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Thermal Properties of Polymers : 

Thermal property:

The property which is shown by a textile fiber when it is subjected to heating is called thermal property.

Thermal property is included: 

  1. Thermal conductivity
  2. Melting transition temperature
  3. Glass transition temperature
  4. Heat setting
  5. Thermal expansion
  6. Heat of wetting or heat absorption
  7. Flammability

Thermal conductivity: Thermal conductivity is the rate of heat transfer in degree along the body of textile fiber by conduction. (The thermal conductivity of textile fiber depends to a much greater extent on the air entrapped within it than on the fiber conductivity)

  1. Higher thermal conductivity indicates that the fiber is more conductive.
  2. In winter session, lower conductivity fiber dresses are more suitable to wear.

Factors affecting thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity mainly depends on following matters.

  1. Temperature: The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for amorphous polymers increases gradually in the glassy resign and decreases slowly or remains constant in the rubbery region. For crystalline polymers, thermal conductivity decreases steadily with the increase in temperature below . At temperature above , it behaves in a similar way as amorphous polymers.
  2. Degree of crystallinity: Thermal conductivity depends on the degree of crystallinity; a polymer with highly crystalline and ordered structure will have higher conductivity than amorphous polymer.
  3. Density of polymer: The thermal conductivity increases with the increasing of density of polymer.
  4. Orientation of chain segments: Thermal conductivity of polymer is highly dependent on the polymer chain segment orientation. This is because thermal energy transports more efficient along the polymer chain. Crystalline polymers have highly oriented chain segments, and therefore have higher thermal conductivity than amorphous polymers.
  5. Structure: The cell size of foamed polymer may also have an effect on thermal conductivity. Smaller foam cell size tend to lower thermal conductivity. Most foamed polymers have thermal conductivity values in the order of , which is about 10 times less than the same polymers.

Why woolen dress are more suitable than cellulosic dresses?

The protein fiber (wool) has a lower thermal conductivity than cellulosic fiber. That’s why the woolen (protein) dresses are more suitable than cellulosic/synthetic dresses.

Why synthetic dresses are not suitable in summer and winter season?

We know that lower thermal conductivity fiber dresses are more suitable to wear. The value of thermal conductivity of synthetic fiber (polyester, nylon etc.) is higher than natural fiber (cotton, silk, wool etc.). As a result the synthetic dresses are more conductive, hence rate transfer of heat along a body is very high. So, in summer season, atmospheric heat is easily felt and in winter season, low temperatures of air is also effect on the body by synthetic fiber dresses. That’s why, the synthetic dresses are not suitable in summer and winter season.

Why silk fiber is warm in winter and cool in summer?

Thermal conductivity of the silk fiber is expressed in terms of the rate of heat conductance (thermal conductivity co-efficient).The thermal conductivity is poor and the specific heat is higher than other natural fibers and thus silk is warm in winter and cool in summer. This is due to the fact that the cocoon filament is a porous fiber having numerous vacuum spots capable of accommodating large quantity of air.

In the amorphous region of the polymer, at lower temperature, the molecules of the polymer are in, say, frozen state, where the molecules can vibrate slightly but are not able to move significantly. This state is referred as the glassy state. In this state, the polymer is brittle, hard and rigid analogous to glass. Hence the name glassy state. The glassy state is similar to a supercooled liquid where the molecular motion is in the frozen state. The glassy state shows hard, rigid, and brittle nature analogous to a crystalline solid with molecular disorder as a liquid. Now, when the polymer is heated, the polymer chains are able to wiggle around each other, and the polymer becomes soft and flexible similar to rubber. This state is called the rubbery state. The temperature at which the glassy state makes a transition to rubbery state is called the glass transition temperature Tg . Note that the glass transition occurs only in the amorphous region, and thecrystalline region remains unaffected during the glass transition in the semi-crystalline polymer.

Glass transition temperature ( Tg ) : 

When the polymer cools and the temperature lowers, the mobility in the amorphous regions of the polymer decreases. The lower the temperature, the stiffer the polymer becomes until a point of transition is reached. This transition is called the second order transition temperature or the glass transition temperature. It is denoted by Tg  and the range of Tg for linear fiber is like between  -200 to 300oC

Factors influence the Tg: 

  1. Flexibility of chain bond decrease the value of Tg.
  2. Flexibility of side group decrease the value of Tg.
  3. Polarity of side groups increase the value of Tg.
  4. Bulky of side groups increase the value of Tg.
  5. Composition of ring structure in the molecule chain raises the value of Tg.
  6. Random co – polymer has a lower value of Tg than homo-polymer.
  7. Tg increases with moleclues weight up to 20,000.

GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE

The mechanical properties of polymers radically change at the glass transition temperature Tg; molecular motion is the underlying cause of the change. Below Tg there is no translational or rotational motion of the atoms that make up the polymer backbone, but these motions are present above Tg. Below Tg, polymers are relatively hard, inflexible and brittle, whilst above it they are soft and flexible. The terms glassy, and rubbery or leathery are used to describe properties in the two temperature regions.

Melting temperature

The temperature at which the fiber melt completely is called first order transition temperature or melting temperature. It is denoted by Tm.

  1. At melting temperature fiber losses its density and convert it into a viscos liquid.
  2. At melting temperature fiber also losses its strength and some molecules weight.

Melting point depends on:

Specific volume vs Temperature curve with Tg and Tm for amorphous and semi-crystalline polymer

Fig. shows the decrease of specific volume with temperature for amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers. As a semi-crystalline polymer is cooled from its liquid state through the melting temperature, its specific volume drops abruptly reflecting the closer and regular packing of molecules into crystalline structures. If the polymer is amorphous then no abrupt drop in specific volume will be observed at the melting temperature, it will simply continue to decrease linearly with decreasing temperature until the glass transition temperature is reached. Both amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers are mechanically rubbery at temperatures between the melting and glass-transition temperatures. In the rigid glassy state below the glass transition temperature the specific volume of both amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers continues to decrease, but at a slower rate.

