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Have you noticed that you now have a little adult in the house aged just 4 years 7 months old? That’s right – it’s your child! He is growing more independent, brimming with self confidence at times and can be downright bossy too!

Read on to find out about the common developmental milestones of your 4 years 7 months old child. Do bear in mind that children develop at their own individual paces, and they may achieve these milestones at different times. Please consult with your child’s paediatrician if you are concerned about his development.

4 Years 7 Months Old Child Development and Milestones: Is your Child on Track?  Physical Development

At 4 years 7 months old, your child should be very physically active. | Source: Pixabay

Your child may start jumping up and down when it gets close to 5pm as he knows it’s time for the playground! There, allow your little one to run, hop, climb, swing from the monkey bars, throw and kick balls to his hearts’ content.

It’s a perfect time to teach skills like scootering, riding a tricycle or balance bike, or execute gymnastic drills like somersaulting and cartwheeling.

Look out for the following skills, too:

  • Your little one can balance on one foot for at least a few seconds
  • He can skip 
  • Can stack at least 10 blocks 
  • Your child can climb steps alone, placing one foot after the other (not both feet on one step before proceeding to the next)
  • Can walk a few steps backwards
Tips :
  • Let your child practice his new-found abilities and enjoy his independence. However, remember to always bring water when you go to the park, and dress him in a helmet and knee pads if he is cycling or scootering. If you’re going to be outdoors at dusk, bring mosquito repellent. 
  • Play fun games that strengthen existing physical skills. For example, walking 8 steps backwards, or balancing for 10 seconds on one foot. 
When to talk to your doctor:

If your child shows any of the signs below, it may be worthwhile to make a trip to your family paediatrician.

  • Is unable to stack more than 8 blocks
  • Has trouble holding a crayon or a paint brush
  • Has trouble with dressing or undressing his or herself, with cleaning their teeth, using the bathroom and washing and drying their hands
Cognitive and Language Development

Is your 4 years 7 months old child a chatterbox or more of a thinker? | Source: Pixabay

You may need to get yourself a pair of earplugs! Your little one may be a natural chatterbox and can surprise you by easily holding a lengthy conversation not just with you but also with his friends. At this age, your child can now use logic to ask and answer questions, impressing you with the thought process they go through.

Plus your child may be your own home entertainment system. Once he or she gets in the mood, watch out for singing, dancing, performing and maybe even some magic tricks.

Other language and cognitive milestones your child may achieve this coming year :

  • Making up his own words
  • Knowing left from right
  • Work out how things work, i.e., being able to screw and unscrew a lid from a jar
  • Understand the concept of time, i.e., breakfast is in the morning, lunch is at noon and dinner is at night.
  • The ability to grasp what is past, present and future. For example, knowing what they have done, what they are doing and what they are going to do

It may be easier on you as your child can now understand complex commands such as “Please keep your toys, change into your pyjamas and brush your teeth. It’s bedtime.”

Your child may also be able to write his own name and memorise your phone number and address.

Tips:
  • Your child is learning to take complex commands so help him or her out by keeping your instructions clear, simple and concise. Set them up for success!
  • Practise positive reinforcement. When your child achieves something, praise his so that the behaviour will be repeated
  • Allow your child to play with simple everyday items. You will be amazed to see how his imagination and creativity transforms a simple pot or pan into a magical toy.
  • Occasionally, let your child play with more sophisticated toys that challenges and tests his cognitive development.
When to talk to your doctor:

If you notice that your child is displaying any of these signs, you may want to get it checked out by their paediatrician.

  • Being really afraid, shy or aggressive
  • Cannot focus on a task for more than 5 minutes; gets easily distracted
  • Having a limited amount of interests
  • Being unable to say his or her full name
  • Rarely pretending or fantasising
  • Often seeming sad, unhappy and not expressing a wide range of emotions
Emotional and Social Development

Your 4 years 7 months old child might be uncooperative at times, but it is all part of character building. | Source: Pixabay

It will be cute to see your child hanging out with his friends, or enjoying his playdates very much. He is learning that the world does not revolve around him. Now, he understands that other people have feelings too!

“My turn!”
“No! You already had a turn, it’s my turn now!”

You will start to hear your little one working through conflicts and hopefully learning to share and take turns most of the time!

Emotional and social milestones your child may hit this coming year :

  • Understands and obeys rules; but may still be demanding and uncooperative at times
  • Can express negative emotions verbally instead of physically
Tips:
  • If you witness a conflict like the one above, resist the urge to intervene. Let your child learn to work it out alone. Only step in if necessary.
  • Encourage your child to express what he is feeling; whether its positive or negative. Allow his to work through his emotions.
When to speak to your doctor:

If your child: 

  • Shows extreme separation anxiety
  • Does not want to play with other children
  • Refuses to make eye contact with or respond to other people.
Health and Nutrition

Here’s what you need to feed your 4-years-7-months-old to meet their nutritional goals. | Source: Pixabay

An average 4 years 7 months old child will grow to be around 100.3-107.9cm in height and weigh between 15.4 and 17.9kg in weight. Nutrition is important for your child’s growth and learning and also to provide energy for high activity levels.

Your little one is able to feed himself and able to try a wide variety of foods. Offer different choices for your little one to explore tastes, colours and textures and mealtimes will be an exciting adventure that your child will look forward to.

Here are the nutrients your child will need to meet his nutritional goals.

Nutrient  Amount Needed Daily What To Feed Them
Calcium 1000mg 3 cups of full fat milk
Vitamin D  600-1000 IU (International Units) About 1 hour of exposure to morning sun
Iron 10 milligrams 1 cup of wholegrain cereal or 100g of hamburger meat or a handful of nuts
Vitamin C 25 milligrams Half an orange or a quarter cup of broccoli or 3 strawberries 
Vaccinations and Common Illnesses

Is your 4 years 7 months old child up to date with their vaccinations? | Source: Pixabay

By this age, your child should already have had these vaccinations:

  • Five doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine
  • Four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)
  • Three or four doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine
  • Two doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine
  • Three doses of hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine
  • Two doses of chickenpox (varicella) vaccine
  • Two or three doses of rotavirus vaccine (RV)
  • Four doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV, PPSV)
  • One or two doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HAV).
  • Flu vaccine (to be done yearly)

Common illnesses to look out for are cough, cold and ear infections, common flu, chicken pox, measles, mumps and possible food allergies.

When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • If you see a sudden change in your child’s weight, that is a red flag.
  • If there is persistent vomiting and/or diarrhoea.
  • Your child has a rash that doesn’t seem to go away, or is painful or is deep into the skin.
  • A fever at this age can also lead to something serious, so be sure to consult with a doctor if your little one is running a temperature or complains of pain.

The post Child development and milestones: Your 4-years-7-months-old appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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How fast time flies! At age 5 years 7 months old already, your little one is almost ready for school. He has a proper little personality now, matched with boundless energy and curiosity. What can you expect from your 5 years 7 months old child this month? 

In this article, we cover the common milestones that a 5 years 7 months old child should be achieving, but please remember, every child is a unique individual. This means that your child may meet milestones sooner or later than his peers – and this is just fine. If you are worried about any aspect of your child’s development however, you should consult a paediatrician without delay. 

5 Years 7 Months Old Development And Milestones: Is Your Child On Track? Physical Development

By now, your 5 years 7 months old child might have already shown interest in certain sports or physical activities. Physically, he would have lost all that toddler chubbiness and his body has adult proportions. Your child remains very active, and adequate physical activity is important to ensure his healthy overall development. 

Your child will grow in height at the rate of around 2.5 inches a year and gain around 2-4kg in weight over the year. 

A sense of body image starts building around this time, too. Here are a few milestones you should look out for:

  • Your child understands the clear physical difference between a boy and a girl
  • Performs all motor-skilled based activities- like picking up, throwing, carrying, balancing – without any help
  • Runs, skips, jumps and hops with agility and skill 
  • Can confidently balance on one foot
  • Is able to hold a pencil using a three-finger grasp 
  • Can thread beads onto a string 

Tips

  • Around this time, your child might start losing (or already has lost) some milk teeth. Dental care remains very important. 
  • If you haven’t already, enroll your child in physical activity classes, like swimming or dancing. Such activities are great to further hone your child’s physical development and agility, and also teach skills like confidence and perseverance. 
  • Teach your child to get dressed and undress alone. Things like pulling up zippers and doing up buttons and clasps encourage fine motor skills development. Plus, this will encourage your child to be independent. 
  • Avoid giving your child screen time as much as you possibly can, especially if this compromises the amount of physical activity he gets. Restrict total daily screen time to one hour or less. 

