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Why you should differentiate Deep Web from Dark Web?

Why you should differentiate Deep Web from Dark Web? We all use the internet every day but websites that are found through search engines are only make up of .03% of total pages available, the remaining 99.97% of internet is made up of un-index pages. This Deep web is consist of everything online including passwords, private archives and many more.

The Deep web is often confused with the Dark web but they are two very distinctive things. The deep web is the entire web that is not accessible by conventional search engine but dark web is a certain website within the deep web that is linked to criminal activity and illegal market places.

You have to use special browser to explore it, two of the most common browsers are Freenet and Tor. Both are designed to disguise your IP address and keep you anonymous why surfing the deep web.

Freenet was invented by Ian Clarke in 1995 as part of his degree at University of Edinburgh.

Tor which stands for The Onion Router is based on Firefox and is run exclusively by group of volunteers. The browser disguises the user’s IP address by bouncing signals around numerous computers all over the world, this makes it always impossible to see who is actually viewing the material.

Tor also gives users the option to run their own hidden services like website routes that can only be viewed using Tor, some argued this is what led to the development of dark web in the first place.

The dark web is known for hosting some of the world illegal markets including the most famous one; Silk-Road that was shut down in 2013 but another drug marketplace “Atlantis” was discovered advertising on YouTube.

Alongside drugs, these items like guns and weapons are easily accessible. Counterfeiting personal documents is also extremely popular with passport, birth-certificate and social security number (SSN) ready to buy. Contract killers are also easy to hire, target can be taken out in 1 to 3 weeks but typically they cannot be children under 16 or high profile politicians.

The dark web is home to extremely hardcore pornography and active Pedophilia communities and message boards.

Some of them require the sharing of Pedophilia images in exchange for continued membership.

At 2014, studies discovered that 80% of dark web usage on Tor was connected to Pedophilia despite only 2% of Tor hidden services being related to child abuse sites.  Other sexual mores are catered for including cannibalism, there are sites that describe how to kill and cook a human and some of them also provide instructional videos of butchered people.

There are also regular rumours of pay-per-view tortured streams, these so called red rooms are describe as live tortured streams where the audience can request such an act to be performed on the victim for a price but there is no much evidence this site actually exists.

But these arguably is not the darkest content on the dark web.

In 2015, Australian Peter Gerald Scully arrested in connection to the creation and the distribution of films that show the rape, sexual assault, torture and murder of children some as younger as 18 months.

But it is not just criminals that utilize the deep web.

In 2015, the FBI ran the world biggest child pornography site on the dark web, operation “Playpen” was the FBI’s plan to track down pedophiles that use the dark website Playpen. After tracing the site location to North Carolina, the FBI moved the service to Virginia where they continued to keep the site opened for additional 13 days.

Although the FBI did not upload additional images, the site were already contained 23,000 explicit images of children and received over 100,000 visitors whilst the FBI running it. Operation Playpen allowed the justice department to uncover 1,300 IP addresses from the site. From this, 137 people have been charged with child pornography or pedophilia crimes.

But this is not the only time the FBI have got to be involved in the dark web, in 2014 they worked with 17 other nations in operation “Onymous“, this targeted illegal websites that were selling drugs, guns and credit card details that resulted in 17 arrests on the season of $1Million in Bitcoin as well as 400 URLs which is about 27 websites.

In 2015, the NASA on the US government began working on what they called Google for darknet, the search engine which is known as “MEMEX” will be able to index and identify certain activity patterns on the dark web, it aims to uncover crime brings by looking for patterns of advert posted from certain areas or for recurrent telephone numbers.

Crucially, MEMEX will be able to check video, images and pop-up adverts as well as texts. On average, 360,000 Americans accessed the deep web through Tor each day but they are not all using the horrific contents we discussed.

Tor is frequently used by journalists to contact whistle-blowers and the decedents to ensure their safety from their governments. People who live in oppressive regimes where state regulated media will also benefit from using data encryption. Many other people simply use the deep web to test website before they are indexed and appear on the surface web. Other use it to ensure that website designs do not get stolen.

What’s more even the US government uses the deep web as part of its day-to-day operations in the Middle East. US Navy branches use Tor for open source intelligence gathering without revealing the governmental IP address.

While the dark web is the source for immense evil and depravity, the deep web offers anonymity that can aid law enforcement and civilians across the world. But it is worth remembering that as part of operation “Onymous“, the FBI manage to infiltrate the supposedly completely anonymous Tor network, this means along with MEMEX, the deep web may not be so hidden after all.