Heat setting:

Heat-setting is a heat treatment by which shape retention, crease resistance, resilience and elasticity are imparted to the fibers.

®Heat setting is done before the melting temperature and dyeing is done above glass transition temperature  If the fabric is dyed before heat setting we will not the desired result. Fabric will be deformed.

Objects of heat setting

  1. To impact dimensional stability.
  2. To remove shrinkage of fabric.
  3. To decrees crease resistance.
  4. To increase elasticity and resiliency.

Disadvantages of heat setting

  1. Fiber become very stiff.
  2. Crystallinity increase but dye takes decrease.
  3. Fiber color may be change.

Types of heat-setting

 There are three types of heat-setting

  1.  Temporary heat setting
  2.  Semi-permanent heat setting
  3.  Permanent heat setting

Temporary heat setting: This type of setting is destroyed by regular use of the materials. For examples- a stream pressed cotton textile.

Semi-permanent heat setting: This type of heat setting materials is raised above it’s Tg and then set into a new form.the setting is lost when the mlts is subjected to severe condition of use. For example, hot washing or steaming of materials above Tg .

Permanent heat setting: This type of heat setting involves change of the material in such a way that it would not reverse till the materials is destroyed by taking it above its melting point. For example, heat setting to develop new crystallites.

Thermal behaviour of synthetic fibers or structural changes due to heat setting

Synthetic fibers, mainly polyester and nylon, consist of long chain molecules and are held together by inter-chain bonds. Fig. (a) shows how the chains are irregularly distributed at random in single fibers immediately alter spinning. The fibers are then stretched several times their original length to impart desirable properties to the fiber and this causes orientation of chain molecules parallel to the fiber axis [Fig. (b)].

Why nylon tends to be heat set at a higher temperature than polyester?

There is an important difference between the behaviour of the two common polyamides (nylon 6 and nylon 6.6) and polyester, because of their different behaviour towards water. Polyester is non-absorbent, so the heat setting behaviour is not affected by water. However, nylon will absorb sufficient water to obtain a temporary set that is based on hydrogen bonding and is destroyed on boiling in water. The consequence of this is that to obtain a permanent set on nylon, the water has to be removed from the fiber so that crystallization can take place. Therefore nylon tends to be heat set at a higher temperature than polyester.

Thermal expansion: Thermal expansion can be measured by co-efficient of thermal expansion and which is defined as the fraction increase in length of a specimen to rise in temperature by 1oC.

Heat of wetting: When a textile fiber absorbs moisture or water it gives off some amount of heat which is called heat of wetting OR heat of absorption.

®Head of absorption resulting from changes in moisture region rather than the thermal conductivity.

®If 1gm of dried textile fiber is completely wetted then heat is calorie/gm is involved which is known as heat fiber.

Flammability: Flammability is defined as how easily smoothing will burn or ignite, causing fiber or combustion. It is measured by passing a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen over a bearing specimen, and reducing the oxygen level until a critical level is raised.

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Technical Seminar On Effect Of Sliver Handling On Quality Of Sliver And Yarn

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The ultimate aim of the every spinning unit wants to produce 100% even yarn. But still today it is not possible to producing a uniform yarn. Because there are some factors which will influence the quality of the yarn. One of the important factor is method of sliver handling. A well-known fact is “Carding is a heart of spinning”. Due to the more innovation in the carding machines, almost all the machine parameters and process parameters should be optimized. So the carding machine can able to delivering good quality of sliver. Nowadays “Sliver handling is the heart of spinning”. Because the challenge is how to handle the sliver without affecting the quality. So the better yarn demands better sliver and obviously the better sliver demands correct sliver handling system.

Cans are ideal packaging container which is used in pre spinning department for storing and transporting the material to subsequent machines. During the transportation, it must provide smooth handling with higher degree of protection. The effect of poor sliver handling may not be noticeable in preparatory stage, but it is much noticeable and magnified while drafted over speed frame and ring frame. Every component of the sliver can will be purposefully designed, because each component of the machine will affect the quality of the sliver and hence the quality of the yarn. It causes a both random variation in sliver and periodic variation in yarn. So the selection of can for particular type of fibre or sliver is much important.

So In this report, I have reported that the influence of sliver handling on the quality of sliver and yarn. Then the advancement in the sliver handling can for obtaining the best quality of yarn.

CHAPTER 2 SLIVER CAN ACCESSORIES 2.1 TOP RIM AND BAND

The top rim and band holds the shape of the sliver cans, preventing the cans from developing cracks and collapsing when rotating under high speed. These are made up of both stainless steel or galvanized steel.

Figure 1 Top Rim and Band

2.2 BOTTOM RIM AND PLATE

It gives the greater support to the sliver cans. Then the bottom rim holds the shape of the can. The bottom plates are made from Galvanized Irons (GI) and the Rims are made on heavy duty presses with special ribs contours for additional strength and life.

2.3 TOP COVERS

The sliver coils are laying on the top plate. Moulded PPCP (Poly propylene copolymer) top covers are used with an anti-slippage surface to give a proper grip and surface without rupturing the sliver. ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) option is also available to give more strength and durability to top covers.

2.4 IDENTIFICATION BANDS

PVC based bands act as shock absorber during bumping of cans and also helps to differentiate the sliver counts during production. An attractive range of colors act as an excellent value addition for spinning cans.

2.5 SPRINGS

Springs are the heart of the sliver can. This will ensure that the distance between the top layer of sliver and feed roller to be constant. Typically there are two types of spring used in the sliver can.

