist orientation, whereas agency-structure theory places an emphasis on conscious, creative action. A second major difference is that micro-macro theory tends to depict issues in static, hierarchical, and ahistorical terms, whereas agency-structure theory is more firmly embedded in a historical, dynamic framework.  Margaret Archer believes in abandoning the macro – micro and Agency – structure debate as they are the same.

Anthony Giddens’ Theory of structuration represents the mutual dependency of human agency and social structure.  Social structure should not be seen as barriers to action and as repressive of the agents’ ability to act, but are intimately involved in the production of action.  The structural properties of social system provides the means by which people act and they are also the outcomes of those actions.  Social structure is orderly patterned relationship between elements of society.

Margaret Archer (1943) has criticized the concept of structuration as analytically insufficient. She thinks it is useful for social scientists to understand structure and agency as independent, because it makes it possible to analyze the interrelations between the two sides. Archer also thinks that Giddens gives short shrift to the relative autonomy of culture from both structure and agency.

Archer's focus is on morphogenesis, the process by which complex interchanges lead not only to changes in the structure of the system but also to an end product-structural elaboration. The theory emphasizes that there are emergent properties of social interaction that are separable from the actions and interactions that produce them. Once these structures have emerged, they react upon and alter action and interaction.

Archer reserves the term "structure" for material phenomena and interests. Morphogenetic theory focuses on how structural conditioning affects social interaction and how this interaction, in turn, leads to structural elaboration. Archer sees culture-nonmaterial phenomena and ideas-as autonomous from structure. In the cultural domain, morphogenetic theory focuses on how cultural conditioning affects socio-cultural interaction and how this interaction leads to cultural elaboration. Compared to structure and agency, Archer asserts that the nexus between culture and agency has been neglected. She suggests that in order to understand agency, one must understand the context of innumerable interrelated theories, beliefs, and ideas that have had an influence over it. Agents have the ability either to reinforce or resist the influence of the cultural system.

Margaret Archer Argues that the Micro-Macro should not refer to differences in the absolute size of social phenomenon, but rather to relative differences in size and to a relational concept of scale associated with the concept of emergence. (e.g. Pondichery state within Tamilnadu state and Pondichery state within Auroville Town). Archer’s morphogenetic social theory unlike other social theorists who refer to micro social phenomena or unit of analysis situation of face to face interaction or co-presence in the terms of size are small-scale as distinct from macro phenomenon (Social Institutions) large scale in the sense that they extend widely across time and social space. Archer’s Anti-conflationary theory – she believes that a given unit of analysis may be micro in relation to one stratum of society and macro in relation to another. What justifies differentiation of strata and thus use of the term micro and macro to characterize these relationships in the existence of emergent properties pertaining to the latter, but not to the former.

Thus Archer a dyad may be regarded as micro but if that dyad is formed part of a slightly larger social grouping (Committee / household) then the latter in relation to the dyad would be investigated as a “macro phenomena”.  Archer her notion of micro and macro refers to small scale phenomena (micro social sphere) of interpersonal relation as insulated from the macro sphere. Margaret Archer has reopened the debate of dualism VS duality. 

Her major contribution to theoretical sociology centers on her morphogenetic social theory. Morpho is the society that has no present form or preferred state, the genetic part is recognition that it takes its shape and form on its own, and is formed by agents, originally from the intended and unintended consequences of these activities. Morphogenesis refers to the elaboration of structural forms and morphostasis to their maintenance. (E.g. Pune city as Cultural capital, Historical city, pensioners’ paradise, Educational centre and now IT centre.)

Archer rejects the ‘downward conflation’ a mode of analysis when is associated with methodological collectivism. {Downward conflation – agency is explained in terms of the structure [V-N-C-R Parsons social system theory]}. Downward conflation rests upon the notion of structural determinant.  Actors are portrayed as unflexitive socialized being, who lack creative or innovative capacities of the kind that may shape structure. [Poulantzas super Shute dilemma she believes in upward conflation – interpretative sociology (neo phenomenological school)].  Archer believes that the conflationist ontology wrongly treats that the structure is no more than the actors and their activities. In both upward and downward forms of conflation related autonomy is withheld from agency and from structure. 
Priority is wrongly given to agency or structure as the ultimate constituent of society rather than investigating the two way interplay between them.  Margaret Archer believes that society and individual are not two sides of the same coin but are indeed radically two different things.  They do not constitute two different moments of the same process (e.g. UPA’s Central government and NDA’s State government)

Archers’ – dualism – agency and structure are distinct separable phenomena, temporarily seen as a central aspect of mutually shaping relation between agency and structure, structure proceeds action which in turn leads to structural reproduction or elaboration and the cycle is then repeated. 

Archer believes that activity dependence of social structure proceeds action rests on the argument that current structures are the effects of actions taken by the people who are ‘long dead’ and is therefore a temporal escapes of structures from past action for e.g. demographic structure is past tense reference to activities of the ‘long dead’ we are born into a structure and cultural context which far from being of our making is the unintended resultant of the past interaction among the long dead.  Present structures are effects of past actions.  Secondly relation of the present day actors and structures to previous actors and previous structures both these refer to the synchronic and diachronic of action and structure. 

Thus morphogenetic approach of Margaret Archer is an example of good observation of a society.  But in real society this concept is such that there is no control on the society and a wrong intention would lead it to disaster. Where as in a controlled and disciplined environment, the system will be more efficient. Also on the other hand every individual likes freedom but when we deal with the mass of people or society then we have to frame some rules where everybody follows it for the smooth functioning of the system or society. E.g. Traffic congestions observed when the traffic lights are off and policemen are not there. 

References:

Sibeon Roger. (2004) Rethinking Social Theory. London U.K. Sage Publications.
George Ritzer. Smart Barry. (2003) Barry Burner (eds) Handbook of Social Theory. London U.K. Sage publications.

Parker John. (2002) Structuration.New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata: Viva Books Private Limited.

Archer Margaret S. (1996) Culture and agency The place of culture in social theory. Cambridge university press.

Turner Brayan S., Hill Stiphen, Abercrombie Nicholas. (2000) Penguins dictionary. London U.K. Published by Penguin Books Ltd.