The post Why you should differentiate Deep Web from Dark Web? appeared first on Tango.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 10M ago

HTTP Status Codes you should know

Are you a web developer or a newbie in web development, then these are HTTP status codes you should know. Getting yourself familiarized with HTTP Error Status Codes will help you to know the right step to take in finding a quick solution whenever you encountered an error relating to HTTP status codes.

We have tried to compiled the list and quick fix to each one of them.

Code                                                Meaning                                                              Fix

400                                                  Bad request                                                    Error 400 Fix

401                                                   Authorization required                               Error 401 Fix

402                                                  Payment required                                         Error 402 Fix

403                                                  Forbidden                                                       Error 403 Fix

404                                                  Not found                                                       Error 404 Fix

405                                                  Method not allowed                                     Error 405 Fix

406                                                  Not acceptable                                               Error 406 Fix

407                                                  Proxy authentication required                   Error 407 Fix

408                                                  Request timeout                                           Error 408 Fix

409                                                  Conflict                                                           Error 409 Fix

410                                                   Gone                                                               Error 410 Fix

411                                                    Length required                                           Error 411 Fix

412                                                   Precondition failed                                      Error 412 Fix

413                                                   Request entity too large                             Error 413 Fix

414                                                   Request URI too large                                Error 414 Fix

415                                                   Unsupported media type                           Error 415 Fix

416                                                   Request range not satisfiable                    Error 416 Fix

417                                                   Expectation failed                                        Error 417 Fix

422                                                  Unprocessable entity                                   Error 422 Fix

423                                                  Locked                                                            Error 423 Fix

424                                                  Failed dependency                                       Error 424 Fix

500                                                  Internal server error                                    Error 500 Fix

501                                                   Not Implemented                                         Error 501 Fix

502                                                   Bad gateway                                                  Error 502 Fix

503                                                   Service unavailable                                      Error 503 Fix

504                                                   Gateway timeout                                           Error 504 Fix

505                                                   HTTP version not supported                      Error 505 Fix

506                                                   Variant also negotiates                                 Error 506 Fix

507                                                    Insufficient storage                                       Error 507 Fix

510                                                    Not extended                                                  Error 510 Fix

Additional Information:

We believe with the compiled list of this HTTP Status Codes, you will be acquainted with HTTP status code and you will be able to troubleshoot any error at any time by simply following the Fix.

The post HTTP Status Codes you should know appeared first on Tango.

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The Best Video Surveillance for Abandoned Commercial Properties

Any abandoned commercial property needs to be looked after, but with so many options for security, it can be rather overwhelming to choose the best method of protection. Even when you know you want a surveillance camera instead of hiring a licensed security guard, you still need to choose the best security camera for your commercial property.

There is more to good surveillance than simply installing a security camera. To get everything you need in a surveillance camera you need to know what you are looking for. But what are those protections? And how can you choose the best video surveillance for an abandoned commercial property?


The Security You Need

A property inspection might tell you where you need protection, but it cannot give you the more general information about the security devices you should implement.

1. Reliable Energy

One of the most important things you need in a surveillance camera is a power source. When it comes to abandoned commercial properties, it is unlikely that the electricity will still be on. Security cameras that use phone lines will have the same issue. The best solution for this is a camera with a good internal battery that can hold a charge.

2. Low Light Recording

Your surveillance camera needs to have an image sensor that functions in low light conditions. This is instrumental not only because of issues of sunlight but also if you would like redundant cameras inside a structure that may be boarded up. It can help to understand about camera irises so you can know about finding the right aperture setting for your lighting conditions.

3. Motion Activation

Motion-triggered systems are best because they allow the camera to conserve energy when there are no risks to record. It also streamlines the information that needs to be reviewed, as well as gaining the attention of whoever is monitoring the camera.

4. Real-Time Viewing

You do not want a CCTV system that is only going to offer information after the fact. Being able to review your footage in real time is a must. If you do not have a person paying attention to the footage your camera is documenting, you cannot guarantee an appropriate response to what is detected.


Additional Considerations

Besides the bare essentials for your abandoned property surveillance, there are more you can take advantage of. For greater property protection, consider the following.

1. Video Distributor Amplification

Instead of a single person monitoring the footage or having one location where footage is stored, you can use a video distribution amplifier. This will also help compensate for any signal loss that may have otherwise temporary disrupted your video feed.

2. Thermal Cameras

When your property’s perimeter has no lighting you might need to detect and record in pitch dark areas. In cases where you don’t even have low light, it is best to install thermal cameras. These cameras rely on the heat that bodies give off so that light is irrelevant.