2.5.1 BOX SPRING

Anti-rust and heat treated, These springs are made from high carbon steel wire that enables uniform load and movement during operations. Every single spring is individually calibrated to give longer and consistent life. A minimum initial is advisable for maintaining the desired sliver height especially in open end and rotor spinning.

2.5.2 PANTOGRAPH SPRING

Electro-welded galvanized shutters in criss-cross shape ensure uniform spring movement and maintain constant sliver height. For sizes upto 24 inches plastic moulded covers and from 28 to 48 inches, Galvanized covers are used for zero tilting and proper balance of the sliver. A spring hardened and tempered with care to retain the original sliver properties as desired by the spinning master.

2.6 CASTER WHEELS

The casters are placed under bottom plates and it is used to transport the can from one place to another place. The caster wheels must have high tensile strength, abrasion resistance and heat stability. A complete range of casters for spinning cans with a fluff-free design is available to provide smooth sliver handling on the floor.

High pressed zinc coated body also ensures longer life. Wheel options in both PP (polypropylene) and nylon 6 are available in the market.

2.7 SPRING BOTTOM

It is manufactured from molded polypropylene. It is used for hold the spring firmly and does not damage the can while inserting or remove the spring.

CHAPTER 3

INFLUENCE OF CAN ACCESSORIES ON SLIVER QUALITY

3.1 EFFECT OF TOP RIM AND BAND

The top rim and band are holds the shape of the sliver can. In the modern draw frame the cans are rotating under very high speed. It leads to collapse the structure of the sliver can. So the top rim and band ensure that it firmly hold on the can.

3.2 EFFECT OF BOTTOM RIM AND PLATE

The bottom rim and plate will give the greater support to the can. It also contribute to hold the shape of the can during rotating under high speed. So if the bottom plate is not properly attached, the can will collapse and loss of sliver.

3.3 EFFECT OF TOP COVERS

The top surface of top covers must be anti-slippage in nature. When the sliver coils are laid on the top covers the coils should not sliding to each other. So that nowadays the top covers are manufactured with grooves for holding the coils in their place. Also the top covers must have smooth surface. Because when the coils withdrawn from the can it should be easily come out without any damage. If the top surface of the cover will rough it will results in fibre loss. These fibres may be accumulate in the machine parts and restrict the movement of can. The top covers are placed on the spring. The bottom surface of top covers should have adequate grip towards the spring. Otherwise the top cover may tilt and loss of sliver.

3.4 EFFECT OF IDENTIFICATION BAND

Identification bands are used as a shock absorbing material in the can. It prevents the collapsing of shape of the can during bumping of can. Also it is used for differentiating sliver hank. Otherwise two different count may be mixed together will results in quality variation.

3.5 EFFECT OF SPRING

The springs are helps to maintain constant height between top layer of sliver coils and lifting roller. When the can is empty, there is no spring deflection and the plate stands close to the rim of the can.

As the sliver withdrawn, the pressure on the spring progressively reduces. The spring at the bottom expands and the can plate moves up with the column of sliver on it. The top layer of sliver column also moves up by an similar amount and thus it always stay close to the lifting roller. This is required to avoid sliver breakage or stretch due to its own weight.

3.5.1 INFLUENCE OF FIBRE DENSITY

For a given spring constant, the deformation of the spring depends upon how much weight is acting on it. As long as weight on it remains same irrespective of fibre or sliver type, the compression will be same. However, for the same weight of sliver column height will be more for voluminous fibre (polyester and acrylic) and more for carded sliver in comparison to drawn or combed sliver. While filling the can with voluminous fibre a stiffer spring will be beneficial as it will create more pressure on the sliver column. This will helps to compress the voluminous, resilient sliver and pack it well within can. If same spring (as used for cotton) is used, the deformation on the polyester sliver column will be less causing column height to increase.

3.5.2 LIMITATIONS OF BOX SPRING

The box spring is ideally suitable for smaller diameter cans or it is suitable for over centre coiling mechanism. Because in the under centre coiling, the sliver coil diameter is less than the radius of the can. So during coiling the spring may not give much stability to the top cover. If it is a under centre coiling, the diameter of the coil is more than the radius of the can. So the top cover has much higher stability in smaller diameter cans in under centre coiling.

3.5.3 ADVANTAGES OF PANTOGRAPH SPRING

Pantograph springs are versatile springs which is used for wide range of diameter of cans. The pantograph springs are manufactured by electro-welded galvanized shutters that take up an even crisscrossed shape. It is moulded with top cover which result in zero tilting and huge stability while filling with sliver.

3.6 EFFECT OF CASTER WHEELS

In the spinning unit, one of the uncontrollable thing is generation of fly waste. The fly waste may accumulate in the machine parts or simply fall on the ground. So during the caster wheel movement, the fly fibres may stick on the surface of the caster wheels. It leads to restriction of can movement and sliver may fall on the ground. Also the caster wheels are subjected to high load while transporting. So that the caster wheels must have higher tensile strength, abrasion resistance and heat stability. Since the casters are made up of nylon 6 (Thermo plastic material) it should have excellent heat stability. The rigid type of castors are not preferable in the industry because of its linear movement (it can be move either in the forward direction or backward direction). But in case of swivel castors it is movable in all the direction. So the swivel castors are very feasible for industries.

3.7 EFFECT OF SPRING BOTTOM

It must hold the spring firmly otherwise it may affect the performance of spring.

To ensure that during changing the spring, it should not damage the body of the can.

CHAPTER 4

SELECTION OF CAN

4.1 TYPES OF CAN

There are two types of can which is supplied by the manufacturers. Those are

  • Cylindrical can
  • Rectangular can
4.2 SUITABILITY OF CYLINDRICAL CAN

Cylindrical cans are widely used in the preparatory machines. Because the springs are incorporated in the cans for maintaining sliver column close to the lifting roller. The combed slivers are very sensitive to stretching. The stretching in the creel will results in periodic mass variation in yarn. Cylindrical cans are available with a wide range of diameter and height. The cylindrical cans are used in delivery part of carding, draw frame, comber machines. But the limitation of cylindrical can is it occupies much larger space when compared to rectangular can.