When to talk to your Doctor?

If your child cannot: 

  • Balance on one foot for at least a few seconds 
  • Stumbles and falls very often while running or being active 
  • Cannot properly grasp a pen or pencil 
Cognitive Development

Your 5 years 7 months old child’s brain is nothing less than a wonder land. You’ll notice a clear improvement in your child’s cognitive abilities, such as how he now reasons (rather than throws a tantrum) when he wants something, or can even solve basic maths problem, like adding 1 and 2. 

At almost 6 years old, your child’s questions would have also evolved in complexity, showing his desire to keep learning about the world. He can also concentrate on an activity better than ever, whether this is reading a book or solving a puzzle. You might also notice that your child tells you little lies. But according to research, this is a sign of your child’s growing intelligence.  

Here are some other cognitive developments to look out for this month: 

  • Your child can confidently and correctly put a simple puzzle together
  • He can look at a simple picture and replicate it 
  • Your child can focus on a task for at least 10-15 minutes
  • He has an opinion on certain matters

Tips

  • Respect your child’s growing sense of individuality and don’t belittle his opinions or ideas. Instead, encourage discussion around these matters so that you encourage your child’s critical thinking capacity.
  • If you do give your child screen-time, choose educational programmes and apps over violent games or cartoons. Always monitor your child’s screen-time. 
  • Boost your child’s school-readiness by setting the foundation for fun yet effective learning through: books, simple math challenges, visits to the museum or other places of interest. 

When to talk to your Doctor?

If your child: 

  • Cannot complete a simple puzzle  
  • Cannot count up to at least 20 
  • Does not show interest in asking questions or learning about something new

Social and Emotional Development

Your 5 years 7 months old child is able to control his emotions better than a year ago. Tantrums should have disappeared by now, but your child might still cry or whine when he wants something. 

By this age, your child loves playing with his peers and might even have a best friend or two. Your little one loves your company too, so make the most of it before those typically broody teenage years swing by! 

He is very friendly in general, even speaking to people he doesn’t know. This is why it’s important to talk your little one about “stranger danger” and how he should never speak to strangers. 

You might notice the following characteristics of your child’s social and emotional development this month:   

  • He will show more independence, wanting to do many things on his own 
  • Kids of this age may show a preference to playing with friends of their gender
  • Your child might show bossiness, especially when playing with younger children
  • He will verbalise his emotions, rather than display them through physical actions
  • Will generally be helpful around the house, wanting to please you

Tips

  • Help your child understand and label more complex emotions such as confusion and even jealousy. Guide your little one on how best to deal with these
  • When your child does something nice for you or a someone else, be liberal with your praise
  • Continue to teach your child good manners and how to behave in public
  • While your little one might prefer to play with children of the same gender, make it a point to include children of both genders in playdates and birthday parties
  • If your child does something wrong, avoid harsh punishments. Instead, talk to him about the behaviour in question, explain why it was unacceptable, and dole out age-appropriate consequences. 

When to talk to your Doctor

If your child: 

  • Has severe separation anxiety
  • Is consistently aggressive when playing with other children (verbally and/or physically)
  • Dislikes playing with other children 
Speech and Language Development

By 5 years 7 months old, your child will talk like a little version of yourself or your spouse, with a side of sass. Be very mindful of the words and language you use, including how you speak to and about others. Your child at this age mimics your behaviour and speech. 

If you speak in two or more languages at home, your child should also be quite fluent in these by now. While he might still stumble sometimes with grammar and tense, in general, your 5 years 7 months old child speaks very well and coherently. 

Take note of these other speech and language characteristics. Your child: 

  • Speaks in complete sentences, using up to 7-8 words
  • Reads simple books out loud
  • Writes short sentences 
  • Expresses emotion through tone and modulation of voice

Tips

  • Communicate with your child as much as possible. The more you do this, the more his communication and language skills will develop.
  • Encourage your child to keep reading as this is one of the best ways to strengthen language skills
  • Get your child a kid’s version of a dictionary and teach him how to use it.
  • With growing language skills, kids get increasingly better at describing what has happened, what they feel, and what they think. Encourage your child to express such events.

When to talk to your Doctor

If your child: 

  • Is unusually shy to speak to friends or other people
  • Starts to stammer
  • Refuses outright to talk to others

Health and Nutrition

This is the golden period of growing and developing in every aspect- physically, mentally and emotionally. A healthy, balanced diet will aid in this. However, kids of this age don’t always know what’s good for them, including food! As such, you might find yourself struggling to keep your little one away from junk food. Not to worry, persistence is key in all things parenting! 

Your 5 years 7 months old child will definitely have food preferences by now and will strongly state when he doesn’t like the taste of something. While some kids are adventurous with food, others stick to what they know and like to eat. This is quite normal. 

On an average, kids this age weigh around 19kg and measure around 45.5 inches in height.

At this stage, your child will need a balanced diet containing sufficient proteins, vitamins, minerals, carbs and other essential nutrients. 

Daily Nutrient/ Ingredient Recommended portion size Meal ideas
Calories 1,200-2,000, depending on growth and activity level A tuna sandwich with cheese, A bowl of cereals with milk or Chicken soup
Proteins 0.5 cup Grilled chicken, a bowl of lentils or 1 boiled egg
Fruits 1-1.5 cups Chopped mixed fruits with museli, or mixed fruits in yogurt
Vegetables 1.5-2.5 cups Daily atleast 2-3 different vegetables. Include fibre and iron rich like spinach, carrots, beetroots etc
Grains 3/4th cup Daily 3/4th cup of rice/noodle is beneficial
Dairy 2.5 cups 1 full glass of milk + cheese/butter/yogurt through the day
Vaccinations and Common Illnesses

By this age, most of your child’s vaccinations have been given with none due this month. Speak to a doctor about the flu vaccine for your child. 

Your child’s immune system is still developing. As such, he’s still prone to common illnesses like colds. You can boost your little one’s immunity by encouraging them to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, while drinking adequate water through the day. 

Remember, your child is unique and special. You cannot expect your child to be just like you or someone else that you consider to be ideal. Supporting him in his growth. And don’t forget to relax, breathe and enjoy this roller-coaster ride called “parenting”.

Sources: WebMD, MayoClinic

Previous Month: 5 Years 6 months

Next Month: 5 Years 8 months

The post Child development and milestones: Your 5-years-7-months old child appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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New South Wales mum Charlotte has not one, but two young sons with autism spectrum disorder(ASD). And while therapies have helped, many everyday things, like going to the beach and eating out, are challenging.

Seven-year-old Henry has sensory processing problems, including reluctance to experiment with new foods.

“When dining out as a family we need to ensure that his staple of hot chips is on the menu,” Charlotte tells Kidspot. He also dislikes the beach, because the sand and the sound of the waves cause sensory overload.

Henry also suffers anxiety, and is uneasy in new situations, but “his language development has been our biggest area of need and we have been working on it since he was two,” Charlotte says.

Charlotte’s other son, six-year-old Jack, also experiences anxiety, delayed language, and difficulty in new environments.

ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting the brain’s growth and development. It is roughly four times more common in boys than girls. Symptoms begin in early childhood, and often include difficulties with social interaction, communication, repetitive behaviours and restricted interests.

The trial bringing new hope to families

The condition is lifelong, and currently there is no cure, but a ground-breaking trial is offering new hope for ASD sufferers and their families. Conducted through Sydney University’s Brain and Mind Research Institute, researchers are experimenting with oxytocin – the hormone that stimulates uterine contractions at birth and parent-child bonding – as a treatment.

Lead researcher Professor Adam Guastella, a clinical psychologist, was studying therapies for autism, and noticed that they weren’t addressing social skill development.

“I was trying to think about how we could use what we knew about brain development and the neurobiology of social behaviour, and combine that with what we knew about how people acquire skill around social behaviour,” he tells Kidspot.

Delving into nursing and animal studies for clues revealed that oxytocin “was critical in mammalian bonding and peer recognition.”

How it works

To see whether oxytocin might help with social skill development, the team embarked on studies delivering oxytocin to children with ASD through a nasal spray. They weren’t sure what to expect, and were very surprised that they got quite amazing findings.