In very remote areas where there are truly no light sources, thermal imaging might be your only way (or a better way) to document your property and its surroundings.

Final Thoughts

Even when you have the proper window and door security and the right commercial door locks, monitoring your property is a must. If you are not worried about insurance, the risk of squatters should be enough to take surveillance
seriously.

The post The Best Video Surveillance for Abandoned Commercial Properties appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Kidnappers deploy another tactics in Nigeria by implicating innocent people so that they can get away with their crimes.

Kidnappers Deploy Another Tactics In Nigeria, although this story has not been confirmed as at the time of this publishing but there is an exploit we can all patch here!

A man who I will like to refer to as (Mr. Y) was in his car shop in Owerri over the weekend when a man who posed as a customer walked in and claimed he was there to buy a car.

Mr. Y looked at the customer and noticed his pockets were bulging with cash and he was uneasy.

Mr. Y was immediately suspicious when the man claimed he wanted to buy a Toyota Siena which he told him the cost (NGN 1.8 Million). The customer did not argue or bargain, He simply said Ok and asked Mr. Y to give him his bank account number so he could transfer the money to him.
Mr. Y did as he was asked while he wondered how a man could purchase a car without even inspecting it or negotiating for a discount.

The customer transferred the bank account number to another person over the phone by sms as he has explained to Mr. Y that it was another person that will do the transfer.

Few minutes later, Mr. Y received an alert of NGN 500,000 instead of NGN1.8 million, He then asked his customer why he did a part payment as against the original amount of the car. The customer became so furious that he made a call and began shouting at the person at the other end, asking him why he transferred an amount lesser to the agreed amount.

After the call ended, he pleaded with  Mr. Y not to worry that he would not buy the car again. He asked him to use an atm card to withdraw the cash and give to him NGN 470,000 and take NGN 30,000 for  himself for all the trouble he caused him but Mr. Y bluntly refused that he would rather return the money to the original sender, so the customer left with annoyance.

The next day Mr. Y proceeded to the bank where he filled a teller over the counter and paid the said NGN500,000 back to the account number that made the transfer. In the “remark section” he wrote – “suspicious transaction” then he went home.

2 days after the incident he headed to the bank again to withdraw some money and observed that he could not use his atm card – “it has been blocked”. He went to other atm machines and it was the same result so he proceeded to his own bank to make a report and he was instantly detained and subsequently taken into police custody.

Apparently his account had been placed on red alert by his bank with an order from the police authority.

It was at the police station he got to know that the NGN500,000 he received in his account was paid in by a member of the family of a kidnap victim.

The kidnapping operation was carried out in Enugu state, a female member of the family was also rapped before making away with the kidnap victim.

Mr. Y was later transferred to Enugu from Owerri where he is being held currently for interrogation by the police, I hope the remark section “Suspicious transaction” could bail him out.

Please be security conscious of your environment and for no reason should you give out your bank account for transaction you do not know or have little knowledge about.

Refuse to be a BAIT !

The post Kidnappers Deploy Another Tactics In Nigeria appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

Thermal network cameras outperform a visual camera in dark scenes and are a great tool for detecting people and objects in 24/7 surveillance, from pitch dark areas to a sunlit parking lot.

Thermal network cameras create images based on the heat that always radiates from any object, vehicle or person.

A thermal camera is less sensitive to problems with light conditions, such as shadows, backlight, darkness and even camouflaged objects; and delivers images that allow operators to detect and act on suspicious activity – 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

Continuous Detection

Thermal cameras are excellent for detecting people, objects and incidents from pitch dark to sunlit and other challenging conditions. Thermal cameras do not, however, deliver images that allow reliable identification – that is why thermal cameras and conventional cameras complement and support each other in a surveillance installation.

Thermal cameras do not require any additional light sources – conventional or IR – that consume energy, create shadows and reveal their locations. And, in contrast to conventional day-and-night cameras that depend on a certain amount of near-infrared light to function, thermal cameras deliver reliable surveillance images even in complete darkness.

Enhancing any professional IP-Surveillance system

Thermal cameras can handle many difficult weather conditions better than conventional cameras, e.g. allowing operators to see through smoke, haze and dust. Thermal cameras typically also provide better accuracy in intelligent video applications.

Application

When you need reliable 24/7 detection with a low rate of false alarms, thermal cameras are the obvious choice.