4.3 SUITABILITY OF RECTANGULAR CAN

The rectangular sliver cans are mostly preferable for rotor spinning machines or open end spinning machines. The rectangular cans have several advantages over the cylindrical cans.

  1. Capacity is increased by about 75%, due not only the geometry of the can but also the elimination of the can spring.
  2. It permits optimal utilization of the space available down-stream processing.
  3. It is suitable for automation.

For the rotor spinning, carded sliver is a feed material. The carded sliver has innumerable fibre shapes when compared to other slivers. So when we the small amount of stretch given to the sliver, the energy will be stored in the sliver. When we remove the stress, suddenly the sliver is come back to its original shape. Even the rectangular cans don’t have a spring, it is suitable for rotor spinning machine. Because the carded sliver is less prone to stretching in nature.

CHAPTER 5

ADVANCES IN SLIVER HANDLING

5.1 SINGLE CAN FOR MULTIPLE SLIVER HANDLING

Incorrect sliver handling can damages the sliver. The yarn made from it, has many more imperfections. So the better yarn demands better sliver. The better sliver demands correct sliver handling. Rimtex (Leading manufacturer of sliver can) introducing for first time single can used for multiple type of sliver handling. It is called as UTILITY COMBINATION CAN (UCC). The single can used for carded, combed and synthetic sliver handling.

5.2 ADVANCED HDPE SHEET TECHNOLOGY

This technology is also introduced by Rimtex. The features of the spinning can is to be listed as follow.

  1. It has a moulded HDPE sheet and the surface should be very smooth. So there is reduction in static and reduction in sliver migration.
  2. It is strong and durable. So it has 25% more life than the conventional can.
  3. The surface of the inner side of the can has to be anti-scratch.

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Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

Application of Medical Textiles | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

Healthcare/Hygiene Products:

These products are related to daily uses in hospitals and health care industries. These include bedding, clothing, surgical gowns, cloths wipes and so on. All fibers are used in this product must be non-toxic, non-allergenic, noncarcinogenic and must be able to be sterilised without imparting any change in their physical or chemical characteristics. The range of this products available is vast but typically they are used in the operating room theatre or on the hospital ward for the hygiene, care and safety of staff and patients. Production of hygiene and medical textiles is on increase, as is the variety of applications in this important sector. By 2005, hygiene and medical textiles valued at US$4.1 billion, almost 12% of the global technical textiles market. 

Fibres which are used for Healthcare/Hygiene Products:

                      Fiber type

                  Application

            Fiber structure

Cotton, polyester fibre, polypropylene fibre

       Surgical gowns

               Woven, nonwoven

Viscose

      Surgical caps

                      Nonwoven

Viscose, polyester fibre, glass fibre

      Surgical masks

                      Nonwoven

Polyester fibre, polyethylene fibre

     Surgical drapes, cloths

     Woven, nonwoven

Cotton, polyester fibre, polyamide fibre, elastomeric-fibre yarns

       Surgical hosiery

             Knitted

Cotton, polyester fibre

Blankets

        Woven, knitted

Cotton

 Sheets, pillowcases

              Woven

Polyester fibre, polypropylene fibre

Protective clothing, incontinence, diaper/sheet, coverstock

              Nonwoven

Viscose, lyocell

     Cloths/wipes

            Nonwoven

Superabsorbent fibres, wood fluff

      Absorbent layer

               Nonwoven

 

Surgical Masks:

Surgical mask is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursing to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer’s mouth and nose. Simple surgical masks protect wearers from being splashed in the mouth with body fluids, and prevent transmission of body fluids from the wearer to others, e.g. the patient. Surgical masks are popularly worn by the general public in East Asian countries to reduce the chance of spreading airborne diseases.

Surgical Drapes, Cloths:

These are also called scurbs. Scrubs are the sanitary clothing worn by surgeons, nurses, physicians and other workers involved in patient care in hospitals. Originally designed for use by surgeons and other operating room personnel. In many operating rooms, it is forbidden to wear any exposed clothing, such as a t-shirt, beneath scrubs. As scrubs are designed to promote a clean environment, the wearing of outside clothing is thought to introduce unwanted pathogens.

Surgical Gowns:

Surgical gowns used to help prevent the gown wearer from contaminating vulnerable patients, such as those with weakened immune systems.  Gowns are one part of an infection-control strategy. Disposable nonwoven surgical gowns have been adopted to prevent the release of pollutant particles into the air which is a probable source of contamination to the patient. Surgical gowns are composed of nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene films in weight range of 30–45 g/m2.

Surgical Cap:

Surgical cap an accompaniment to the surgical gown (below) which covers the head, and sometimes facial hair, of members of the surgical team; the object is to avoid contamination of the wound. The surgical cap is in place to prevent hazardous bodily fluids from splashing onto the doctor or nurse’s hair and head. They are also used to prevent hair from affecting the vision of the medical professionals. On the other hand of the spectrum, loose hair or even other contaminants like hair products or dandruff is dangerous to the patient. 

Diaper:

A diaper or a nappy is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment. Diapers are made of cloth or synthetic disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton, hemp, bamboo, microfiber, or even plastic fibers such as PLA or PU. Disposable diapers contain absorbent chemicals and are thrown away after use. Cloth diapers are reusable and can be made from natural fibers, synthetic materials, or a combination of both.

Medical textiles are located at the interfaces between technical disciplines and life sciences. Prospects for medical textiles are rather better, especially for nonwoven materials and disposable medical textiles used in surgical rooms. Combination of textile and its application in medical sciences has been proof that the painful days of patients and surgeons converting into the comfortable days.

Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

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Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

Application of Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices Extra-Corporal Devices:

Extra corporal devices are mechanical organs that are used for blood purification such as apheresis, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, plasma-pheresis or extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. There have been artificial kidney, liver and mechanical lung. The making of these devices requires precise design and manufacture. Requirements needed for these devices – anti-allergenic, anti-carcinogenic, resistance to micro-organisms, antibacterial, non-toxic, and the ability to be sterilized.

Fibres which are used for extra implantable:

Fiber type

     Application

 Function

Hollow polyester fibre, hollow viscose

Artificial kidney

Remove waste from patient blood

Hollow viscose

 Artificial liver

Separate and dispose of patients’ plasma and supply fresh plasma

Hollow polypropylene fibre, hollow silicone membrane

 Mechanical lung

Remove carbon dioxide from patients’ blood and supply fresh oxygen

Artificial kidney:

The mechanical device used to clean the patient’s blood is called a dialyser, also known as an artificial kidney.An artificial kidney would provide the benefit of continuous blood filtration. It would reduce kidney disease illness and increase the quality of life for patients. As the blood flows through the kidney it is cleaned by passing through thousands of tiny filters. The waste materials go through the ureter and are stored in the bladder as urine. It is made with hollow hair sized cellulose fibres or hollow polyester fibre.

Artificial Liver:

Artificial livers are made from hollow viscose, to filter patients’ blood and to help remove the waste products. Liver helps in the process of digestion and also metabolize carbohydrate, lipid and proteins. Liver also helps the body to get rid of waste products. Waste products that are not excreted by the kidneys are removed from the blood by the liver. The artificial liver will be able to act as an ‘auxiliary engine’ for a patient, during periods when the patient’s own liver cannot manage to function adequately. Blood is recirculated from the patient through the artificial liver – a process that takes several hours. In order to avoid the problem of rejected cells, every single patient needs a bio-reactor.

Mechanical Lung:

Lungs contain a fabulously convoluted network of branching air sacs to allow gases to diffuse in and out of the blood. Mechanical lung provides oxygenation of blood and removal of carbon dioxide from the blood. The micro porous membranes of the mechanical lung possess high permeability to gases but low permeability to liquids and functions in the same manner as the natural lung. Hollow polypropylene fibre and hollow silicon membrane are used to make mechanical lungs. Artificial lungs could provide a stopgap for people recovering from severe lung infections.

Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

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Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

Application of Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles

Non-Implantable Medical Textiles:

Implantable medical textiles are used for external applications on body that means those are used outside the human body to assist the recovery of wounds are called non-implantable medical textiles. Non-implantable products are typically used to provide protection against infection, to absorb blood and exudates and to promote healing. The term non-implantable is used generally to indicate surface wound treatments of different parts of the human body.

Polymer fibers which are used for implantable are mentioned in followings:

 Fiber type

 Application

 Fiber structure

Cotton, viscose, polyesters fiber

Orthopaedic

Woven, nonwoven

layer Silk, polyamide fiber, viscose, polyethylene fibers

Wound contact layer

Knitted, woven, nonwoven

Cotton, viscose, polyamide fiber, elastomeric-fiber yarns

Simple inelastic/elastic

Woven, knitted, nonwoven

Cotton, viscose

Absorbent pad

Nonwoven

Cotton, viscose, elastomeric-fiber yarn

Light support

Woven, knitted, nonwoven

Viscous plastic film, cotton, polyesters fibers, glass fiber

Plaster

Woven, knitted, nonwoven

Cotton, viscous

Gauzes

Woven, nonwoven

Viscose, cotton linter, wood pulp

Wadding

Nonwoven

Wound Dressings:

Wound dressings are used in the medical field to provide the critical functions that collectively aim to promote wound healing. These functions are protection, absorption, compression, immobilization and esthetics. Protection is the primary function of wound dressing since exposed wounds can be subjected to further trauma and additional tissue loss caused by external forces (i.e. severe environments, touching objects or direct interaction). Wound dressing acts as a barrier against these forces.

Wound dressings normally consist of three components:

  1. Contact layer
  2. Absorbent pad
  3. Base material

Mechanism:

One of the products is the non-woven alginate fabric. When calcium alginate fibre encounters the sodium ions existing in blood and body exudate, part of it turns into sodium alginate. This process enables a large amount of liquid to be absorbed and retained in the fibre. Eventually, the fibre will turn to gel. This gel is hydrophilic, it permits the oxygen to go through and blocks the bacteria. There has been evidence that alginate wound dressing helps the formation of new tissue.

Wound dressing concept:

A modern wound dressing consists of absorbent layers held between a wound contact layer and a base material. The absorbent layers absorb blood, body fluids and exudates. The wound contact layer is non-adherent and can easily be removed without disturbing new tissue growth.

Bandages:

Those textile products which are used for supporting, holding, assisting to recover wounds of body. Bandage holds the wound care layer in place. Wound care products which are adhesive in nature are also available in the market. The bandage can also be used on standalone basis in case of orthopaedic cases (e.g. crepe bandage).

Various types of bandages along with their functions:

  1. Simple bandage: hold dressing in place
  2. Elasticated bandage: provide support & conforming
  3. Compression bandage: serve as part of the treatment or therapy to the patients. Compression therapy is commonly used to prevent thrombosis, and to treat Lymphoedema, leg ulceration.
  4. Orthopedic cushion bandage: provide padding and prevent discomfort. This type of bandage is mainly used as cushions to give comfort. They are used under the plaster casts and compression bandages. These are mostly x
  5. Gauze: serves as absorbent material
  6. Wadding: prevent wound adhesion

Compression Bandage:

Compression bandages do a good job of compressing a new injury or inflammation and help keep swelling down. This bandage provides special support to help treat venous leg ulcers and manage leg swelling. Compression bandaging is an effective way of healing specific types of ulceration.