“Oxytocin was doubling the amount of eye gaze, it was increasing memory, it was speeding attention to social stimuli,” Guastella says. “Something like this hadn’t been shown before with a medication.”

For Charlotte’s boys, the oxytocin trial results have been “remarkable”.

“Henry has completely come out of his shell, his language is spontaneous and we are able to engage in more meaningful conversations with him,” Charlotte says.

He is performing better in the classroom, and has even started nippers.

“Coming from the boy who would not even walk on sand or come near the beach he now is competing in flag races, water games, paddle boards and beach sprints… I couldn’t be more proud,” she adds.

Jack’s changes have been subtler, including increased empathy and improved communication.

Being involved in the study is a huge commitment for Charlotte and the boys, necessitating days off school and work. However, the effort has been worth it.

“I feel it is absolutely ground-breaking and the changes I am seeing are nothing short of amazing,” she admits.

Henry and Jack first went through a battery of tests, including play-based assessments, eye movement tests, saliva tests, a medical exam and IQ tests. They were given nasal sprays to use morning and night. And even though they’ve had impressive results, they still don’t know for sure which treatment the boys are receiving.

“We are unsure if we have been given oxytocin or a placebo as it is a double-blind study and we will only find out at the end,” Charlotte says.

What you need to know about oxytocin

While the oxytocin is helping many of the children, Guastella notes that children with ASD are not deficient in the hormone.

“Oxytocin isn’t something that your brain levels are set for life. The amount of oxytocin released changes quite frequently,” he says.

“That’s the way we think about the intervention. We’re not looking for some deficit in oxytocin. We’re thinking about, on a moment-by-moment basis, how can we take advantage to improve social development.”

Nor do all children respond to the treatment. For the next phase of research, the team will look at larger numbers of children over 12 weeks, to see which of them respond and why. They are also putting a marker on the spray so they can track where it works in the brain.

The research is giving hope to families like Charlotte’s and they hope it will do the same for others in years to come.

“One of the hardest things that most families with a child on the spectrum will tell you is that we don’t know what their future will look like,” she says.

And while the oxytocin research is very exciting, Guastella warns there’s still work to do.

“This is a developing field, and while the results are interesting we don’t suggest parents go out and start using oxytocin.”

If you’re concerned about your child’s behaviour, please speak to your local health practitioner for advice.

This article has been republished with permission from Kidspot.

The post How birth hormone oxytocin is offering new hope for children with autism appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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It’s been more than 4 years since your precious child was born. And now, he’s already 4 years 5 months old! Indeed, they do grow up so fast, but that doesn’t mean you can’t enjoy the amazing milestones in your child’s development. Of course, you’ll also want to know if your 4 years 5 months old child’s development is on track, so we compiled this handy guide of what to expect.*

4 Years 5 Months Old Child Development and Milestones: Is Your Child on Track?

At this age, your child will be pretty active, and loves playing outside!

Physical Development

Your 4 years 5 months old child is pretty active at this age. You might even have a hard time keeping up, since he love to run, jump, climb, and do all sorts of physical activities. It might be tiring for you as a parent, but this is a good thing since it means that your child is growing up healthy and strong. Here are some of the other skills in your 4 years 5 months old child that you might encounter:

  • Can do a somersault
  • Is able to hold a pen and grasp small objects
  • Is able to kick a ball
  • Can throw and catch balls
  • Can hop around
  • Is able to stack 10 or more blocks

Parents should always remember that playing is an important part of their child’s development. So it’s a good idea to encourage your little one to play with other kids, or explore safe play areas such as playgrounds etc. These activities would help develop his physical ability, and can also keep your little one fit and strong.

Tips: 
  • Be sure to make going outside to play a daily activity, to help boost your child’s physical development.
  • Buy puzzles, building blocks, and other creative toys to train his manual dexterity, as well as his lateral thinking.
  • You can also teach your child to swim, as it’s a great activity that helps keep your child fit and strong. Just be sure to keep your child supervised at all times, and be sure that there’s a lifeguard whenever you and your child go swimming.
When to Talk to Your Doctor:

Parent’s shouldn’t immediately worry if they notice anything different about their child. The best thing to do would be to visit a doctor to get a proper consultation. Additionally, these are some signs to look out for:

  • If your child can’t stack 10 or more blocks.
  • If he has trouble hopping, or balancing on one foot.
  • If he has trouble holding small objects, such as a pencil, or crayons.

Your child’s brain starts to absorb a lot of information at this age, and he’s constantly learning new things.

Cognitive Development

Kids this age ask a lot of questions and while this might frazzle you at some point, know that this is how they learn and absorb new knowledge. In fact, asking questions is a sign of a child who will always love learning, so go ahead and help your child find the answers… until the next question!

Your child can also follow more complex commands at this age, which is indicative of his rapidly developing cognitive skills. 

Here are some cognitive milestones to expect in your 4 years 5 months old child:

  • You can easily have a conversation with your child.
  • Your little one can already do some simple chores, such as picking up his toys, or keeping his room clean
  • At this age, children find it easier to pay attention, so this is a good time to teach your child new things
  • He already has a basic grasp of time, and can recall past events easily
Tips:
  • Constantly talk to your little one. This can help build his vocabulary, and since he can pay more attention, he will easily remember the things you teach him, building memory skills.
  • This is also a good time to start teaching your child a second language, if you wish. Children’s brains can adapt easily, so he can easily learn a new language while he’s young.
  • Nurture your child’s love for reading, as this is crucial for strong literacy skills. 
  • Instead of regular toys, invest in STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, Maths) toys, as these encourage cognitive development in your child through play. 
When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • If you sense that your child’s attention span is still limited
  • He still can’t pronounce simple words
  • If he has a hard time following simple instructions, or if he doesn’t listen when you tell him to do something

Your child can easily socialize with other kids his age, and won’t have trouble making new friends.

Social and Emotional Development

In terms of social and emotional development, your 4 years 5 months old child is starting to have more empathy. This means that he can understand how other people feel, and can understand how his actions can impact other people. This also means that your child can socialise better with other kids, and it’s easier for him to make friends.

If previously, your little one had a hard time sharing his toys, then you’ll find that at this age, it’s much easier for him to do. He’s also much more in control of his emotions, and has fewer tantrums in general.

Here are some developments in this sphere to look out for in your child:

  • He has no problems doing things on his own, and is more independent
  • It’s much easier for you to manage his behavior, since he can understand rules and guidelines that you set
  • He constantly looks for other kids to play with, and has little trouble making new friends
  • He has fewer tantrums, and will rarely shout or scream
  • Your child can also speak more clearly, and can handle himself when talking to other people
Tips:
  • Try setting up playdates with other kids, so that your child can interact with other kids around his age
  • Implement some basic house rules, such as cleaning up after playing, or taking a bath before going to bed
  • Encourage independence by letting your child do simple tasks such as dressing himself, or eating by himself without your help
  • It’s a good idea to focus on teaching him social skills such as sharing, empathy, respect for others, and listening 
When to Talk to Your Doctor:

If your child shows any of the following signs, then it’s a good idea to discuss it with a doctor to find out what might be the cause of the problem.

  • Has a hard time getting along with other kids, or starts picking fights with them
  • Prefers to play alone, and gets frustrated or annoyed when other kids try to play with him
  • Has extreme separation anxiety when left alone, such as in a daycare, or in a playschool
  • If he doesn’t like talking or engaging with other people, even you, and prefers to be alone by himself
  • Still throws intense tantrums

At this age, children find it easier to learn and understand new words.

Speech and Language Development

At this age, your child’s ability to learn new words goes into overdrive! This means that he will be constantly asking questions, talking, and trying to learn as much as he possibly can. It’s not uncommon to see your child pointing at different signs, and asking what those signs say. 

Your child will also sometimes point at objects, and ask you what they are called, so be ready with some satisfying answers. All this chatter is indicative of rapid speech and language development. 