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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, better known as Mahatma is arguably the most admired human being of the twentieth-century. Not an academic philosopher, Gandhi was never concerned with abstract philosophical analysis. When asked his philosophy, he typically responded, ‘My life is my message.’ And yet one could make a strong case that Gandhi is more philosophically interesting and significant than most professional philosophers. (Douglas Allen, 2004: 103-105)
Gandhi, like Socrates, was a gadfly, and he was often an embarrassment and an irritant, even to his friends and allies. He challenges unacknowledged assumptions and uncritically accepted positions and allows us to envision different ways of seeing things. He explodes myths and arrogant provincialism and challenges power positions that pretend to be based on sound knowledge and morality. (Douglas Allen, 2004: 103-105)
Gandhi’s approach expresses an activist philosophy, which he often relates to the action-oriented philosophy of karma yoga in the Bhagavad-Gita: Act to fulfil your ethical duties with an attitude of nonattachment to the results of your actions. In this way, Gandhi experimented with ways to intervene nonviolently to weaken endless cycles of violence and mutual destruction and allow us to realise ethical goals. (Douglas Allen, 2004: 103-105)
In this regard, Gandhi presents views that are relevant to recent philosophical developments regarding pragmatism, phenomenology and hermeneutics, relativism, anti-essentialism, and postmodernism. How do we deal with the inadequate dichotomy of universal, absolute essentialism versus particular, relative anti-essentialism? Gandhi, avoiding a kind of facile relativism, embraces absolute universals, such as nonviolence, truth and the unity of all life. But Gandhi also maintains that as particular, relative, embodied human beings, none of us fully comprehends the absolute. The unity is always a unity with particular differences. The absolute may serve as a regulative ideal, but at most we have ‘glimpses’ of truth that is always relative. (Douglas Allen, 2004: 103-105)
Therefore, we should be tolerant of the other, who has truths that we do not have, and we should realise that the movement toward greater truth is an action-oriented, cooperative, mutually reinforcing effort. This philosophical approach to truth necessarily involves dialogue, recognition of integral self-other relations, and embracing an open-ended process that resists the domination of false attempts at philosophical, religious, cultural, economic, or political closure. (Douglas Allen, 2004: 103-105)
While conducting the struggle for the country's independence from alien rule, Gandhi had given a model for its development. By development he clearly meant an all-round improvement of an average Indian's quality of life. His understanding, or diagnosis, of India's problems was basically right then and is no less right even today. It cannot be called wrong on the ground that it has failed because it has not been tried in all seriousness. (Rajendra Prasad, 2001)
Much has been said about Gandhi’s political, social and spiritual mission; but comparatively little is known of the Mahatma’s economic message.  Mere economists, especially those of the present day, may be inclined to dismiss Gandhian economics as Utopian or out of tune with the breath taking world developments in science and technology.  It requires sympathy, understanding and vision to appreciate Gandhi’s economic philosophy. (Rao, V.K.R.V., 1970: v)
He is in favour of having an indigenous way of development, using, as far as possible, indigenous resources, in keeping with India's cultural and ethical traditions. The idea most foundational to his model is that neither in planning a method of development, nor in its execution, should there be anything which is unethical, or which prompts, or gives an opportunity, to any participant in it to do anything unethical. It may look odd these days to be so much concerned with ethics or morality because, many including a good number of the ruling elite, think that in public life, in one's executing a public project or development scheme, some immoralities are unavoidable or not worth bothering about. That is why immoralities which Gandhi would have considered serious go unnoticed, or are not taken seriously even if noticed. (Rajendra Prasad, 2001)
To understand, what are the important elements of Gandhian notion of development, one has to see his utterances and writings and above all on the very life style he adopted, and programmes that he prescribed.  First and foremost, he would have wanted us to follow the path of social democratism where empowerment of women and weaker/poorer sections of our society was guaranteed.  Secondly, he would have liked us to link environmentalism with some basic social, economic and ethical tenets.  He would have also liked the society at large to take the full responsibility of carving its own future within the framework of a robust, sensible, credible and implementable environmentalism.  (Khoshoo, T.N., 1997)
The social and political thoughts of Gandhi would seem to be of great contemporary importance from at least two points of views.  In the first place, Gandhi is the most important of the great thinkers of modern India who have drawn their inspiration largely from the intellectual and cultural tradition of India and tried to relate their thoughts to contemporary social and political realities.  The further development of independent thinking in India in the context of rapidly changing socio – political milieu, therefore, requires an investigation into the thought of Gandhiji and the other great Indian thinkers as a starting point.  Secondly the power – political approach to national and international politics during the last few centuries has led to a situation which calls for profound rethinking. (Jayantanuja, Bandyopadhyaya, 1969: 24)

References:
Douglas Allen, “Mahatma Gandhi,” in Great Thinkers A-Z, Julian Baggini and Jeremy Stangroom(eds.).  London: Continuum, 2004.  
Khoshoo, T.N., “Mahatma Gandhi: An apostle of applied Human Ecology,” New Delhi: Tata Energy Research Institute.2002.
Jayantanuja, Bandyopadhyaya, “Social and Political thought of Gandhi,”  Bombay, Culcutta, New Delhi, Madras, Bangalore, London, New York:  Allied Publishers.1969.
Prasad, Rajendra, 2001. Gandhi, Globalization, and Quality of Life: A Study in the Ethics of Development (Accessed 13 April 2007)
Available from World Wide Web: http://www.mkgandhi.org/articles/articleindex.htm
Rao, V.K.R.V., “The Gandhian Alternative to Western Socialism,” Bombay: Bharatiya vidya Bhavan.1970




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In India, real estate sector is the second largest next to agriculture in terms of employment generation and substantially contributes to the GDP of the Indian economy. There is a significant growth in housing and allied segments such as retail, hospitality and commercial real estate and is contributing almost 5% of the country’s GDP.  Furthermore, these activities of the real estate are closely linked with the industries such as cement, steel, paints, brick, timber, building materials and so on which enables increase in a household income of the families. With such increase in the income, expenditure also increases which then helps to build a strong multi-fold economy. In addition, due to large population of India the impact of real estate sector is significant on Indian economy (Annamalai, Doshi, 2012).

Because of the social structure of the Indian society which is diverse in nature, property markets in India are significantly different from those of the global markets. The fundamental factors such as GDP growth, exports, FDI, urban growth, population growth, income growth, increase in disposable incomes, resulting in improved demand and market segmentation. However, Indian market is under developed with issues such as low transparency, corruption, bureaucracy and governance. Thus, decision making processes and investment strategies for real estate business are flexible in nature. India is now entering a new phase of development with the change in FDI regulations which will further enable improvement in existing infrastructure and can be stronger, deeper and more diversified growth in the real estate industry (Lynn, 2010).

At local level, real estate business is governed by a complex set of regulations based on socio-economic factors that vary across different countries. In India, as real estate is considered as a business and is not particularly dependant on demand and supply, it does not follow the benchmark model. However, due to large investments needed in the real estate development sector, there are international collaborations in the industry by default which follow internationally accepted processes and spills into certain network of such Indian real estate developers. The red tape effect to certain extent does make things difficult both for the buyers and the developers but due to the prolific demand of the Indian market, residential projects are sold out much before the commencement of the project on site (Das, et.al, 2013).

The complex nature of the real estate development process, which is capital intensive and risk prone nature of the real estate development requires careful planning. It involves multiple steps and stages with different actors such as engineers, architects, investors and consultants playing different roles in the process to produce a comprehensive output. These processes are flexible in nature depending upon the market conditions and therefore some steps are taken earlier and some concurrently with others. The developer decides selection and sequencing of the steps which are relevant and important at that particular time. Considering a theoretical perspective there is a gap in the knowledge in the decision making and theory itself (Annamalai, Doshi, 2012).