Leg ulcer breaks the skin of leg and allows air and bacteria to get into the underlying tissue. Cause of this problem is disease of vein of leg. Blood clots can form in the deep of veins for sitting for a longer period of time. Ultimately this blood clots lead to the ulcer. Compression bandage provides proper pressure to produce a desired clinical effect enabling the control and reduction of swelling in venous leg ulcer.

Plaster:

Fabric plasters are extra flexible and breathable fabric strips. Textile adhesive plaster with a pad is designed for treatment of minor injuries, scrapes, blisters, to cover the injection site, during vaccination or blood sampling. They are also suitable for covering all types of smaller, everyday wounds such as scratches, cuts and grazes. The material stretches with the skin’s movements making them suitable for use over joints and other moveable parts of the body.

Gauzes:

Medical gauze, a bleached white cloth or fabric used in bandages, dressings, and surgical sponges, is the most widely used wound care dressing. Commonly known as “4×4s,” gauze is made from fibers of cotton, rayon, polyester, or a combination of these fibers. Woven gauze has a loose, open weave, which allows fluids from the wound to be absorbed into the fibers, wicked away, or passed through into other absorb­ent materials in the wound’s dressing. Nonwoven gauze consists of fibers pressed together to resemble a weave, which provides improved wicking and greater absorbent capacity. Compared to woven gauze, this type of gauze produces less lint and has the benefit of leaving fewer fibers behind in a wound when removed.

Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

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Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles

Implantable Medical Textiles:

Implantable products are biomaterials which are used for wound closure (e.g. suture), replacement surgery (e.g. vascular graft, artificial ligaments etc.) Another important category of implantable products is soft-tissue implants. 

These are flexible strong materials commonly used to replace tendons, ligaments and cartilage in both reconstructive and corrective surgery. Suspensors and reinforcing surgical meshes are used in plastic surgery for repairing defects of the abdominal wall.

Polymer fibers which are used for implantable are mentioned in followings:

Fiber type

Application

Fiber structure

Collagen, catgut, polyglycolide fibre, polylactide fibre

Biodegradable sutures

Monofilament, braided

Polypropylene fibre, polyethylene fibre, Polyester fibre, polyamide fibre, PTFE fibre

Non-biodegradable sutures

Monofilament, braided

PTFE fibre, polyester fibre, silk, collagen, polyamide fibre

Artificial tendon

Woven, braided

Polyester fiber, carbon fiber, collagen

   Artificial ligament

Braided

Chitin

Artificial skin

   Nonwoven

Silicone, polyacetyl fibre, polyethylene fibre

Artificial joints/bones

PTFE fibre, polyester fibre

Vascular grafts

 Woven, knitted

Artificial Ligament:

Artificial ligament is used for joining two joints of a human body. It is a one kind of medical device. In adult skeleton there are 400 joints which are joined by the ligaments. The ligament is a short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones. Artificial Ligament is a multilayered or tubular woven structure having intra-particular region, at least one bend region and end regions.

Example: DACRON, LEEDS-KEIO ARTIFICIAL LIGAMENT.

A prosthetic ligament should have following characteristics:

  1. Extensive tough
  2. Stiffness to match the compliance of normal ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament)
  3. Durability to withstand against high tensile load for million of cycles without wear
  4. Perfectly tolerable to host

Artificial skin:

The characteristics of human skin are heavily dependent on the hydration of the tissue – in simple terms, the water content. This also changes its interaction with textiles. Artificial skin is a substitute for human skin produced in the laboratory, typically used to treat severe burns. The skin’s basic functions, which include protecting against moisture and infection and regulating body heat.

Skin is primarily made of two layers: the uppermost layer, the epidermis, which serves as a barrier against the environment; and the dermis. The dermis also contains the proteins collagen and elastin, which help give the skin its mechanical structure and flexibility. Artificial skins work because they close wounds, which prevents bacterial infection and water loss and helps the damaged skin to heal. Artificial skins mimic either the epidermis or dermis, or both epidermis and dermis in a “full-thickness” skin replacement.

For example, one commonly used artificial skin, Integra, consists of an “epidermis” made of silicone and prevents bacterial infection and water loss, and a “dermis” based on bovine collagen and glycosaminoglycan.

Some Manufacturer of Artificial Skin:

  1. Human Bio Sciences Incorporated (India)
  2. Delhi Dressing and Surgicals (India)
  3. Intercytex Ltd. (UK) 

Vascular Graft:

Vascular grafts are used for the blood vessels, including the arteries and veins. Synthetic materials have been employed in vascular graft design for a variety of reasons, mainly due to the ease and flexibility of tailoring their mechanical properties. One such example is ePTFE, a porous polymer with an electronegative luminal surface that is not degradable. However, only 45% of standard ePTFE grafts are patent as femoropopliteal bypass grafts at 5 years, while autologous vein grafts display a 60–80% patency.

Textiles produced in the form of a tube have been used as implants to repair the damaged arteries and veins. Typical diameters of such tubes are 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm. Vascular grafts are either made from polyester or PTFE fibre, woven or knitted. The knitted tube has the advantage of good tissue encapsulation, but less satisfactory in preventing blood leakage, because of the loose structure of the knitted materials. On the other hand, the woven tube is good at preventing blood leakage, but is not so good for tissue growth, due to its relatively tight structure.

Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile | Application of Medical Textiles | Implantable Medical Textiles | Non-Implantable Medical Textiles | Extra-Corporal Devices | Healthcare / Hygiene Products

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Medical Textile | Classification of Medical Textile

 Medical Textiles:

Medical textiles are such kind of constructions which are used for medical and biological applications for clinical and hygienic purposes, scaffolds for tissue culturing and a large variety of prostheses for permanent body implants. Previously textiles are only used as wound care products, diapers, prostheses and outhouses, wipes, breathing masks, bedding and covers. But in this modern science era textile materials and products that have been engineered to meet particular needs are suitable for many applications as well as medical and surgical application.