Here are some other milestones that you can expect:

  • His vocabulary will expand at this age, and he will try to use the new words he learns as much as possible
  • He has no trouble speaking in complete sentences, and he can easily have conversations with people
  • He can also answer questions when asked
  • Your child can easily remember new words that you teach him
Tips: 
  • Focus on expanding your child’s vocabulary, as well as practicing having conversations with him
  • Flashcards are a good way to teach new words and concepts to your child. Make sure that the flashcards are colorful and visible, and that the text can easily be read
  • Don’t worry if your child has some trouble using new words in sentences, be sure to teach them how to use those words properly so that he can remember the meaning
  • When you read with him, point at the word you’re saying, so that your child learns to associate how the word sounds, with how it’s written. 
When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • If your child is unable to say his name
  • If he has trouble remembering any new words that you teach
  • He still has trouble speaking in complete sentences
  • If he has trouble talking, or has a hard time understanding what you’re trying to say 

In case your child shows any of these warning signs, don’t be afraid to consult your doctor about it. They would be able to provide the best advice and approach to help address your concerns regarding your child’s speech and language development.

Along with exercise, having a proper diet can help boost your little one’s development.

Health and Nutrition

At 4 years 5 months old, your child will be about 101cm tall, and weighs about 15kg. However, do not be worried if your child is a bit smaller, since both height and weight can also depend on genetics. The thing to remember is to provide your child with the right amount of food and nutrients in order to help boost his development.

Taking naps in the afternoon, and having at least 9 hours of sleep every night is also important. This helps your child’s body and brain grow. 

Here’s a handy chart showing some of the important nutrients your child needs:

Nutrient Amount Needed Daily What To Feed Them
Protein 20.1g (the size of your child’s palm) About 3 one-inch cubes of lean meat, such as pork, chicken, or fish per meal
Fat 25g (around 1 tablespoon) 1/2 cup of avocado as a snack
Fibre 25g (around 1 tablespoon) 1 cup of cooked pearled barley per meal
Calcium 600mg (2 cups) Around 2 tbsp. of cheddar cheese per meal
Vaccinations:

At 4 years 5 months old, there are no new vaccinations, but your child should already have got the following:

  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis) (DTaP) (5th dose)
  • Polio (IPV) (4th dose)
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) (2nd dose)
  • Chickenpox (varicella) (2nd dose)

Talk to a doctor about giving your child the flu vaccine every year. 

When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • Sudden weight gain/ loss
  • High fever (over 39 degrees C)
  • Any sudden mood changes
  • Swelling and pain after a fall 

*If you have any concerns about your child’s development, please speak to your paediatrician for professional advice. 

References: WebMDKids’ HealthCDC

The post Child development and milestones: Your 4-years-5-months-old child appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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From a six-month-old baby to a 5 years 8 months old child, your little one continues to amaze you with his daily prowess. 

In this article, we cover all the common milestones that a 5 years 8 months old child should be achieving, but please remember, every child is a unique individual and will hit his milestones at his own pace. 

5 Years 8 Months Old Child Development And Milestones: Is Your Child On Track? Physical Development

Your 5 years 8 months old child is able to undress and dress independently, even tie his own shoelaces which shows just how much his fine motor skills have developed. Physical play remains very important. Make sure you encourage your child to play outdoors, rather than stay in one place hunched over an electronic device.

If your child shows interest in more advanced sports like soccer and tennis, now is the time to introduce these. Sports not only promote physical development, but also leadership skills and other positive traits in your child. 

Tips

  • Help make your child’s motor skills even stronger by engaging with them in physical activities outdoors. Try fun games like balancing a lemon on a spoon race! It’s a great bonding activity too. 
  • Encourage fine motor skills honing by getting your child to practise his writing skills. Keeping a diary a good way to do this, as well as develop literacy skills. 

When to talk to your Doctor

  • If your child cannot run without stumbling.
  • Your child cannot balance on one foot or throw a ball under-arm
  • Your child struggles to grip a pen/pencil properly
Cognitive Development

By now, your little one might be able to read and write a fair bit, and count up to 50 and even beyond. The questions will still continue and this curiosity remains a sign of further-developing cognitive skills. 

Nurture your child’s love for reading and basic maths, as this sets firm foundations for budding literary and numeracy skills — both crucial to proper cognitive development.  By now, your child also understands the concept of yesterday, today and tomorrow. Similarly kids of this age understand the difference between past, present and future.

Tips

  • Get your child STEAM (Science, Tech, Engineering, Arts, Maths) toys to play with to enhance cognitive development. These include puzzles, blocks and art-and-craft activities. 
  • Play fun games that encourage your child to think. A good example is a treasure hunt.
  • Bring learning to everyday activities to make it fun and relatable. For example, a nature walk is a great opportunity to teach your child Science, a fun pizza night where you count the “quarters” teaches maths, and a visit to the museum brings history to life. 

When to talk to your Doctor

  • If your child cannot count up to at least 20. 
  • Your child cannot read a basic three-to-four word sentence, e.g. “The cat is fat.”
  • Your little one shows no curiosity about the world and learning in general.

Social and Emotional Development

Your 5 years 8 months old child has well developed social and emotional skills. He plays well with his peers, often preferring this to individual play, and tantrums are minimal or don’t occur at all.

Your little one may wear his heart on his sleeve, and cry when he’s sad or frustrated. This is a normal part of emotional development at this age. Comfort your little one when this happens and encourage him to articulate what made him upset. 

Gone are the days when your child didn’t want to share. You’ll notice an amicable exchange of toys when your little one plays with friends. He may also want to join in adult conversations, which is fine and good for his social development. 

Tips

  • Practice what you preach. If you ask your child to not lie, and then lie in front of your little one, it will give your child the wrong message. 
  • Never belittle your child’s emotions. Validate them, and find out what is upsetting your child. Don’t forget to label the different emotions: “Are you feeling sad because Grandma went home?”
  • Avoid promoting stereotypes when it comes to gender and emotions, for example, “boys don’t cry.” Boys do cry, and this is perfectly okay. 
  • While teaching manners to your child is great, never force them to hug people (known or unknown) if they don’t want to. 
  • Understand that sometimes, your child might not want to play with others. This is fine and give your little one the alone-time he needs. 

When to talk to your Doctor

  • If you notice a drastic change in your child’s behaviour. For example, he is suddenly fearful to go to school, or to certain houses for playdates. 
  • If your child displays erratic and violent emotional outbursts. 
  • You child does not want to play with other children at all. 
Speech and Language Development

Your 5 years 8 months old child might amuse you with his “grown up” talk. Kids of this age speak quite well, and in complete, sometimes complex sentences. Don’t mind the occasional grammatical mistake in your child’s speech. This will correct itself over time. 

By now, your child understands what you say – including instructions – completely.  You might also notice your child commanding younger friends or siblings around, using their every-expanding vocabulary. 

Tips

  • Encourage your child to speak in front of a mirror. This clever exercise allows your child to see himself talking and the expressions associated with certain ideas and words. 
  • Your child mirrors your behaviour, including your speech. Remember to use words like “please” and “thank you” and try to control the tone of your voice when you feel angry or upset. 
  • Continue to encourage your child’s love of reading by buying age-appropriate books. You could also buy a simple, child-friendly dictionary and teach your child how to use it. 

When to talk to your Doctor

  • If your child stammers. 
  • If your little one cannot coherently articulate a simple sentence. 

Health and Nutrition

As your child continues to grow rapidly, it’s essential that you offer a healthy, balanced diet to support this growth. Of course, the occasional pizza or ice cream is fine as a treat. You’ll find that fussiness with food gradually declines and your little one will display clear preferences for certain types of food. 

Your child should be getting between 1,200 to 2,000 calories a day, and drinking adequate water for proper hydration. Here’s a quick look at your child’s nutritional requirements at 5 years 9 months old. 

Nutrient/Ingredients Amount Needed Daily  What to feed them
Calories 1,200-2,000- depending on growth and activity 2 slices of bread with butter/cheese, or a small cup of fortified cereals with milk
Protein 0.5 cup 2-3 small chunks of meat/ 1 egg/1 small cup of legumes
Fruits 1-1.5 cups 1 banana + 1 apple, or a bowl of mixed fruits, can mix fruits with pancake as well
Vegetables 1.5-2.5 cups Daily intake should include atleast 2 different type of vegetables, include green leafy vegetables like spinach, a bowl of jacket potatoes, veggies in baked pasta or rice.
Grains 3/4th cup Including rice atleast once a day along with some gluten in the form of bread
Dairy 2.5 cups Feeding 2 small cups of milk a day, along with milk products like butter/ cheese/ buttermilk/ice cream etc.
Tips

Continue taking care of your child’s dental health. Please schedule a visit to the dentist if you have never done so before. 