Financing real estate projects in India is a difficult process. The banks, financing institutions which are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) are very cautious in lending to real estate developers due to uncertainty and risk oriented, nature of business. Most of the bank loans are given to the home buyer rather than a developer which is more secured for the banks. The loans which are given to the developer are only for the construction stages of the development process. These loans are disbursed only after securing all the necessary approvals from the local authorities. These things do happen only when the land is acquired, for which banks do not fund and is most capital intensive within all the stages of the project development (Annamalai, Doshi, 2012).

At local level there are different processes involved in real estate development and the first and the foremost is acquiring large portion of land (which is scares in India) by the developer known as land bank. The land which is purchased by the developer acts as equity investment which may also act as collateral to loans. The loans acquired from the banks by the developer for the construction process and the initial sale before the execution of the project enables developer for the second stage i.e. project planning. The third stage involves necessary approvals from the planning authorities and the financing of the project which is then followed by the fourth stage of marketing and pricing of the project. Finally, the last stage involves sale and construction of the project which happens phase wise unlike the benchmark model where sale and construction activities are segregated for transparency between buyer and the seller (Das, et.al, 2013).

To summaries the above literature review, the basis for strategic approach in making real estate deals depend on strategic influences and transactions that are clearly identified by the real estate business framework. These strategic influences and transactions then become the driving forces within the real estate functioning processes. These forces apply to all those sector who are interdependent on the real estate busniness and act cohesively to form a system (Roulac, 1996). Such system in a real estate business with wide range of choices is flexible in terms of prioratising and implementation. Each property in a real estate business is unique in its nature and so are the trasactions that take place within the system. However, there are certain common elements or patterns identified in the real estate processes and can be standardised to some extent with common development strategies. By understanding such patterns of deal making in real estate processes can be further enhanced by understanding the linkages and can be very effective in decision making process. Main objectives of real estate business are thus fulfilled with flexible but a systematic approach (Roulac, 1996).

References:
Annamalai, T., & Doshi, M. (2012). Beyond Capital: Private Equity and Real Estate Development in India. The Journal of Private Equity, 15(3), 62-76. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/44954004

Das, P., Sah, V., Sharma, D., Singh, V., & Galuppo, L. (2013). Real Estate Development Process in India. Journal of Real Estate Literature, 21(2), 271-292. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/24885053

Lynn, D. J. (2010). Emerging market real estate investment : Investing in china, india, and brazil. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.library.britishcouncil.org.in:4443

Roulac, S. (1996). The Strategic Real Estate Framework: Processes, Linkages, Decisions. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 12(3), 323-346. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/24885743

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Transitional Construction Materials and its Impact on Architecture:


The transmutation of architectural ideas, building materials and structural techniques from one religion to another, and from one region to another is the rich and glorious tradition of Indian architecture. (Grover 2004, 9) Historically it is proven that Materials have strongly influenced architectural character.  One of the most fascinating aspects of studying everyday buildings from the past is noticing how the simplest materials, such as wood, clay, thatch and stone, have been employed to create architecture.  If clay alone was available in abundance, people used tamped earth or made bricks. If people live in heavily forested areas, they built in wood. (Fazio, Moffett, Wodehouse 2004, 1)

Based on the materials, structural systems are being formed depending upon whether the material is good in tension or compression.  Structural systems are classified into five categories according to the geometric configuration of their members and the way in which loads are resisted: (1) Post and lintel (or Column and Beam); (2) Corbel and cantilever; (3) arch and vault; (4) truss and space frame; and (5) tensile post and lintel system formed by vertical and horizontal members. (trabeated system) (Fazio, Moffett, Wodehouse 2004, 2)

The possibilities of these structural systems are vast.  In addition, there are hybrid systems such as cantilever and arched trusses.  The selection of any one of them for a particular building depends on available materials, economics, spatial requirements, and the aesthetic sensibilities of the architect and the client.  Based on the above parameters historians have developed taxonomies classifying the architectural work of various periods according to perceived common characteristics. (Fazio, Moffett, Wodehouse 2004, 5)

We will see how various Architectural materials, construction techniques developed in India since Vedic period to the latest Postmodernism and its impact on various styles of architecture developed in response to these spatial aspects of planning.

Transition of Indian Architecture from Vedic to colonial period:

The history of architecture in India begins from the time the earliest known wave of immigrants settled, some five thousand years ago, in Sindh, Gujrat and Punjab.  They built the cities of the Indus valley civilisation (about 2000B.C.) with timber and brick of which evidence still exists. The Vedic People (1500 – 800 B.C.) lived in grottos and hamlets made of natural materials such as bamboo and thatch, their forms replicated in stone by later civilisations.  The Buddhist built in brick and stone, and carved caves from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D..  The Hindus built their religious edifices in stone from fifth to the fifteenth century A.D.; their secular architecture, built of brick and timber has vanished.  In early Hindu architecture the temple was the social and economic focus of a town.  The ancient architects followed sacred building sites as prescribed by the Vaasru – Shastra.  The Hindu period gave way to the architecture of Islam (A.D. 1000 – 1700), and the Muslims constructed their buildings from the tenth to the seventeenth century A.D. in arcuate stone masonry occasionally using brick. (Grover 2004, 7)
European colonists brought with them to India concepts of their "world view" and a whole baggage of the history of European architecture Neo-Classical, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance.  The initial structures were utilitarian warehouses and walled trading posts, giving way to fortified towns along the coastline. It was the British who left a lasting impact on the Indian architecture. They saw themselves as the successors to the Mughals and used architecture as a symbol of power.  The British followed various architectural styles – Gothic, Imperial, Christian, English Renaissance and Victorian being the essentials. (Colonial Architecture)

Post-Independence Architecture in India:
In India after securing the political independence in 1947 there were two alternatives of which one was Gandhian philosophy of simple life and the restoration of village India as the foundation of the future country, and the other, Nehru’s image of socialist, industrialised modern India, free of poverty and unemployment.  Gandhi’s dream was not properly understood by the intellect and Nehru’s dream was also been illusory. (Lang 2002, 31 – 32)

Many Indian architects of the era were inspired by the spirit of independence and set out to explore all the possibilities for architecture that Rationalist thinking opened up.  As such they were following Nehru in his efforts to shape Indiato his own image of what the country should be.  Modernist architecture thought paralleled Nehru’s political ideology.  By 1980, a substantial body of architectural work had been produced in India by a growing number of architects working within the rationalist tradition.  Their architecture, nevertheless, had an empirical content that grew from the 1950s onwards as they increasingly paid attention to the reality of contextual concerns. (Lang 2002, 89)

In India, a number of forms of Modernist work continued to be built in the post – Nehru era.  These forms overlapped considerably in nature and the distinctions amongst them are often blurred.  Four streams of architecture are identified here.  One stream might be regarded as pure Rationalist, relatively unchanged in thought processes from that of the first two generations of such works in India.  The second every – day version of it has been called Utilitarian Modernist as represented by much of the work of the PWD, both central and state – level, and the architecture of the commercial firms.  The third stream reflects the experiments with architecture as sculpture in which the shell of a building does not necessarily reflect the activities that it shelters but is in itself an expressive statement.  A fourth is the work with a more empirical orientation that has, for want of a better term, been called Neo – Modernist.  It represents what architects learnt from experiences with rationalist design in India.  What emerged was a truly Indian modern architecture.  A possible fifth stream is that influenced by the brutalist buildings of contemporary British architectural heritage. (Lang 2002, 91)