Since living objects, such as humans, often have a different body temperature than their background, thermal cameras are excellent at detecting humans in a wide range of circumstances. In addition, objects such as vehicles also have a different temperature than the surrounding environment, making detection easy.

Thermal cameras can be used in a wide range of security applications, such as perimeter protection around industrial sites, airports and power plants. Their detection capabilities also make them a valuable tool in, for example, search and rescue operations.

Some thermal cameras, which we at Axis call temperature alarm cameras, are able to measure absolute temperature values. They can be used, among other things, when monitoring industrial processes, or acting as a fire alarm, or monitoring fridges at the supermarket.

The built-in intelligence of the camera, together with added video analytics, creates a solution where the video surveillance system automatically performs an analysis of the captured video. Thermal network cameras help distribute this analysis to other cameras in the IP system, leading to improved efficiency and scalability.

All in all, thermal network cameras make sure that objects, people, and incidents are detected 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Together with video analytics, thermal cameras help reduce the rate of false alarms and keep installation costs down since fewer cameras are needed to monitor the area.

User scenarios

Thermal cameras’ ability to detect humans, vehicles and animals can also be used in search and rescue operations, detecting people in the water in a harbor, helping firemen see through smoke, or allowing the police to follow perpetrators. Thanks to a variety of lens options, thermal cameras help covering everything from wide parking lots to long fences.

Invisible thermal fence for perimeter protection.

Thermal network cameras are an efficient perimeter protection. They are often a cost-effective solution, covering long distances with few cameras thanks to their ability to detect people against the background. If someone trespasses a fence, the security manager gets a verification image on his/her smart device.

Cut down costs!

With their low rate of false alarms, thermal cameras help security management cut costs on unnecessary responses by security staff. They can also be used to verify alarms, for example, to make sure that the motion detection alarm is actually triggered by a human. In this way, security staff can act, preventing costly vandalism or acts of crime.

Detect people for their safety and security!

In potentially dangerous environments, thermal network cameras improve safety in restricted places, such as tunnels, crossroads and railway tracks, which helps prevent accidents.

The post Thermal Network CCTV Camera appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

CCTV security test monitor is developed for the On-Site installation and maintenance of HD cameras and HD analog cameras (including AHD/SDI/CVI/TVI) in high resolution. The unit supports many ONVIF IP Camera and analog PTZ camera control, with Video display, DC12v output power, Audio test, RS 485 Data searching and Cable testing, POE power supply testing, PING testing, Multimeter, IP address scan, Cable scan, etc. The tester also has built in TDR cable testing, which is specialized designed for BNC cable testing in the security monitoring system. This function can accurately measure BNC cable and network cable’s break point and short-circuit location. The tester is designed with easy operation and portability that makes it simple for a cctv technician or installer to install and maintain CCTV systems, improving work efficiency by reducing time in the field.

The post CCTV Security Test Monitor appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

As light passes through a lens, it is focused on the camera’s image sensor. An image sensor is made up of many photosites and each photosite corresponds to a picture element, more commonly known as “pixel”, on an image sensor. Each pixel on an image sensor registers the amount of light it is exposed to and converts it into a corresponding number of electrons. The brighter the light, the more electrons are generated.

When building a camera, there are two main technologies that can be used for the camera’s image sensor:

CCD (charge-coupled device)

CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)

Megapixel sensors

While CCD and CMOS sensors are often seen as rivals, each has unique strengths and weaknesses that make it appropriate for different applications. CCD sensors are produced using a technology that has been developed specifically for the camera industry. Early CMOS sensors were based on standard technology already extensively used in memory chips inside PCs, for example. Modern CMOS sensors use a more specialized technology and the quality of the sensors is rapidly increasing.

CCD technology

CCD sensors have been used in cameras for more than 30 years and present many advantageous qualities. Generally, they still offer slightly better light sensitivity and produce somewhat less noise than CMOS sensors. Higher light sensitivity translates into better images in low light conditions. CCD sensors, however, are more expensive and more complex to incorporate into a camera. A CCD can also consume as much as 100 times more power than an equivalent CMOS sensor.

CMOS technology

Recent advances in CMOS sensors bring them closer to their CCD counterparts in terms of image quality. CMOS sensors lower the total cost for cameras since they contain all the logics needed to build cameras around them. In comparison with CCDs, CMOS sensors enable more integration possibilities and more functions. CMOS sensors also have a faster readout (which is advantageous when high-resolution images are required), lower power dissipation at the chip level, as well as a smaller system size. Megapixel CMOS sensors are more widely available and are less expensive than megapixel CCD sensors.