  • Teach your child about hazards as they will be more prone to injuries and accidents with his active schedule. Make sure he understands the dangers of careless crossing of the road, playing around fire and electrical sockets, etc.
  • Involve your child in preparing simple meals under your careful supervision. Not only will this teach your little one the value of good nutrition, but it will also teach him essential life skills. 
  • Introduce your child to a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, grains and meats for balanced nutrition. 
  • It’s best not to give your child fizzy drinks and sweets which have absolutely no health benefits. 
Vaccinations and Common Illnesses

By this age, most of your child’s vaccinations must have already been covered. There are a few common ones that are given every year, like the flu shot. Check with your doctor for more information about this vaccination. 

In terms of illness, expect common colds and the flu as your child is exposed to bugs at school and builds his immunity.

Sources: WebMD

MayoClinic

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The Ministry of Education has announced the dates for the different phases of P1 registration 2020. 

The registration of children for admission to Primary One (P1) classes in 2020 will open from Wednesday, 3 July 2019 to Thursday, 31 October 2019.

P1 registration 2020: Things to know
  • Eligibility

Children born between 2 January 2013 and 1 January 2014 (both dates inclusive), must be registered at this year’s P1 Registration Exercise for admission to P1 in January 2020.

  • Where

Parents are required to proceed to their school of choice during the eligible phase.

  • Timings

Registration will be conducted between 8.00 am – 11.00 am. and from 2.30 pm – 4.30 pm on each scheduled registration day (Monday-Friday). Parents must produce the originals of each required document at the time of registration.

  • Do note

The address used in the Primary 1 Registration Exercise should be the parents’ official residential address, which is specified in their NRICs. This is very important, as it is the address which will determine the home-school distance category, a chief factor and priority in school admissions.

  • Information for International students

For international students, registration is at Phase 3, after all SCs and SPRs have been allocated a place under the earlier phases of the P1 registration exercise. International students will be required to undergo a two-step process:

Step 1

Submit an online ‘indication of interest’ form via the MOE P1 website, from 4 to 10 June 2019.

Step 2

International students who have completed Step 1, and are notified in October 2019 by MOE that they can be offered a P1 place in a school, must register in person at the designated schools during Phase 3 of the 2019 P1 registration exercise in late October 2019.

International students who do not submit the ‘indication of interest’ form to MOE by 10 June 2019 will not be able to register during Phase 3 of the P1 registration exercise.

SOURCE: MOE

Phases and procedures for P1 registration 2020

Registration to primary school will be conducted in phases. Here are some key details:

Phase 1

Dates: 3 July 2019 (Wednesday), 4 July 2019 (Thursday)

Eligibility: For a child who has a sibling studying in that primary school (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents).

Procedure: Parents are required to submit the registration form and relevant documents through the older sibling (who will be given the form by the school). This phase has the highest priority. All children registered under this phase will be given places in the schools.

Phase 2A(1)

Dates: 9 July 2019 (Tuesday)

Eligibility: (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents)

(a) For a child whose parent is a former student of the primary school and who has joined the alumni association as a member not later than 30 June 2018.

(b) For a child whose parent is a member of the School Advisory / Management Committee.

Results announced: 12 July 2019 (Friday)

Phase 2A(2)

Dates: 15 July 2019 (Monday), 16 July 2019 (Tuesday)

Eligibility: (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents)

(a) For a child whose parent or sibling has studied in that primary school.

(b) For a child whose parent is a staff member of that primary school.

(c) For a child from the MOE Kindergarten under the purview of and co-located with the primary school of choice.

Results announced: 19 July 2019 (Friday)

Phase 2B

Dates: 22 July 2019 (Monday), 23 July 2019 (Tuesday)

Eligibility: (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents)

(a) For a child whose parent has joined that primary school as a parent volunteer not later than 1 July 2018 and has given at least 40 hours of voluntary service to the school by 30 June 2019.

(b) For a child whose parent is a member endorsed by the church / clan directly connected with the primary school.

(c) For a child whose parent is endorsed as an active community leader.

Results announced: 26 July 2019 (Friday)

Procedure for Phase 2A(1), Phase 2A(2), Phase 2B

Parent is to submit the registration form (available at the school during registration) and required documents at that primary school, on the concerned dates, at the above mentioned times.

Alternatively, parents can authorise a person to register their child on their behalf. An original letter of authorisation is required from the parent.

Singapore Citizens (SCs) will be given absolute priority over Singapore Permanent Residents (PRs) when balloting is necessary in a specific phase.

Phase 2C Dates

Primary One Internet System (P1-IS) online registration: From 29 July 2019 (Monday), 9.00am to 31 July 2019 (Wednesday), 4.30pm  OR

Registration at school: 30 July 2019 (Tuesday), 31 July 2019 (Wednesday), 1 August 2019 (Thursday)

Eligibility: (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents) For all children who are eligible for Primary 1 in the following year, and are not yet registered in a primary school.

Results announced:7 August 2019 (Wednesday)

Phase 2C Supplementary Dates

P1-IS online registration: From 12 August 2019 (Monday), 9.00am to 13 August 2019 (Tuesday), 4.30pm  OR

Registration at school: 13 August 2019 (Tuesday), 14 August 2019 (Wednesday)

Eligibility: (Only for children who are Singapore Citizens or Singapore Permanent Residents) For a child who is not yet registered in a primary school after Phase 2C.

Results announced: 21 August 2019 (Wednesday)

Procedure for Phase 2C, Phase 2C Supplementary

Parent is to submit the registration form (available at the school during registration) and required documents at the primary school. In case of P1-IS online registration, parents will need to produce the original of each required documents to the school, when requested by the school, or upon reporting to the school.

Alternatively, parents can authorise a person to register their child on their behalf. An original letter of authorisation is required from the parent.

Singapore Citizens (SCs) will be given absolute priority over Singapore Permanent Residents (PRs) when balloting is necessary in a specific phase.

Note: Parents of Singapore Citizen or Singapore Permanent Resident children who have not obtained a school place after Phase 2C Supplementary can request MOE to facilitate the child’s placement to a school which still has vacancies.

Phase 3

Dates: Registration at school in October 2019

Eligibility: 

Only for non-Singapore Citizen (SC) / non-Permanent Resident (PR) children who have indicated their interest and are informed by MOE in October 2019 that they can be offered a P1 place.

All non-SC / non-PR children should first submit an online indication of interest form from 4 June 2019 (Tuesday), 9.00am to 10 June 2019 (Monday), 4.30pm.

Those who do not submit the indication of interest form to MOE by  by 10 June 2019 will not be able to register during Phase 3 of the 2019 P1 Registration Exercise.

Results announced: By 31 October 2019 (Thursday)

Procedure: 

Step 1: Submit an online indication of interest form via the MOE P1 website, from 4 to 10 June 2019, AND
Step 2: Non-SC / non-PR children who have submitted the indication of interest form and are notified in October by MOE that they can be offered a P1 place in the school, must register in-person at the designated schools during Phase 3 of the 2019 P1 Registration Exercise (in late October 2019).

Also READ: What your child should know before Primary 1

(Source: MOE)

The post P1 Registration For 2020 Starts On 3 Jul 2019. Here Is All You Need To Know appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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Applications for NDP 2019 tickets will open from 23 May to 2 June 2019. 

Only Singapore Citizens and Singapore Permanent Residents are eligible to apply for tickets for the Actual NDP (9 August 2019), the NDP Preview 1 (27 July 2019) and the NDP Preview 2 (3 August 2019).

NDP 2019 Tickets: How to Apply
  • Ticket applications start on 23 May 2019 and end on 2 June 2019.

Tickets will NOT be given on a first-come-first-served basis. All valid applications will go through an electronic-balloting system.

  • Preview 1 will take place on 27 Jul 2019, and Preview 2 on 3 Aug 2019. This year’s NDP will be held at the Padang.
  • Each applicant must opt for either tickets for the Preview 1 , tickets for Preview 2, or tickets for the Actual NDP.
  • You can  apply either through the NDP website or through AXS and SAM stations. You can apply for 2, 4, or 6 tickets to any of the three shows.

Each applicant is limited to ONE application regardless of the mode used. If an applicant uses more than one mode to make an application, the latest application will be entered for e-balloting. 

Each ticket admits one spectator to the parade. Each child (inclusive of infants of all age) must hold a valid ticket to be admitted to the parade.