Architecture in old days was a commodity of the rich and powerful and so it was mainly confined to the construction of religious buildings, palaces, castles, mansions, monuments and final resting places.  The construction was based on the principle of social pyramid, with small minority rich, powerful on top and large majority of common people at the bottom.  Now the social Pyramid’s peak has disappeared; at the same time the base broadened.  The modern architecture since then has developed to suit masses.  The modern movement came into being because a new spirit of its age required it.  It had no influences of geographical, geological, climatic conditions, social and religious customs.  Now nobody desires palaces, castles, mansions etc.  but instead we need mass housing, shopping centres, factories, office buildings, bus – terminals, rail – road sheds, airports, etc. (Hiraskar 1988, 344)

International styles in Architecture:
Architectural modernism manifested itself in the form of the international style that grew up in the aftermath of the first World War and became pervasive in the post – second World War reconstruction of Europe.  The international style was a movement that sought to renew the processes of building and design by eschewing traditional ad hoc environments in favour of a universal architectural grammar in which business and housing developments would follow the same rules whether they were produced in Manchester or Massachusetts, Berlin or Bangkok.  This new architecture would be rationally organised and functional, use up – to – date materials such as glass, concrete and steel and refuse to resort to what many modern architects perceived to be unnecessary ornamentation. (Malpas 2005, 13)

The term ‘Post – Modern’ now used in literary analysis as well as the social sciences, semiology and philosophy, implies an increasing fragmentation in life – a breaking apart of monolithic structures.  Post – Modernism has had a profound effect on architecture.  In architecture, Post – Modern, as a proper noun, seems to reflect three tendencies.  They are: (1) the use in design of past elements of form in an abstract manner; (2) a drawing on the vernacular past to indigenise architecture, and (3) a recognition of the variety of problems that exist in a society and attempts to address them directly. (Lang 2002, 121)

The body of work, in theory if not appearance, represents a major intellectual endeavour to respond to the limitations of Modernist architectural ideology.  It is in particular a response to the Rationalist branch of Modernist thought and its belief that the symbolic meaning of buildings results from responses, whether intellectually or biologically based, to the purify of line and the inter – play of basic iconic forms.  The architecture described here is no mere copying of the past but a creative response to what was perceived to be an aesthetic lacuna in Indian architecture. (Lang 2002, 121)

Many introductions to postmodernism begin with a discussion of its role in architecture.  There are a number of reasons for this.  First, architectural style has an immediate impact upon people’s day – to – day lives: the environments in which they live, travel and work can deeply affect how people view themselves, relate to each other and experience the world.  Second, because of the need for architects to attract large sums of money in the form of grants or commissions to complete their projects, the tenets of architectural postmodernism are helpfully theorised by a range of eloquent writers who employ accessible, non – specialist language to provide clear definitions of its forms, aims and ideals.  Third, and most importantly for introductions to a more general idea of postmodernism, in architecture the postmodern movement has a very precise notion of the modernism that it is ‘post’. (Malpas 2005, 13)

In the field of Architecture and Urban design, I take postmodernism broadly to signify a break with the modernist idea that planning and development should focus on large – scale, metropolitan – wide, technologically rational and efficient urban plans, backed by absolutely no – frill architecture.  Postmodernism cultivates, instead, a conception of the urban fabric as necessarily fragmented, a ‘palimpsest’ of past forms superimposes upon each other, and a ‘collage’ of current uses, many of which may be ephemeral.  Since the metropolis is impossible to command except in bits and pieces, urban design simply aims to be sensitive to vernacular traditions, local histories, particular wants, needs, and fancies, thus generating specialised, even highly customised architectural forms that may range from intimate, personalised spaces, through traditional monumentality, to the gaiety of spectacle.  All of this can flourish by appeal to a remarkable eclecticism of architectural styles. (Harvey 1990, 66)

Above all, postmodernists depart radically from modernist conceptions of how to regard space.  Whereas the modernists see space as something to be shaped for social purposes and therefore always subservient to the construction of a social project, the postmodernists see space as something independent and autonomous, to be shaped according to aesthetic aims and principles which have nothing necessarily to do with any overarching social objective, save, perhaps, the achievement of timeless and ‘disinterested’ beauty as an objective in itself. (Harvey 1990, 66). Postmodernism as a style of architecture has its proponents such as plurality, fragmentation, sustainability and more importantly its link to the traditional styles of architecture. However, search for the new architectural style for the future continues as a constant process of evolution.

References:

Grover, Satish. 2004. Masterpieces of Traditional Indian Architecture. Ed. Pandey Sujata and Chaudhuri Dipa. New Delhi: Roli and Janssen BV.

Colonial Architecture. http://www.culturopedia.com/Architecture/colonialarchitecture.html

Lang, Jon. 2002. A Concise History of Modern Architecture in India. New Delhi: Permanent Black.

Fazio Micheal, Moffett Marian and Wodehouse Lawrence. 2004. A World History of Architecture. USA: The McGraw – Hill Companies.

Hiraskar G.K. 1988. The Great Ages of World Architecture(With Introduction to landscape architecture) New Delhi: Dhanpat Rai Publications (p) Ltd.

Malpas, Simon. 2005. The Postmodern. London and New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Harvey, Devis. 1990. The conditions of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge and Oxford UK: Blackwell.

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Introduction:

India is the largest democracy in the world. The existence of NGOs is important in this kind of democracy to solve the problems which are still prevailing in the society. Civil society derives its strength mainly from the Gandhian tradition of volunteerism, but today, it expresses itself in many different forms of activism. India has a long tradition of voluntary action.  The mainspring of voluntary action was charity of human kindness.  Some people in society felt deep concern for suffering of humanity, the poor and deprived and those afflicted by physical disabilities and ailments as well as by discrimination and exploitation by other sections of the society.  During the struggle for freedom, the spirit of voluntarism received a great support from the people.
It was skilfully used by Gandhiji to involve the masses in the struggle for independence and initiate genuine constructive programmes for the upliftment of the downtrodden.  His whole political, social and moral philosophy was based on the individual performing his duty in the best possible manner individually and also combining with other individuals towards solving the problem of the community, society, and nation.  Gandhiji gave emphasis on voluntary action activated through organisations of constructive workers who would go to the people to establish contact personally and win their confidence.  They would place before the people programmes for mass action.  Gandhiji did not believe in state action for betterment of the social conditions, moreover he felt that for massive change there should be mass action (SinghaRoy Debal K., 2001 Page no.184, 185).
A voluntary organisation is a social service and development institution motivated to meet the needs of the most disadvantaged people in the society.  This is done either through direct services to the people or through indirect services to other voluntary organisations or by Government, non profit making organisations.  These organisations are funded directly or indirectly by the government or other non-governmental agencies. Voluntary Organisations are non – profit making agencies that are constituted with a vision by a group of like minded people.  The aim of this organisation is through the committed for the uplift of the poor, marginalised, unprivileged, underprivileged, impoverished, downtrodden and the needy. These organisations are closer and accessible to the target groups, flexible in administration, quicker in decision making, timely in action and facilitating the people towards self reliance ensuring their fullest participation in the whole process of development. NGO (Non-Governmental Organisation) was a more popular term in 1980’s.  In recently held NGOs national network in April 2006 NGOs are again termed as Voluntary Organisations.
Historical Review:The intellectual tradition of discoursing the nature of the state and civil society is connected to the contract theorists – Hobber, Locke and Rouseau, on one hand and to Hegel, Marx, Gramsci and Engle on the other. The relationship between civil society and the state has always been dialogical subject of insightful discussion.  Both Hobbes and Locke considered the state as the creation of civil society for protecting the life and property of citizens.  According to Hegel superiority of the state will eventually reduce civil society to the level of an instrument of the state power.  Marxs thinks that civil society represented the interest of the bourgeois as revealed through state; as such, both are instruments of oppression.  According to Gramsci’s view both state and civil society were created around reciprocal rights and obligation, and that one cannot exist without other (Nayar P.K.B, 2001, Page no. 168,169).In the West, Civil Society played an important role of dilution of the boundaries of politics and with the restrictions of what are seen as the increasingly bad conditions of party politics, as a means of rejuvenating public life.  In the East the term has come more narrowly to mean besides political life and civil liberties, simply private property rights and markets.  In the south, the collapse of the theoretical models that dominated post Second World War understandings of politics there has given new idea of civil society. Intellectuals in India and in Latin America, in the Middle East, and China, Africa, and South East Asia, are all infusing new complex life into the category.  International agencies and lenders too have turned their attention to this idea of civil society.  In an effort to accelerate and increase the efficiency of development tasks, they now seek ways to by pass the central state, and to assist directly what they identify as the constituents of civil society such as private enterprises and organisations, church and denominational associations self employed workers, co-operatives, unions, and the vast field of NGOs, all have attached external interest.  They have come to be seen as essential to the construction of what are assumed to be the social preconditions for more accountable, public and representative forms of political power.  To all who involve it, civil society incarnates a desire to recover for society powers: economic, social, expressive believed to have been illegitimately taken by state.Although central to classical western political theory, the concept of civil society was largely moribund during the days when models of state-led modernisation dominated both liberal and Marxist conceptions of social change and development.  In 1970s and 1980s it was recorded as models of disintegrated civil society seemed to promise something better like democracy and prosperity, autonomy.  Also the means emerged from authorian rule or from close political regulation of the economy that is, in regions which seemed to have created which became the preconditions for the emergence of a civil society. The picture has been the appearance of a multiplicity of non-negotiable identities and colliding self-righteous beliefs, not a plural representation of malleable interests.  Civil society remains as distant and precarious an ambition as ever (Kaviraj Sudipta and Khilnani Sunil, 2001, Page no. 12, 13).Civil Society and Public Sphere:In the past two or three decades, the conceptual distinction between civil society and state has been replaced in academic discourse by a more accurate set of distinctions.  First, the state is distinguished more carefully now from a particular arena of society referred to by the term civil society.  Second the term public sphere forces us to explore and if possible to demarcate the private and public segment of society.  Finally, the distinction between civil society and political society compels us to notice dimensions of society that are public and political but not directly of state (Bhargava Rajiv, Reifeld Hulmut, 2005 Page no.13).Civil society has two different approaches in relation to the state.  One is that civil society is with the government and other as anti-government. In public sphere civil society can be called as CIVIL SOCIETY – I and CIVIL SOCIETY – II.  It means according to CIVIL SOCIETY – I a democratic policy is secured by being embedded in dense networks of civil associations, such as clubs, trade associations, voluntary societies and churches which generate social capital.  Active voluntary and informal groups of networks make for more stable democracy and protect against incursion by the state.  The bridges envisaged here are based on institutional link along with shared moral and civil values of reciprocity.In CIVIL SOCIETY – II it is associated particularly with the anti communist movements in 1970’s and 1980’s where the role of civil society is explicitly normative.  Rather than embedding political processes in supportive position, this view is totally in contrast with the previous.  Thus, civil society is anti political, authentic and based on informal social solidarity.  The spaces of civil society and public sphere here were often fused in that the private and autonomous self organizing groups to become a public sphere alternative to state.            Civil society describes a new commercial social order, the rise of public opinion, representative government, civil freedoms, plurality and civility. Thus, civil society represents contractual and voluntary relationships independent of state. (Nash Kate, Scott Alan 2004 Page no.223, 227)Civil Society as the public sphere is normatively important in a very vital sense.  Firstly, each citizen has the right to participate in decisions that provide the frame and the context of his own life, but this dimension of democracy cannot exist if citizens enclose themselves in private spaces, or obey the state unthinkingly and reflexively.  Secondly, what is private and what is public has to be demarcated by social agreements in civil society.  An individual has the right to privacy, but this does not mean that the private can be used as an excuse for being outside the interest of public concerns.  Civil society accordingly, emerged as the, ‘theatre where the dialectics between the private and the public are negotiated. Civil society is the site where the state intervenes to shape public opinion and perception, so that it can create consent for its own politics.  Civil society as the public space is a domain of politics, but the historical processes which construct such a sphere are themselves political. (Neera Chandhoke 1995, Page no. 167,175,179)A central theme of civil society in sociology as a whole has been the importance of embedding processes of money and power in supportive but constraining cultural and normative systems.  Here civil society is positioned between the economy and polity rather than being absorbed in to either.  It is possible to explore the mediating processes that concern institutional sphere to limit the extension of one into other.  Social organisation and NGO often strive to generate a culture of civil regulation and public accountability (Nash Kate, Scott Alan 2004 Page no.223, 227). 
NGO NetworkingEvolution of NGO’s:
After independence the numbers of NGOs present in India have grown up which represent a civil society.  A corresponding increase in the volume of activity was also evident during the post independence period.  According to one estimate there are 1million NGOs in the country (Jain 1997, 128).  However, the causes of proliferation of NGOs in different periods, beginning in the 1950s were different.  Till 1950s the causes of the evolution of NGOs had a different base which related to fields like cast discrimination and poverty alleviation etc.  In 1960s the focus shifted to the development activities.  In the latter part of 1960s and early 1970s the concern of NGO was changing.  The NGOs were more concerned in favour of issues associated with ecology, the environment, technology and development.  In 1980s the matters concerning human rights were dominant.  The degrading environment due to ruthless exploitation or the antipoor policies of the state gave the impetus for the formation of NGOs in the 1990s.
Different types of social movements activism are viewed as different political domains.  Political movements are recognised by the identities and have been captured by electoral politics.  Movement politics that emerged the state are organised around interests of the people that have become institutionalised at some point. Politics organised around interests do not have the benefit of the kind of popular mobilization that electoral and party politics produce (Kohli Atul, 2001 Page no. 251)