Fibre used in medical textiles must fulfill the following criterion:

  1. The fibres must be nontoxic
  2. Must be non-allergenic
  3. Must be non-carcinogenic
  4. Must be able to be sterilized without impacting any change in their physical or chemical characteristics
  5. Where necessary biodegradable
  6. Where necessary non-biodegradable

Fiber Types Used for Medical Textiles:

1 . Natural & regenerated: Cotton, Silk, Viscose rayon

2 . Synthetic: Poly-amide, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene, Carbon, Glass

3 . Specialty fibers:      

Collagen: Biodegradable protein fiber or hydrogel (gelatin). This is obtained from cow skin. Collagen fibres when used as sutures are equally strong as silk, and they are biodegradable.

Alginate: Biodegradable fibers made from seaweed. Calcium alginate fibres have been proven to be would healing. Wound dressings made from such fibres are nontoxic, biodegradable.

Chitin: This is a polyacrylamide from crab and shrimp shells. It can be absorbed by the body and promote healing. Artificial skins made from Chitin non-woven fabrics stimulate new skin formation.

 Classification of Medical Textile 

Implantable medical textiles:

Implantable products are biomaterials which are used for wound closure (e.g. suture), replacement surgery (e.g. vascular graft, artificial ligaments etc.) Another important category of implantable products is soft-tissue implants. These are flexible strong materials commonly used to replace tendons, ligaments and cartilage in both reconstructive and corrective surgery. Suspensors and reinforcing surgical meshes are used in plastic surgery for repairing defects of the abdominal wall.

Non-Implantable medical textiles:

Implantable medical textiles are used for external applications on body that means those are used outside the human body to assist the recovery of wounds are called non-implantable medical textiles. Non-implantable products are typically used to provide protection against infection, to absorb blood and exudates and to promote healing. The term non-implantable is used generally to indicate surface wound treatments of different parts of the human body.

Extra-Corporal Device:

Extra corporal devices are mechanical organs that are used for blood purification such as apheresis, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, plasma-pheresis or extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. There have been artificial kidney, liver and mechanical lung. The making of these devices requires precise design and manufacture. Requirements needed for these devices – anti-allergenic, anti-carcinogenic, resistance to micro-organisms, antibacterial, non-toxic, and the ability to be sterilized.

Healthcare/Hygiene Products:

These products are related to daily uses in hospitals and health care industries. These include bedding, clothing, surgical gowns, cloths wipes and so on. All fibers are used in this product must be non-toxic, non-allergenic, noncarcinogenic and must be able to be sterilised without imparting any change in their physical or chemical characteristics. The range of this products available is vast but typically they are used in the operating room theatre or on the hospital ward for the hygiene, care and safety of staff and patients. Production of hygiene and medical textiles is on increase, as is the variety of applications in this important sector. By 2005, hygiene and medical textiles valued at US$4.1 billion, almost 12% of the global technical textiles market. 

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Go beyond excel basics : Learn Excel 2016 Formula and Functions

কেউ যদি জিজ্ঞেস করে- “এমন একটা সফটওয়ারের নাম বলেন, যেটা দুনিয়ার সব চাকরিতে লাগে”। তাহলে উত্তর হবে- মাইক্রোসফট এক্সেল। ইঞ্জিনিয়ার, ডাক্তার, সেলস, একাউন্টিং, বিজনেসম্যান, মার্কেটিং, এমনকি কম্পিউটার প্রোগ্রামিং সহ দুনিয়ার ৯৫% চাকরি এক্সেল ছাড়া অচল। তাই দ্রুত কাজ করা আর ইফেক্টিভ ডাটা ম্যানেজমেন্ট এর জন্য এক্সেল এর বেসিক এর পাশাপাশি ফরমুলা ফাংশন এর কাজ জানা থাকলে ২/৩ ঘন্টার কাজ ৫/১০ মিনিটেও করে ফেলা সম্ভব।

এক্সেল এর ফরমুলা হল আমরা যোগ, বিয়োগ, গুন, ভাগ এর জন্যে এক্সেলকে ম্যানুয়েলি যে কমান্ড করি সেটা। আর ফাংশন হল তা যা আমরা বিল্ট ইন এক্সেল এর ভিতরেই পেয়ে থাকি। যেমন, Sum, Average, IF এগুলা।

এক্সেল এর ফরমুলা ফাংশন সবচেয়ে দ্রুত সময়ে সহজে শিখার জন্যে একটা স্টেপ বাই স্টেপ কোর্স ডিজাইন করেছি “Excel 2016: Formula and Function Breakthrough”. চেষ্টা করেছি সবচেয়ে কাজে লাগা ফিচার গুলোর কাজ দেখাতে। চ্যাপ্টার আছে ৯টা। কোন ভিডিও ৫ মিনিটের বেশি না। তাই ফলো করা বেশ সহজ হবে সবার জন্য।

যা যা আছে কোর্সেঃ

  • চ্যাপ্টার ১ঃ এক্সেলের ম্যাথমেটিক্যাল অপারেশন করার ধরন আর বেসিক ফরমুলার টুকিটাকি।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ২ঃ IF ফাংশন দিয়ে ডকুমেন্টের কন্ডিশনাল কেস সলভ করা।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৩ঃ VLOOKUP ফাংশন এবং এর বিকল্প।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৪ঃ ডকুমেন্টে এক বা একাধিক ক্রাইটেরিয়ার ভিত্তিতে ডাটা টেবুলেশন এর জন্য COUNTIF, SUMIF, AVERAGEIF ফাংশন এর ব্যবহার।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৫ঃ ডাটা র‍্যাংকিং এবং কাউন্ট সম্পর্কিত ফাংশন।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৬ঃ ডাটাকে রাউন্ড ফিগার করার এবং অন্য Measurement System এ কনভার্ট করার ফাংশন।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৭ঃ Array Fomula দিয়ে কিভাবে সাবটোটাল ছাড়াই ফাইনাল টোটাল বের করা যায়। TRANSPOSE ফাংশন দিয়ে কিভাবে Row Column কে উল্টান যায়।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৮ঃ টেক্সট ডাটা সম্পর্কিত ফাংশন।
  • চ্যাপ্টার ৯ঃ স্পেশাল কিছু ট্রিক্স।