  • Ticket allocation will be prioritised for Singapore Citizens and applicants who were not allocated tickets for NDP 2018.

E-Balloting results are final and no appeal will be entertained.

  • Successful applicants will be notified on 24 June 2019 via the email address provided during application. 

They may collect their tickets from July 5 to July 7, and from July 12 to July 14 at Raffles City Level 3 Atrium between 10am and 9pm.

  • All tickets for the Actual NDP, the NDP Preview 1 and the NDP Preview 2 are not to be sold for any gain, monetary or otherwise.

Also READ: Where to watch National Day fireworks for FREE!

The post NDP 2019 Tickets: Applications Open From 23 May appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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Wow! In the blink of an eye, your little one is almost five years old: 4 years 10 months old to be  precise. Kindergarten days are almost over and he will be going to primary school soon. At this age, your 4 years 10 months old child has an almost fully developed brain, so he is able to grasp more complex concepts.  

In this article, we explore common 4 years 10 months old child milestones so you know if your little one is on track. At the same time, you should bear in mind that every child develops at their own rate. So, they might already hit some of these milestones or they might achieve them at different times.

Do observe your child as much as possible and if you notice any red flags, then the best option is always to talk to your paediatrician.

4 years 10 months old milestones: Is your child on track? | Source: Pixabay

4 Years 10 Months Old Child Development and Milestones: Track your child’s progress Physical development

Your child’s development is now in preparation for them to start school. In this early childhood stage, your little one should be hitting these physical milestones:

  • Loves physical activity like dancing, jumping, running and skipping. 
  • Adopts a more adult-like posture when throwing and catching ball
  • Engages in activities that require more hand-eye coordination.
  • Accurately and skillfully uses simple tools like safety scissors.
  • Becomes more physical with other children (which could include pushing, roughhousing, fighting).
  • More spatial awareness. 
  • Stands on one foot for more than 10 seconds. 
  • Can turn somersaults and hop. 
  • Rides a tricycle or bicycle.

This is the time some children’s baby teeth start to fall, making space for permanent adult teeth. However, most kids don’t lose their baby teeth until after age five. 

You can expect your child to grow about 6cm in height over the course of a year and also gain about 3kg in the same time period. Your child might also show a little more fussiness towards the food they eat.

Tips: 
  • If you haven’t started your child in extra-curricular activities, then this is a ripe age to start doing so. Going for group classes outside will allow them to prepare better for school. Dance class is also a great way to encourage their spatial awareness. 
  • Give your child plenty of space and time to move around and explore their flexibility. Bring them out to parks for cycling or children’s Zumba classes or to a jungle gym to expend their energy. 
  • Your child is mimicking your eating behaviour, so if they are not gaining enough weight and are fussy with their food, it could be a reflection of what they see their parents doing. Try to minimise dieting in front of your kids at this impressionable age. 
When to talk to your doctor:

If your child is eating but not gaining weight or growing in height, you should check with the doctor if there is any underlying health issues. 

You should also raise concern if your child is:

  • Anti-social and refusing to participate in any activities. 
  • Has started to lose energy drastically and appears “lazy”. 

4 years 10 months old child milestones: Which physical and cognitive development milestones has he or she hit? | Source: Pixabay

Cognitive development

At this age, your child is going to be answering back a lot. That isn’t necessarily a bad thing. It shows a lot of critical thinking skills and development. When you have conversations with your child at this age, they are absorbing concepts and forming their own opinions. 

You might also hear more complaints about tummy aches, headaches, body aches and such. This is because they’re becoming more aware of their bodies. 

While there is a whole spectrum of skills they pick up at this age, here are some cognitive development milestones you can check on: 

  • Your child enjoys reading on his own
  • He is well-coordinated in his thoughts and arguments. 
  • Your child is curious about everything. 
  • He can express ideas clearly and give relevant examples. 
  • Your child speaks in longer sentences. 
  • Your child’s play time involves more role-playing and is more reflective of real life situations. 
Tips:
  • Give your child lots of age-appropriate materials to read. 
  • Get books on rhyming, poems and riddles to entertain your child with and stimulate cognitive development further. 
  • Test your child on their memory skills with memory games. 
When to talk to your doctor:

If your child is displaying very laggard progress when it comes to reading and vocalising their thoughts, it might be good to see a specialist to test their cognitive development. 

4 years 10 months old child milestones: Social development is very important at this age. | Source: Pixabay

Social and emotional development

Ah, a little social butterfly is emerging right now. At this age, many children are not shy to express their feelings, even around strangers. 

Your not-so-little-one is also now learning that the whole world does not revolve around him or her. They should be able to pick up on other people’s feelings and body language. 

They are also less likely to throw unreasonable tantrums because they are able to process their own feelings better, while learning how to express them in an effective manner. 

At this stage, your 4 years 10 months old should be able to: 

  • Enjoy play time with friends and attempt for his or her actions to bring happiness to others.
  • Understands sharing and rules of games. 
  • Obeys rules that you have set.
  • Become more independent. 
  • Express themselves using words rather than throwing tantrums. 
  • Determine their competitiveness – they will either be less competitive or a lot more than before.
Tips: 
  • Play dates at this age will do lots of good for your kids. Bring them out to meet new friends as well as their existing ones. Expose them to different cultures and practices as well to expand their horizons. 
  • At this age, structured play with rules to follow will shape your child into a better student in preparation for primary school. 
  • Allow your child to express themselves using words, even though they might be angry or frustrated. 
When to talk to your doctor:

If your child is displaying any of these signs, it could be an indicator of a delay in development. In which case, you should bring them to the doctor. Here are some signs to look out for:

  • Your child is extremely afraid, shy, or aggressive.
  • He is extremely anxious when separated from a parent even if it’s a short period of time.
  • He is easily distracted and unable to focus for more than five minutes.
  • Your child is anti-social.
  • Your child has no interests.
  • He does not make eye contact with anyone.
  • Your child does not respond when others speak to him.
  • You child is unable to say his full name. 
Speech and language development

Your chatterbox’s vocabulary should have expanded quite a bit by this age. You should hear your child speaking a lot more and a lot more clearly at this age. He should be able to:

  • Enunciate words and use more complex sentences. 
  • Count 10 or more objects.
  • Correctly name at least four colours and three shapes.
  • Recognise some letters and possibly write his or her name. 
  • Grasp more than one language if taught. 
Tips:
  • Allow your child to interact  with other adults like your own parents or friends, so he builds confidence in public speaking. 
  • If your child is a little bit shy compared to their peers, don’t force him to speak in settings he is not comfortable in. 
  • Expose your child to more educational shows or programmes to further expand vocabulary. But limit screen time to below an hour a day. 
When to Talk to Your Doctor:

If you are concerned about your child’s language and speech development, here are some red flags to look out for before going to consult with a doctor:

  • Your child is unable to interpret non-verbal communication at all. 
  • He or she does not make eye contact with people when speaking. 
  • Your child mixes up a lot of common words. 

4 years 10 months old milestones: Keep your child’s health on track. | Source: Pixabay

Health and nutrition

A child at 4 years 10 months old should be around 104cm – 114cm in height and weigh about 18 – 22kg. Your child is still rapidly growing at this age. To meet all of your child’s nutritional goals, here’s what he/she should be eating:

Nutrient Amount Needed Daily What To Feed Them
Protein 20-35 grams (the size of a child’s palm) A small piece of grilled chicken or baked salmon or a block of tofu
Calcium 1,000 milligrams (1 – 2 small cups) A glass of milk, a small block of cheese or a cup of yogurt (to be doled out over three servings in a day)
Iron 10 milligrams One small cup of minced beef (cooked into spaghetti sauce) or a cup of nuts to snack on. 
Vitamin A Not more than 3,000 IU (900 mcg RAE) A cup of steamed carrots or broccoli or two egg yolks.
Vitamin C Not more than 650 milligrams An orange or five strawberries
Vaccinations and common illnesses

At this age, your child should already have these vaccinations done according to the vaccination schedule in Singapore:

  • Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis) (DTaP) (5th dose)
  • Polio (IPV) (4th dose)
  • Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) (2nd dose)
  • Chickenpox (varicella) (2nd dose)
  • Influenza (Flu) (every year)

Common illnesses to look out for are the common flu, chicken pox, measles, mumps and possible food allergies.

When to talk to your doctor:

If you’ve missed out any of the vaccinations, it would be good to see a doctor and get your child caught up on them. Beyond that, if your child drastically puts on or loses weight, this is also a red flag. 