Today NGOs are found all over the country.  The socioeconomic backdrop of the country served as a fertile ground for the genesis and growth of the NGO sector.  This is further facilitated by the democratic system prevailing in the country, which granted ample space for its existence.  The remarkable growth in the number of organisations registered in the country since independence testifies to this fact.  This is evidence not only from the size of the sector, but also from the enlarging area of activities it has been engaged in over the years (Sooryamurthy R., Gangrade K.D. 2001, Page no. 1, 2). In 1980s NGO groups became more specialised, and voluntary movement was fragmented into three major categories which are described below.
Categories of NGO’s:
First, there were those considered the traditional development NGOs. These NGOs went into a village or a group of villages and ran literacy programmes for children, encouraged farmers to experiment with new crops and livestock breeds that would bring more money.  Also  helped the weavers and other village artisans market their products and so on - in short became almost a part of the community in their chosen area (usually in rural India) and tried to fill all the gaps left in the development process by the government. There are many examples of voluntary organizations of this kind running very successfully in India for the last five decades. The most celebrated example of this kind is the treatment centre for leprosy patients run by Baba Amte in central India.
The second group of NGOs were those who researched a particular subject in depth, and then lobbied with the government to file a petition in the courts for improvements in the lives of the citizens.  A well-known example of an NGO of this type is the Centre for Science and Environment. CSE picked up that sample of well water and then submitted the results of the chemical analysis to a court to change polluting practices of that industry.
In the third group were those volunteers who saw themselves more as activists than other NGOs. All NGOs undertake a certain amount of activism to get their points across.  They petitioned the bureaucrats, they alerted the media whenever they found something wrong. This third group of NGOs saw activism as their primary means of reaching their goals, because they did not believe they could get the authorities to move in any other way. One of the best-known examples of an NGO in this category is the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save Narmada Campaign).  This is an organisation that opposed the construction of a series of large dams in a large river valley in Western India. The members of this NGO believe that large dams would worsen water scarcity for the majority of the people in the long run.  When the NBA found that it could not convince the planners in India to agree to their point, the NBA members put up pickets, held demonstrations and tried every other way they could think of to oppose the construction of the first of the big dams. Many NBA members went to jail a number of times as a result. Recently, some of them - including celebrated novelist Arundhati Roy - face the prospect of being jailed, because they criticized the Supreme Court of India when the court’s decision on dam construction did not go in their favour.
There is no strict boundary between these three groups of NGOs - in fact, Baba Amte is now an important member of the Narmada Bachao Andolan. And whatever be the category a particular NGO falls into, all of them play an important role in modern India - they hold the politicians accountable to the people (Chattergy Patralekha 2001, Page no. 23, 24) The impressive cooperation between coalitions called Narmada Bachao Andolan and INGOs like OXFARM and ENVIRONMENTAL DEFENCE FUND in campaign in support of the right of people not to be displaced by dam construction in western India.  Such coalition between international NGOs calls for the concept known as “Global Civil Society.” (Kean John, 2003, Page no. 38, 39)
Global Civil Society:Today’s trends of globalisation have moved civil society out of the limits of the physical boundaries of the nation.  Many countries are coming forward to solve there common problems through collective efforts.  Thus the parameters of civil society have changed to global level. The concept of civil society which existed within the boundaries of the nation – state, now has changed through the process of globalisation.  State becomes one agent among others operating in sub national, national and international domains.  Thus it becomes easy to grasp the intersection between governmental and non – governmental.  Global social movements establish new networks, resources, and social capital, providing the infrastructure for global democratization.What started at small scale level, the movements located in diverse communities and plural settings or had been conceptualised by some Third World intellectuals belonging to the alternative school has now been hijacked by technocrats of the global NGOs.  Many of these NGOs got legitimacy by actual participation in and closeness to grassroots struggles are to be co – opted in the global NGO framework.
Structure of an International NGO
Role of NGO in Indian Context:
In independent India, the initial role played by the voluntary organizations started by Gandhi and his disciples was to fill in the gaps left by the government in the development process. The volunteers organized handloom weavers in villages to form cooperatives through which they could market their products directly in the cities, and thus get a better price. Similar cooperatives were later set up in areas like marketing of dairy products and fish. In almost all these cases, the volunteers also helped in other areas of development e.g. running literacy classes for adults at night.
Two men visited a small hut in the outskirts of the Nations Capital New Delhi from a non-governmental organization called Bandhua Mukti Morcha (Bonded Labour Liberation Front). The other two were journalists brought by the NGO to prove that bonded labour - a form of slavery - did exist right in the nation’s capital. After the visit, the men from the NGO went to the police station to lodge a complaint, because bonded labour is illegal in India.  The complaints, and the articles written by the journalists after the visit, were part of the NGO campaign to make the government implement the law.
Every day, different NGOs all over India are doing things like this. Sometime it may be taking a sample of water from a well that has been polluted by a nearby factory, getting the water analysed and then filing a “public interest petition” in a court to force the factory to follow anti-pollution laws. Another time, it may be a heated debate with a bureaucrat on why all citizens should have the right to be informed about all government decisions that affect their lives (Chattergy Patralekha 2001, Page no. 23, 24)
Civil society organisations can hold companies responsible for externalities, organisations such as friends of earth, Greenpeace as well as local movements such as Chipko in drawing attention to the environmental costs of production.  In 1998, 600 consumer, environmental and development groups lobbied successfully to half the proposed multilayered agreement on investments.  In December 1999 a coalition of 1200 NGOs congregated in settle to protest against an unfair global trading system, further trade liberalisation, and a process that lacked transparency and representation.  In a less combative mode consumers are increasingly opting to invest in ethically responsible companies (Howell Jude, Pearce Jenny, 2001 Page no. 83).
In a large developing country like India, there are numerous gaps left by the government in the development process - sometimes by intention, sometimes due to lack of funds, sometimes due to lack of awareness. These are the gaps that many NGOs try to fill in modern India. Some of them may work in areas that the government does not want to get into - like fighting discrimination on the basis of caste. Most Indian politicians do not really want to upset the existing caste hierarchy in his or her constituency, because the politician is dependent for votes on the dominant castes of that particular constituency. In the process, laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of caste are often ignored unless there is an NGO working in the area that is willing to take up the cause of those being discriminated against.
India is a representative rather than a participatory democracy. Once the elections are over, the politicians who run the federal and state governments do not really need to go back to the electorate for every major decision - there is no tradition of referendums in India, as there is in Switzerland or Denmark. So, in the five years between on election and another, the NGOs - and parts of the media, to some extent - are often the only means available to the citizens to voice their opinions on any decision taken by a government.  (Chattergy Patralekha 2001, Page no. 23, 24)
In democracies citizens are free to gather disseminate environmental information and lobby their government collectively resulting in their being more environmental NGOs in democratic state than in non democratic state.  In democracy NGOs as pressure groups enjoy greater success in democratic societies (David Potter 1996, Page no. 10).
NGO’s Working in Various Sectors:
Then there are many NGOs who work in areas where the government effort proves inadequate. Two well-known examples are the areas of education and healthcare. In the area of education, there are often not enough government-run schools, especially in rural regions. Or there may be schools without adequate facilities, because a particular state government does not have the necessary money. There are many situations where the government runs a co-educational school, but the girls do not go there because their conservative parents (the overwhelming majority) refuse to send their daughters where they may meet boys. Then there are many cases where the government runs a largely-empty school, because most of the boys and girls are out working during school hours. NGOs have played an important role in all these cases - running special classes at night for children whose parents send them out to work, running special classes for girls. By and large, governments have been supportive of such initiatives by NGOs, and the only problem is that there are not enough NGOs to educate all the uneducated people in India. The NGO called Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad is largely credited for the hundred percent literacy programme in that state in the south-western corner of India.
NGO for Children Education
In the area of healthcare, too, NGOs play an important role in modern India - by supplementing the government effort to provide health..
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Planning profession essentially is concerned with shaping the future based on the past experiences. In a highly urbanised country such as Britain they have to work with the planning arrangements and ideologies of the planners, which are inherited from the past. Planning, necessarily means regulating urban spaces and the ways in which they are to be done. Planning system guides them and embodies past political assumptions and social institutions with the help of planning policy instrument. They have to live and improve the past planning decisions, expressed within the fabric of towns and cities. This is essentially not to argue that planners have to always see what has happened in the past but to develop an understanding of town planning to be more creative and constructive although it is good to be futuristic and creative, failing to refer to the past can be catastrophic and may lead to disaster. Nor is it true as many planners believe that past was the only thing that they have to look forward to during Thatcherite assaults with her pessimistic movements towards planning. Town planning is necessarily a tradition of thoughts, policy and affirmative actions towards achieving certain planning goals (Ward, 2004).