Megapixel sensors

For cost reasons, many megapixel sensors (i.e., sensors containing a million or more pixels) in megapixel cameras are the same size as or only slightly larger than VGA sensors that provide a resolution of 640×480 (307,200) pixels. This means that the size of each pixel on a megapixel sensor is smaller than on a VGA sensor. For instance, a megapixel sensor such as a 1/3-inch, 2-megapixel sensor has pixel sizes measuring 3 μm (micrometers/microns) each. By comparison, the pixel size of a 1/3-inch VGA sensor is 7.5 μm. So while the megapixel camera provides higher resolution and greater detail, it is less light sensitive than its VGA counterpart since the pixel size is smaller and light reflected from an object is spread to more pixels.

The post Understanding Image Sensors appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

There are plenty of storage drives available for different usage, but primarily users get confused which one to choose. The difference lies in the engineering of the drive, so while choosing any of these drives, you need to understand your usage. Surveillance is one of the segment where most of the time normal hard drives are being used. However there are surveillance drives available with a little price difference, but performance is far better.

Surveillance HDD is specially designed for CCTV setup. It looks similar to other drives and has differences only with optimizations and features which are developed for surveillance. You can easily connect the drive like any other HDD in the DVR of your surveillance setup.

BENEFITS OF SURVEILLANCE DRIVES

High-Write Workloads: PC drives are engineered for storage and perform read and write as well as data transfer capability, while the surveillance drives are tuned for 90% of its time (24x7x365 days) for recording video and 10% for reviewing and playing back data.

Video and surveillance HDDs support video streaming firmware designed and built for write performance. These come with enhanced write functionality that ensures first-rate performance and better drive durability for DVR, media center or video security applications. The surveillance HDDs firmware is custom built for streaming videos – captures every pixel while streaming HD videos.

Reliability: Normal PC HDDs doesn’t come with the ability to withstand always-on operational demands and not include the application specific features necessary to handle surveillance environments. On the other hand, surveillance HDDs are built to record data 24×7 from multiple camera streams or channels. A desktop class drive can eventually fail under constant, 24×7 operation, while video-optimized drives provide reliability benefits far beyond desktop drives, which are designed to run lighter workloads.

Low-power profile: Video and surveillance HDDs offers low-power profiles, which not only help with energy conservation but also ensure cool operating temperatures and enhanced system reliability while working a 24×7 profile.

Cost: Cost plays an important role, as video drives are engineered for surveillance environments so you might think, it will cost higher. Actually, only a few bucks difference is there in the price of similar capability of desktop HDD and surveillance HDD.

Real life testing: Seagate Desktop and Surveillance HDD

2 drives were chosen – Seagate 4 TB desktop and surveillance HDDs, similar capacity drives and from the same manufacturer to test the real life difference.

Also, the drives were connected one-by-one with test bed as well as surveillance DVR setup. First, the performance of the drives were tested using some benchmarks-

  • Desktop HDD: On HDTunePro, it resulted in 175.9 MB/s read speed and on CrystalDiskMark read speed was 161.4 MB/s and write speed was 160.3 MB/s.
  • Surveillance HDD: On HDTunePro, it resulted in 180.7 MB/s read speed and on CrystalDiskMark read speed was 166.8 MB/s and write speed was 165.5 MB/s.

You can easily see the performance difference in the benchmark scores. Further, some real life transfer were done to test their performance on the test bed.

  • Desktop HDD: In the real life test, it was able to transfer 2 GB of assorted data from PC to drive in 34 seconds with speed up to 362.4 MB/s. While transferring from drive to PC, it took 38 seconds with up to 466.09 MB/s speed.
  • Surveillance HDD: In the real life test, it was able to transfer 2 GB of assorted data from PC to drive in 8 seconds with speed up to 563.2 MB/s. While transferring from drive to PC, it took 34 seconds with up to 459.8 MB/s speed.

Again surveillance drive did better than desktop HDD. Later, these drives were installed on DVR. Both drives were kept installed in the DVR setup for more than two weeks. However, there was no major differences as for storage is concerned but surveillance drive consumed less power than desktop HDD. Moreover, you get additional features with surveillance drive, listed below…

  • Pre-tuned for multi-drive systems with RAID support
  • Seagate Rescue Recovery Service option for 360-degree data protection
  • Surveillance-optimized firmware improves drive reliability up to 30%, helping to reduce data loss
  • RV sensors maintain performance in multi-drive systems
  • 180TB/year workload rating, three times the rating of desktop drives, along with 1M hours MTBF
  • Idle 3 power setting allows immediate recording when motion sensing is detected in a camera
  • Quick time-to-ready requires smaller system buffer sizes, reducing cost

Overall, both drives are good at their parts. Though surveillance drive performed better than desktop, but it doesn’t mean you use surveillance drive in PC. Both are engineered for different functions, so if you are setting up a PC go for a desktop drive while setting up a CCTV better to choose video-optimized surveillance drives.