A fever at this age is not as serious as the younger years, but should still be monitored. If your child temperature is above 38 Celsius for more than a day, please consult a doctor immediately. 

Reference: WebMD

Your child’s previous month: 57 months

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Your 5 years 1 month old child has grown in leaps and bounds. His toddler days are over and as he gets school-ready, shows more independence and curiosity.  If you are wondering what to expect from your little one this month, we’re here to help 

Let’s look at common 5 year 1 month old milestones to be aware of so you know what to look forward to.

As always, please note these are guidelines as every child develops at their own pace. If you have any questions or concerns about your child’s development, visit your paediatrician.

5 Years 1 Month Old Child Development and Milestones: Is Your Child on Track?

Image source: Shutterstock

Physical Development

Your 5 years 1 month old child is very agile and can express his excitement in many acrobatic ways. His hand-eye coordination has improved so much to the extent that he can now start doing basic tasks like feeding and going to the toilet all by himself! His gross motor skills are much more advanced compared to his toddler days, which is evident by how independent he is!

All children grow at their own pace, but most are able to accomplish many impressive physical skills. They can jump high, run confidently and even start doing more complex movements involved in structured sports, like karate or ballet.

At this point, your child is able to do the following:

  • Can do a forward somersault
  • Confident in swinging and climbing
  • Balance on one foot for at least 10 seconds
  • Can get dressed and undressed without parents’ assistance
  • Use a fork, spoon and sometimes a knife to eat food
  • Go to the toilet without extra help

As awesome as your five-year-old is, remember that he is still developing! Even if he can handle his own toilet needs, wetting the bed is still common and nothing to worry about.

Tips:

Giving your little one enough space and time to explore and try new activities can further develop your child’s motor skills.

  • Take him to the playground or areas with equipment to play with, like monkey bars.
  • Sign your child up for group swimming lessons, or another sport or physical activity that he likes. Make sure he is always supervised by a qualified instructor.
  • Encourage your child when he tries to do things on his own, like getting dressed or going to the toilet.
  • Keep technology to a minimum in bedrooms. Remove phones or gadgets with bright lights to avoid distracting him from sleeping.
  • Get him involved with simple house chores. Different activities will develop his hand-eye coordination.
When to Talk to Your Doctor:

If you notice your child isn’t displaying some skills as expected, it’s advisable to take him to the doctor for further assessment. Some signs to look out for are:

  • Inability to hold a crayon or pencil
  • Trouble eating, sleeping, or going to the bathroom on his own
  • Difficulty undressing on his own

Image source: Shutterstock

Cognitive Development

School is just around the corner! Your child has been learning so much and retaining a whole bunch of information!

Your child’s memory continues to grow at an impressive rate. He can recall a lot of information and has a much better idea of what everyday household objects are, as well as what they’re called. Some of the milestones you can observe from  your little one include:

  • Copies triangles and other geometric shapes
  • Can count up to 20 and above
  • Able to draw people with six or more body parts
  • Can name and tell you about household objects, like food and appliances
  • Names at least four colours or more
  • Writes some letters and numbers
  • Has a better idea on the concept of time
Tips:
  • Encourage your little one to draw. It stimulates his creativity and develops his fine motor skills.
  • Start helping your child write letters to his friends. This can double as a very sweet gift, as well as improve cognitive development related to literacy and memory. 
  • Make creative DIY projects with glue, scissors, and other art supplies. It’s really fun for your child and helps him be more familiar with different shapes.
  • Try and limit your child’s TV time to one hour (or less) of educational programs. As entertaining as it is, there are many other ways to stimulate your child.
When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • Your child is easily distracted
  • You child is unable to focus on a task for more than five minutes

Image source: Shutterstock

Social and Emotional Development

Your child’s wild imagination means he can lose in himself more complex pretend play that’s filled with drama and fantasy. You might notice that he can play with others much better as he works towards a common goal, like building a castle or staying away from a certain area. 

Your little one is also more agreeable and looks forward to playing with other children. You might notice he is more open to sharing his toys with his friends and compromises if someone doesn’t want to play a game. But just be aware he still might have the occasional meltdown when things don’t go his way! 

Tips:
  • Let your child choose activities with friends. Your little one gets the chance to be more sociable when discussing and even negotiating with his friends!
  • If any issues pop up between your child and his friends, let him figure out a way to resolve the situation. This helps your child learn how to compromise.
  • Talk with your child and give him your full attention. When you engage and ask about his preferences, as well as what he did that day, he will feel treasured and loved.
  • Your child loves to express himself! Encourage your child to dance, sing, and act – you can even join in!
When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • If your child is extremely afraid, shy, or aggressive
  • Your little one is very anxious when away from you
  • You child refuses to play with other children

Image source: Shutterstock

Speech and Language Development

Your 5 years 1 month old child is able to communicate his needs and wants verbally. He is also very good at understanding what you’re saying and has gained more knowledge of positional descriptions, such as “on top of” or “below”. Storytime becomes a lot more engaging as your tot can recall previous parts of the story. So when you read to them, it’s not just one-way traffic – expect him to excitedly tell you what happens next, or how he feels about certain characters!

So what are some of the cues for 5 years 1 month old child development and milestones to be aware of?

You child can:

  • Make words rhyme.
  • Say his full name.
  • Recall your address and phone number.
  • Speak clearly and is able to construct sentences with five or more words.

You’ll be surprised and impressed to know that your little one has a vocabulary of 20,000 words! It’s no wonder he expresses himself so well. But how he uses all of these words is key to developing his language and speech skills.

When he enters preschool, he will begin learning how to read for himself. Here are some suggestions for activities to engage with your child to help him work on his own reading competency.

Parenting Tips:
  • Keep reading to your child. Nurture the love for books and take him to the library. His vocabulary will continue to expand with more exposure to different and new books! 
  • Highlight and draw attention to frequently used words while reading with your child. Repetition helps your child remember new words when you point them out.
  • Chat with your little one about his surroundings and encourage him to describe what he sees.
When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • Your child really struggles to use the past tense correctly
  • Doesn’t use plurals
  • Stammers

Image source: Shutterstock

Health and Nutrition

Your 5 years 1 month old child will have gained up to 2.25kg and grown around 5.5 centimetres taller since his fourth birthday! Most children will be 17kg-20.3kg in weight and 106cm-112.2cm in height. His adult teeth might start to break through his gums and his vision is now 20/20.

As your little one will be incredibly active, it’s important for your child to have a balanced diet so he can continue growing at a healthy rate. He normally eats around 1300 calories, but it can be more depending on how active he is.

For portion sizes, here are some suggested guidelines to follow:

Food type Recommended portion size
Grains (6 small servings daily)

1 slice of bread

1/2 cup of cooked rice/pasta (80g)

Fats (3-4 servings daily) 1 teaspoon of butter/oil
Fruits and vegetables (5 servings daily)

1/2 – 1 small fruit

1/2 cup cooked or raw chopped vegetables (80g)

Meat (2 servings daily)

1-3 tablespoons of lean meat, or chicken, or fish

1 egg

5 tablespoons of peas and beans

Milk (3 servings daily)

3/4 cup of milk or yoghurt (177ml)

3/4 ounce of cheese (22g)

Vaccinations and Common Illnesses

By this age, most of your child’s vaccinations have already been covered. There are a few common ones that are given every year, like the flu shot. Check with your doctor for more information about this vaccination. 

In terms of illness, expect common colds and the flu as your child is exposed to bugs at preschool and builds his immunity.

When to Talk to Your Doctor:
  • If your child is gaining too much weight or is underweight, speak with your doctor for diet recommendations

References: WebMD, Healthy Children, Mayo Clinic

Your child’s previous month: 60 months

Your child’s next month: 62 months

The post Child development and milestones: Your 5-years-1-month-old appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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Your not-so-little 4 years 9 months old child is inching closer to the big “five.” At this stage, you’ll notice him becoming his own person and developing his own sense of identity. One of the most prominent 4 years 9 months old child development and milestones is his keen interest in taking initiative and displaying a desire to learn new things, while being responsible for his actions to some extent.

In this article, we explore your 4 years 9 months old child’s development and milestones. Keep in mind that because every child learns and develops at his own pace, it is not necessary that your child should hit all milestones at the same time as his peers.