In the late 19th century town planning began as a series of radical reformist movement of ideas in areas of land reforms, housing and other important aspects of town planning such as community building, protection of amenities and the open spaces. In the early 20th century i.e. in 1905 the term ‘town planning’ was coined for the first time to give these ideas identity and coherence to form town planning as a discipline. This resulted in establishment of professional organisations such as Garden City and Town Planning Association, The national housing and Town Planning Council and the Town Planning Institute which played a central role in this. In early days of this movement it was expressed in terms of a conceptual framework such as garden cities and suburbs, and gained a professional recognition. Within few decades of Intellectual tradition of town planning, ideas, conceptual frameworks and theories were developed. The radical notion of social cities, planned with a strategic model of planned metropolitan decentralisation and containment of the society as a whole (Ward, 2004).

In the late 1930’s. the rise of the modern movement in architecture and planning brought functionalist theories extended to entire cities and most of these ideas were implemented on a sizeable scale. The intellectual innovation in town planning which was independent of planning policies in practice. However, by 1940’s town planning ideas started to be incorporated comprehensively into official town planning policies and was evolved as a planning system rather than an independent movement. There was further innovation in the processes of planning policies especially after 1960’s. The practice of town planning was more focused on celebrating contemporary success of the town planning (such as the New Towns) and was less concerned about developing new radical models in planning (Ward, 2004).

During 1970s and 1980s the town planning movement landed in a situation where there was no autonomous intellectual tradition that would enable different development alternatives which were available traditionally. However, new environmentalist ideas emerged during these years from other intellectual traditions than the town planning became part and parcel of planning policies (Ward, 2004).

References:

Ward, S 2004, Planning and Urban Change, SAGE Publications, London. Available from: ProQuest Ebook Central. [7 March 2019].

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Globally, there has been a consensus over the issue of affordable housing markets being influenced by local planning agencies and the local governments, as they know their geographical areas, demographics, and housing characteristics better (Sirmans & Macpherson 2003, 133-155). Such localized pragmatic approach towards planning promotes affordable housing strategies more convincingly (Sirmans & Macpherson 2003, 133-155). In this newly evolved global trend in affordable housing, there has been a paradigm shift from public policymaking tools to more quality conscious implementation through private organisations. (Graddy & Bostic 2010, 181-199). Such paradigm shift is because of the shortfalls of public sector organisations regarding their ideological preferences, fiscal pressures on available public services and increasing popularity of private sector efficiency, innovation or the financial capacity (Graddy & Bostic 2010, 181-199).

At detail policy level envisaged by public sector planning, there is a need for self-reliant income generating schemes for the economically weaker section (Bhattacharya 1994, 454). These income sources will pay off their cost of housing and public services Bhattacharya 1994, 454). It is equally important that they have these income-generating activities on the same land easily accessible to their new house (Bhattacharya 1994, 454). This will make their housing more affordable and spatially effective (Bhattacharya 1994, 454). Also, a sense of neighbourhood or community is developed amongst the beneficiaries that may solve their day to day issues other than just the essential need for affordable housing (Bhattacharya 1994, 454).

Despite these efforts, research points to several reasons why the housing affordability gap persists (cited in Burnstein et al. 2006, 7-16). First, affordable housing policies by most of the government bodies aim at home ownership whereas the households can only afford to rent these houses (cited in Burnstein et al. 2006, 7-16). Second, the subsidies given to affordable housing are not sufficient for the lowest income populations (cited in Burnstein et al. 2006, 7-16). Finally, due to a vast gap between rich and poor, even after a substantial reduction in the housing cost, it would still not be sufficient for the purpose (cited in Burnstein et al. 2006, 7-16).  Thus, the noble goal of providing affordable housing is far from the reality and is trapped in poverty (Sirmans & Macpherson 2003, 133-155). The government should thus focus on enforcing individual rights by creating opportunities for them utilizing their full potential (Sirmans & Macpherson 2003, 133-155).

References:

Bernstein, M., Kim, J., Sorensen, P., Hanson, M., Overton, A., & Hiromoto, S., “Affordable Housing and Lessons Learned from Other Natural Disasters,” In Rebuilding Housing Along the Mississippi Coast: Ideas for Ensuring an Adequate Supply of Affordable Housing, 7-16. Santa Monica, CA; Arlington, VA; Pittsburgh, PA: RAND Corporation, 2006 Accessed 7 July 2018 http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/10.7249/op162rc.10

Evans, D. Bringing the Power of Design to Affordable Housing: The History and Evolution of the Affordable Housing Design Advisor. Cityscape, 16(2), (2014): 87-102. Accessed July 6, 2018, http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/26326885

Graddy, E., & Bostic, R. “The Role of Private Agents in Affordable Housing Policy.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: J-PART, 20, (2006): I81-I99. Accessed July 6, 2018, http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/20627910

K. P. Bhattacharya. “Affordable Housing.” Economic and Political Weekly, 29(9), (1994): 454-454. Accessed July 6, 2018, http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/4400833

Sirmans, G., & Macpherson, D. “The State of Affordable Housing.” Journal of Real Estate Literature, 11(2), (2003): 133-155. Accessed July 5, 2018, http://www.jstor.org.library.britishcouncil.org.in:2048/stable/44103465
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In modern town planning, small towns having their own identity are considered as extraordinary places where inhabitants enjoy their social life (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Such towns are in the midst of a peaceful green environment where pedestrians can walk as freely as they can with little traffic on the road and therefore less noise pollution allowing people to breath fresh, clean air (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Also, Municipal councils promote the use of renewable energy, recycling and local arts and crafts. Furthermore, people enjoy traditional local cuisine in restaurants and shops that sell local products. The people in these towns think globally and act locally and make havens in a fast world (Knox, & Mayer 2013).