The post A Desktop or Surveillance HDD? appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

CCTV video baluns, also known as UTP baluns, allow traditional coax cable to be replaced by category 5 and other forms of twisted pair wire in CCTV video camera & surveillance installations. Video baluns allow installers to use more cost effective structured cabling techniques to wire security cameras. By using video baluns, UTP wire such as cat-5 can be run over longer distances easier than coaxial cable and for less money. Active balun transceivers enable UTP wires for cameras to be run distances up to 6,000 feet.

Active and Passive Video Baluns

Composite video signal normally carries a 1V peak to peak signal. Passive baluns do not alter the intensity of the signal, and merely transfers it from coaxial to Cat5 connectivity or vice versa. However, for long range applications, the signal will naturally degrade. Therefore, active baluns are useful for intensifying the signal and transmitting a stronger signal to the receiving balun. An active balun on the receiving side will receive a weakened signal and intensify it before sending it to the video surveillance appliance. The longest range active balun will boost the signal up to 5V. Active baluns come in long, medium, short, and adjustable ranges. A quality DVR machine can tolerate video signals ranging from 0.3V to 5.0VActive and passive baluns can exist in three configurations:

Camera Side Monitor Side Description
Passive Passive No signal intensity change or amplification. 1,000 ft maximum distance.
Passive Active Receiving balun amplifies weakened signal and sends new stronger signal to surveillance device. 4,000 ft maximum distance.
Active Active Sending balun sends strengthened signal to receiving balun, which again strengthens the signal and sends to surveillance device. 6,000 ft maximum distance.

The post Video Baluns | UTP Balun appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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Tango DigitalSystems by Tango Digital Systems - 1y ago

A camera iris is the part of the camera that regulates the level of light needed to pass through the lens. Whenever the iris creates a larger opening, more light can get through; a smaller opening allows less light through. The light that the iris allows to flow hits the image sensor and that light gets recorded as electrical impulses that create the video since the work of image sensor is to convert light energy into electrical signal.
In CCTV application, it is better to understand your requirement so that you can select the right camera iris since the work of iris is to limit the amount of light that hits the image sensor. Too much light can flop your video and also, too little light can make your video dark or blur. It is very important to select an iris that is specifically suited for your camera’s location.

There are four types of camera iris but each of them works slightly different.

Fixed iris
This is ideal in indoor environments where light levels may be constant like class room, office, laboratory, a fixed iris lens can be used. With fixed iris lenses, the iris opening cannot be adjusted and is fixed at a certain f-number or f-stop. The camera can compensate for changes in the level of light by adjusting the exposure time or using gain.

Manual iris
With a manual iris lens, the iris can be adjusted manually by turning a ring on the lens to open or close the iris. This is not convenient in environments with changing light conditions, such as in outdoor surveillance applications.

Auto Iris
Auto irises are motorized, allowing them to automatically adjust the iris opening to the changing light throughout the day. There are two types of auto arises, DC-irises (the control for the motor is in the camera) and video irises (the control is in the lens itself). Because auto irises use more advanced technology than a fixed or manual iris, cameras with an auto iris are often more expensive, but better suited to recording in outdoor locations where the changes between sunlight and nighttime can be automatically adjusted for.

P Iris
The “P” in P iris stands for “precise” because the iris uses both the ability to automatically adjust like an auto iris with controls in the camera’s software to create improved video clarity and depth of field. The amount that the iris can close is limited, preventing the blurred video that can occur when an auto iris overcorrects for bright lights. Cameras with a P iris are also more expensive than models with fixed or manual irises, but the cameras are better suited for recording in locations where light is constantly and quickly changing.

How Camera Iris Right Selection Option Can Help You?
Are you recording in an office building, and only during working hours? A fixed or manual iris will work well with the consistent light from overhead lights because they won’t need to adjust to changing light levels.
Recording outdoors or around the clock where your camera needs to adjust to daytime and nighttime light levels, like a parking garage or construction site? An auto iris or P iris will be your best bet, because they are designed to work with constantly changing levels of light.

The post Understanding Camera Iris appeared first on E~Security & ICT.

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