If however, you are are worried about your child’s development, visit the doctor for a professional opinion.  

By this age, your child can draw and paint with purpose and is able to hold the marker or pen with a three-finger grasp. | Image courtesy: Shutterstock

4 Years 9 Months Old Child Development and Milestones: Is Your Child on Track? Physical development

Your 4 years 9 months old child has developed great self-control and ingenuity. He has also become more self-reliant and is able to master one-legged hops, and is even able to steer his toys away from “traffic” and other obstacles.

In addition to these, your little one should be able to: 

  • Walk in a straight line, by himself
  • Pedal and steer a toy around and away from obstacles
  • Throw a ball overhead and determine distance and aim
  • Run in a circle without help
  • Draw and paint with purpose and able to hold a marker or pen with a three-finger grasp
  • Use arms to increase his speed of running
  • Run, stop, and move, all the while manoeuvring around obstacles
  • Jump over objects 12 to 15 cm (5 to 6 in) in height and land with both feet together

In addition to these physical developments, you may also notice your tiny tot climbing ladders and trees with confidence. He is also able to reproduce a few shapes and sizes, which means his motor skills are fast developing.

Tips
  • Your little dynamo still requires a safe environment to hone those motor skills. Provide him with this, so that he can be a proper little explorer.
  • Give him time to practice and develop his motor skills. 
  • Start teaching him about shapes and sizes and encourage him to paint or draw. Practice creating new shapes with play-doh. These activities strengthen fine motor skills. 
  • Ask him to practice writing using a pencil or a chalk and teach him how to use a two-finger grasp. But don’t push this on him, let him take his time and get comfortable with this activity.
When to talk to your doctor

Your child

  • Is unable to walk straight, stand on one foot or jump
  • Has difficulty holding a pen at all and is unable to draw or identify any shapes at all

To help  him develop his motor skills, ask him to practice writing using a pencil or a crayon and teach him how to a two-finger grasp. But don’t push this on him. | Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Cognitive development

Cognitive skills are related to your child’s mental development. At this stage, not only is his imagination taking full flight, but he’s also adding layers to it and creating a whole new world of make-belief.

His outgoing personality implies that he is going to explore, ask questions, and delight in wordplay. This is the time when you should let his imagination run wild as he conjures up his own secret language.

One of the many 4 years 9 months old child development and milestones include the ability to read simple books and understand the sequence of daily events. So when you tell him, “Please brush your teeth,” or “Please get dressed for breakfast,” he will be able to understand and follow these instructions easily.

Your child can also:

  • Recognise similar sounding words
  • Name 18 to 20 letters and words
  • Understand the concept of “tallest,” “biggest,” “more,” “same”
  • Count to 20
  • Follow two to three step instructions given individually or in a group
  • When looking at images, recognise the missing person or animal
  • Is a very good storyteller

Tips

  • You might feel tempted to instruct your little storyteller to stop making up stories. But allowing him to use his imagination will help develop his cognitive skills.
  • Give him specific yet simple instructions in the morning so as to help him better understand his daily routine.
  • Practice counting objects and people, as well as words and alphabets. It’s also a good idea to practice puzzles with your child.    
When to talk to your doctor
  • If your child is unable to follow simple-two step instructions
  • If your child cannot count up to at least five
  • Cannot speak a short sentence

Help your little one learn numbers and words by practicing counting objects and people, as well as words and alphabets. | Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Social and Emotional Development

By this age, most kids are bursting with energy and are often outgoing, enthusiastic, and extremely playful. So be ready for a whole lot of running around and physical activities.

But it’s also an age when kids can be quite moody. So if they are happy and smiley sometimes, they can almost immediately switch to being upset or angry. 

One of the most common 4 years 9 months old child milestones pertaining to social skills is their desire to do participate in group activities. Interestingly, there are a lot many such social milestones including the following:

  • Wants to participate in group plays, and is overly friendly and excited
  • Can become boastful and hold conversations with imaginary friends, and might share a strong emotional bond with these said friends
  • Seeks frequent adult approval, and shows pride in accomplishment
  • He may appear a bit self-absorbed and might want to tattle on other kids
  • Your child may also want to boss others around and rely more on verbal rather than physical aggression.  

This is a crucial stage for both the parents and the kids because he is just now learning to properly interact with others. Communication is key at this stage and so as parents it’s important that you are clear with your instructions and you set a good example for him to follow.

Tips
  • Occasional tantrums are still common, but scolding or yelling is not the best way to deal with them. These are fleeting tantrums so your cool composure will force your kid to calm down as well.
  • Don’t stop him from enjoying his make-belief world with his imaginary friends. Let his imagination run wild.
  • Encourage him to engage in outdoor activities and with a large group of kids. If you see him being bossy, ask him to speak with his friends politely and why it’s necessary to show empathy.
When to talk to your doctor
  • If your kid struggles to express himself in simple sentences or simply refuses to interact with others
  • He displays erratic behaviour with extreme bouts of frustration or anger at you and his peers

Keep an eye on your child’s behaviour and if you find him/her sitting aloof way too often, consider that a red flag and speak with them immediately. | Image courtesy: Shutterstock

Speech and language development

One of the many 4 years 9 months old development and milestones includes the ability to communicate quite well. Your kid is now able to say complete and sometimes complex sentences such as: “I saw the cat run under the stairs and then climb that tree.”

At this stage, he will also be able to answer questions about him being hungry or cold. Plus, he will be able to recite simple poems and songs with ease. Don’t be surprised if you spot him using past tense such as: “Mummy closed the door,” or “Dad went out.”

These, however, are just a few of the many speech and language milestones he’ll hit at this stage. Expect the following as well:

  • Can now use prepositions such as “after,” “on,” “for”
  • Uses possessive terms correctly, so expect him to say “baby’s” or “daddy’s/mummy’s”
  • Refers to people, animals, objects, and things that are not present
  • Is able to alter the tone and structure of the sentence to adapt to the listener’s level of understanding. For instance, he can say “Want cookie?” to his baby sister and/or “I was going out but I wanted to say bye’ to you.”
  • Can answer to “who?” “why?” “when?” and “how?”
Tips

Your tiny tot is growing up fast, which means there is no longer any need for cutesy baby talk. Here are a few more things you can do:

  • Try talking to him as normally as you would with any other adult
  • Encourage him to answer in full sentences and to speak with those he doesn’t know yet (under your supervision)
  • Ask him the names of his siblings, parents and even home address and number. By this age, they are able to learn these basics quickly.
  • Practice framing proper sentences with him and recite poems or rhymes together  
When to talk to your doctor

If your child’s speech development worries you, you should speak with your paediatrician to ease your concern. But also keep an eye out for the following:

  • Is unable to speak intelligibly and appears to slur or struggle while framing sentences
  • He is not able to change the tone of his voice or adapt to the understanding level of the listener
Health and Nutrition

At 4 years 9 months old, your kid would approximately weigh around 18 kgs and be around three feet tall. He will also gain anywhere between two and three kilos of weight and grow between five and eight cms per year.

He also needs a minimum of  7,100 kJ (1,700 kcal) daily, plus plenty of sleep and regular nutrition.

Nutrient

Amount Needed Daily

What To Feed Them

Calcium & Vitamin D

1,000 milligrams of calcium and 3,000 IU (International Units) of vitamin D

3 cups of low-fat dairy products including one cup of cheese and yogurt and two cups of milk.

Iron

10 milligrams

4 small beef meatballs with spaghetti, or pork, poultry, and seafood patties; or an egg or a small chicken sandwich with beans and tomatoes on the side.

Vitamin C

No more than 650 milligrams/ day

One cup of strawberries, or one cup of tomato puree in spaghetti, or  a cup of sweet potatoes, green peppers, and an orange.

Vaccinations and Common Illnesses

Your child should be vaccinated for the following diseases by this age: 

Common illness you need to watch out for include polio, chicken pox, flu, measles, mumps, and whooping cough.

When to talk to your doctor

If you’ve been feeding your kid adequate amount of nutrients and you still notice the following, it’s best to take him to the doctor:

  • He is very short or underweight. 
  • Falls ill very often
  • Displays unexpected bruises or lumps. 

References: WebMD, CDC

Your child’s previous month: 56 months

Your child’s next month: 58 months

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The post Child Development and Milestones: Your 4-years-9-months-old appeared first on theAsianparent-Your Guide to Pregnancy, Baby & Raising Kids.

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