The article focuses on the challenges faced by small town and urban places in a globalised world (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Further, it highlights movements, programmes and policies that support local culture and promotes sustainability both concerning culture and environment (Knox, & Mayer 2013). These small towns historically were developed as the market town and had a great variety in the history, morphology, and economy in the developed countries of the world (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Their small size is a result of isolation from the transport corridors and industrial economies of that era (Knox, & Mayer 2013). In the European context, these small towns initially grew as manufacturing units of the industrial era, but later did not have sufficient resources to remain competitive in the face of changing technologies (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Therefore, most of these towns experienced decades of economic and demographic stagnation, and as a result, some of these cities were abandoned or dead (Knox, & Mayer 2013).

In the private sector, social sustainability, social actions within society can play an important role in the planning of small towns (Knox, & Mayer 2013). The brightest, most energetic, and best-educated young people leaving ageing populations that tend to become limited in their capacity to think and have a limited and restricted outlook, lacking in vision and leadership (Knox, & Mayer 2013). In such uncertain situations, communities tend to lose the capacity to deal with the many internal and external influences on their well-being (Knox, & Mayer 2013). It becomes challenging to manage declining economies and limited capacity to manage change, problems of environmental degradation and social chaos that becomes chronic (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Adding to this mess, globalisation and economic rationalisation lead to a decline in locally owned businesses, with a consequent loss of local distinctiveness, character, and sense of place particularly in small towns (Knox, & Mayer 2013).

In the public sector, there is a growing trend towards having a neoliberal political economy with heavy taxes levied on citizens to lessen the burden of fiscal deficit on the governments (Knox, & Mayer 2013). However, at the grassroots level, there is a strong resistance to such government systems which have resulted in cutbacks and closures of schools, hospitals, clinics, post offices, and bus services along with the reduction of investments in physical infrastructure and public utilities and cutbacks in welfare programmes (Knox, & Mayer 2013).

However, the scene of small towns is not that gloomy, and they are attracting both population and investment at many places, having sustainability and its longevity as their challenges (Knox, & Mayer 2013). These small towns are the result of urban sprawl, spreading in highly urbanised regions of the world (Knox, & Mayer 2013). These small towns are then supported by improvements in infrastructure, new communication networks, improved water supplies and better television reception making them attractive to both employers and individuals (Knox, & Mayer 2013). The idea of corporate reorganisation and decentralisation works well in small-town settings as there is an abundance of inexpensive land and cheap, non-union labour (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Not only the labour force but the local entrepreneurs engaged in local craftsmanship do help in developing the economy of these small towns and create local jobs (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Adding to this working population which keeps small towns moving, there is another category of people who are in search of an alternative lifestyle away from the main overcrowded, polluted metropolises who contribute to the development of small towns (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Because of the scenic views, fresh air, natural landscape and water bodies in the small towns hospitality industry flourish here with increasing number of floating populations (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Thus, market towns and hill towns which were dull and restrictive in the past have suddenly become live, picturesque, peaceful and affordable by many key professionals who want to be part of this poetry (Knox, & Mayer 2013).

These small towns undergo gentrification process with the help of essential parameters such as house prices, the pace of life, and physical attractiveness which makes retired households, teleworkers, long-distance commuters, and second-home owners, to have upgraded residences, stores, cafés, and restaurants contributing to the overall prosperity of towns (Knox, & Mayer 2013). However, after a certain point, it brings problems of social inequality and environmental sustainability in these towns (Knox, & Mayer 2013). The solution to this downfall lies in thinking like a genius who knows when to stop. In planning terms, this means enforcing long-term planning policies concerning physical planning, social planning, economic planning, environmental planning, an architectural and cultural heritage which will keep the development and sprawl under control. Planning policies can further help in improving the quality and competitiveness of existing places which aim to improve the uniformity of appearance and experience of these small towns.

The planning of small tows at present is however neglected in national policy, where the priority is given to either the advanced urban centres or backward rural regions (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Within academic discussions, there has been considerable research done on effects of globalisation and technological change on large cities and city-regions however small towns are not part of these discussions for almost for last two decades or even more (Knox, & Mayer 2013). Nevertheless, due to current trends getting built over the years, some grassroots movements have emerged to address the needs, challenges and opportunities of small-town communities (Knox, & Mayer 2013).  They involve partnerships among local community groups, local businesses, and local governments (Knox, & Mayer 2013). The major agenda of these partnerships is encouraging sustainable communities their liveability and quality of life (Knox, & Mayer 2013). A dynamic professional leadership will make small towns sail through.

Knox, P., & Mayer, H. (2013). Small town sustainability: economic, social, and environmental innovation. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.library.britishcouncil.org.in:4443
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The Post Post Modernism is an independent movement and is not the reaction to any particular movement, unlike Post Modernism. Therefore, it is born from a virgin mother. The name Post Post Modernism is because it came after Post Modernism. One can say that this movement is a result of the continuous learning process from the previous movements. This movement focusses on the quality of life of the people and helps them in making the right choices for themselves and lets them identify what is right and what is wrong for them. It does not criticise any philosophical thinking, in fact, it is completely ready and open for discussion with Moderns and Post-Moderns. The movement has to be sincere to attain ideal results. The movement is a mixture of Modern rationality and Post-Modern plurality but rejects crime of any sorts involved in both these movements. It is a peaceful movement and hits precisely to those who disobey the rules of civilised and dignified human civilisation. The violence is required for the enforcement of the rules which is accepted in Post-Modern thinking, but their violence is physical. The violence of Post Post Modernism is not physical but it is intellectual and is an artistic expression of such like-minded people which automatically eliminates those in the opposite direction. The remaining people those in the opposite direction will come together and damage themselves because they have chosen this direction and Post Post Modernism is liberal in its approach towards dealing with local and global communities.

Post Post Modernism is built on the rationality of Modernity and its epistemological understanding of the worldview. However, it rejects the grand narratives of modernity which itself contradicts the rationality of human science. It also rejects such scientific knowledge which becomes the part of the destruction of human civilisation. Thus, the journey of Post Postmodernism enters into Post Modern world because there is rationality involved in plural thinking of Post Modernity and the lessons learned through Modernity are still intact. However, Post Postmodernism has strongly rejected the deconstruction of Post Moderns because it believes in common sense. The artistic expression of Marcel Duchamp in terms of Urinal placed in an art exhibition cannot be considered as a piece of art and should go wherever it belonged. Now Post Post Modern thinkers enter in their own domain and prepare the condition of Post Post Modernity.

The condition of Post Post Modern thinkers are as follows:

1. An individual should be sincere, honest and genuine.

2. Never criticize any other concept but one can refuse to be a part of it and can express his disagreement in an appropriate manner.

3. They should practice remaining peaceful and nonviolent in all the circumstances and the result should be peaceful.

4. The qualification of Post Post Modern should be that he or she should not know anything and willing to learn sincerely all the universal, local, and personal truths. The aim is enlightenment filled with knowledge.

5. Once this is done then there is a free will, to express once art, knowledge, feelings, and continuous progress in all the domains of life. 
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