To Download Exercise File Click The Link Below : 

https://t2m.io/P9iorF3y

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Fibre Content / Composition Test

Analysis of fibre content:

  1. Qualitative analysis
  2. Quantitative analysis (for blended material)

Qualitative analysis

  1. By Flame/burn test
  2. By solubility test

Reaction of Fibres to Flame

Solubility of Fibres (Method-AATCC 20-2000)

S=Soluble

I=Insoluble

P=Plastic mass formed

S/P=Soluble/Plastic mass formed

N=Nylon 6 is soluble but Nylon 6/6 is insoluble

Quantitative analysis of different fibres in common blend:

A blend contains two fibres:

  1. B

Let,

Percentage amount of ‘A’ fibre in the blend=PA

Percentage amount of ‘B’ fibre in the blend=PB

Total dry weight or initial weight of the material= x Dry weight of fibre ‘B’ (after dissolving ‘A’) = y

Practice math:

  1. A sample of 60/40 p/c blended fabric gives an oven dry weight of 15 gm after dissolving with 70% sulphuric acid. Find the total weight of the sample.
  2. A sample of 25/75 p/c blended fabric gives an oven dry weight of 23 gm after dissolving with 70% sulphuric acid. Find the total weight of the sample.
  3. A sample of T/C blended fabric shows 20gm in electric balance. Find out the oven dry weight after dissolving with m-cresol. Given that percentage of cotton in the blend is 30%.
  4. A blend of Cotton/Silk sample contains 25 gm. A solvent of Sulphuric acid (59.5%) is used at 20oC for 20 min to separate them. After dissolving one of them the dried solid mass gives 10 gm. If the protein content of the blend shows a value of 45% in the blend, find out the original weight of the other content.
  5. A sample of blended fabric contains an animal fibre and a manmade fibre and shows 15 gm in electric balance. Find out the oven dry weight of animal fibre after dissolving with Dimethyl formamide. Given that percentage of manmade fibre in the blend is 30% and the animal fibre can be dissolved in Sodium Hypochlorite. Identify the two fibres.
  6. A sample of blended fabric shows 25gm in electric balance contains two fibres ‘a’ and ‘b’. A solvent of Sulphuric acid (59.5%) or 5% Sodium hypochlorite is used at 20oC for 20 min to separate them. If the ‘a’ fibre content of the blend shows a value of 45% in the blend, find out the original weight of the other content which could be dissolved in 100%   m-cresol. Find out the name of fibres too.
  7. A  Acrylic/wool blended fabric shows an oven dry weight of 0.05 ounce after treating with 5% Sodium hypochlorite solution at room temperature. If the protein fibre content was 40% in the blend, then find the initial weight of fabric sample taken.

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Crease Resistance & Recovery Test

Crease:

This is a fabric defect evidenced by a break line or mark or fold in a fabric generally caused by a sharp fold. Crease appears when the fabric is distorted in such a manner that part of it is stretched beyond its elastic recovery.

During creasing the upper surface of fabric goes on extension and lower surface goes on compression.

Crease Resistance:

The resistance to creasing of textile material during use is known as crease resistance.

Amongst the textile materials the decreasing order of crease resistance is wool, silk, acetate rayon, viscose, rayon, cuprammonium rayon, cotton, flax etc.

Crease Recovery:

It is the property of a textile material by which it can return to its former shape after being creased. The measure of crease resistance is specified quantitatively in terms of crease recovery angle. The crease recovery of a fabric can be increased by resin treatment.

Shirley Crease Recovery Tester:

Construction/Machine Description:

  1. The instrument consists of a circular dial which carries the clamp for holding the specimen.
  2. Directly under the center of the dial is a knife edge and an index line for measuring the recovery angle.
  3. The scale of the instrument is engraved on the dial.

Working Procedure:

  1. A specimen is cut from the fabrics with a template 2 inch long by 1 inch wide.
  2. It is carefully creased by folding in half placing it between two glass plates and adding a 2 kg weight.
  3. After 1 min the weight is removed and the specimen transferred to the fabrics clamp on the instrument and allowed to recover from crease.
  4. As it recovers, the dial of the instrument is rotated to keep the free edge of the specimen in line with the knife edge.
  5. At the end of the time period allowed for recovery, usually 1 min the recovery angle in degrees is read on the engraved scale.
  6. Warp and weft way recovery are reported separately to the nearest degree from the mean values of ten tests in each direction.

Considering Points While Testing:

  1. The specimen should be conditioned and tested in a standard testing atmosphere.
  2. Random sample should be taken.
  3. Selvedge, piece ends, creased or folded regions should be avoided.

Difference Between Crease Resistance And Crease Recovery:

S.L. Crease resistance Crease recovery
1

Crease resistance is such a property of fabric that resists fabric from creasing.

Crease recovery is a fabric property that indicates the ability of fabric to go back to its original position after creasing.

2

Crease resistance is generally measured by bending elasticity.

Crease recovery is the measure of crease resistance specified quantitatively in terms of crease recovery angle.

3

Crease resistance comes into play before the fabric is creased

Crease recovery comes into play after the fabric has been creased
4

Crease resistance resists the stretching and compression of molecular chain of fibre polymer.

By crease recovery property the stretched or compressed polymer chain comes back to normal position

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