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If your kids use Snapchat, chances are they also use the popular new app YOLO along with it. Since it’s debut in May YOLO has been downloaded over 5 million times, and kids absolutely love it. Whether or not parents love it, however, remains to be seen.

But before rendering YOLO yet one more risky app (because frankly, all apps are dangerous if used recklessly) let’s take a closer look at what the attraction is for teens and how we can equip them to use it wisely.

Why kids love it

Snapchat is already where kids spend a lot of their time, and YOLO is an app specifically designed to work in tandem with the Snapchat interface. YOLO enhances that experience by allowing Snapchat users to invite other Snapchat friends to ask or answer questions anonymously. And who hasn’t been curious about what other people think about them or wish they could access how someone “really” feels about something? Kids can ask any number of questions such as if people think they are funny, if their new hairstyle works, how to lean on a big decision, or if others share their fear of clowns. The possibilities are endless. This kind of connection — without having to put your name on your answer — offers some a fresh level of honesty and peer connection.

What makes it risky

The exact reasons kids love YOLO — anonymity, curiosity, honesty — are why the app could (and by some reports already has) turn into the latest breeding ground for bullying. Similar to anonymous apps preceding YOLO such as Yik Yak and Saraha, users can say whatever they want without attaching their name. Apple and Google stores have banned similar anonymous apps over accusations of hate speech and bullying.

What parents can do 

Talk about the app with your kids. Pull YOLO up and see how your child is using the Q&A app and the kinds of questions and responses he or she is collecting. Discuss any concerns you see.

Discuss the risks of anonymity. There’s a psychological phenomenon known as the online disinhibition effect, which means people feel less attached and responsible for their actions when they feel removed from their real identities. In short, when people can be anonymous online, they tend to say things they’d never say to someone in person. Warn kids that when they open themselves up to anonymous comments, they can also be opening themselves up to hurt. So, proceed with caution.

Check privacy. The YOLO app is very vague about how its user data is shared. As with any popular app, be mindful of the permissions you grant. Periodically, consider going through your phone settings to review and edit what information an app is collecting. Check to see if an app has access to your photos, location, social map, health information, purchasing habits, contacts, calendar, camera, or more.

Limit YOLO circle. Likely, because the YOLO app went viral so quickly, the site does not include app policies or guidelines or how to report abuses, which is a problem. The only nod to safety is in a brief app description in the Apple store: “YOLO is for positive feedback only. Be kind, respectful, show compassion with other users; otherwise, you will be banned. Please, be mindful of what you send.” To reduce potential bullying, advise kids to only send their questions to people they know and trust with kind responses. If problems arise, encourage kids to delete the app.

Words have power. Removing your face and name from a comment does not dilute the power of the words shared. Remind kids that their words can either be used to build someone up or tear them down and that being “honest” with someone doesn’t include giving mean spirited opinions or taking part in online trends that allow an “anything goes” mentality, as was the case with the TBH (To Be Honest) app.

Consider the tone of a text. Remind your child that even when someone posts something, they may consider funny, it may not be funny to the person on the receiving end. Because of the vulnerability factor of Q & A apps, they can cause unnecessary drama. Intent and inflection often get lost online, and even a seemingly small comment can quickly escalate into a big deal. With more social networks taking steps to reduce online hate speech and bullying, users must do their part and think before posting sensitive comments.

Stress responsibility, and empathy. Relating to others with empathy — putting oneself in the shoes of another person to understand and share their feelings — is often harder to do online than face-to-face. Stress to your child the importance of being responsible online and remembering the real people, with real feelings on the other side of a blank text box.

New apps come out every day. Some catch on like wildfire, like YOLO, and others have traction for a while then fade into cyber oblivion. Regardless of an app’s staying power, discuss app safety with your kids openly and often. Also, as an added layer of protection on devices, consider security software to monitor device activity and block inappropriate apps and websites.

The post YOLO: What Parents Need to Know About the Anonymity App Kids Use with Snapchat appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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Now in its 22nd year, Black Hat is an information security event showcasing the latest research, newest technology, scariest threats, and biggest trends. Around 19,000 security professionals will be taking over Las Vegas’s Mandalay Bay during the six-day event.

Before the security world convenes the first week in August, I spoke with McAfee leadership and threat researchers about the major themes we should expect to see at Black Hat and DEF CON this year.

Q: What should attendees watch out for at this year’s Black Hat?

Steve Povolny, Head of Advanced Threat Research: This year will piggyback on some of the themes we’ve seen developing in recent Black Hat briefings, including a growing focus on emerging technologies such as autonomous and connected vehicles, blockchain, and 5G, among many others. Some of the key industries under extra scrutiny include industrial control systems, aviation and aerospace, and supply chain. Finally, there is a continued and now-standard focus on crypto, mobile, and cloud/virtualization security.

Douglas McKee, Senior Security Researcher: Once again, Black Hat will have a great variety of talks for both the offensive- and defensive-minded individual. One of the newest topics we are starting to see will be on deepfakes. As social engineering continues to have a large impact on every security discipline, the concept of deepfakes becomes something to watch out for.

Q: What topic(s) do you think will play an important role at this year’s Black Hat and DEF CON?

Povolny: I foresee vehicle security continuing to generate heavy interest, as well as cloud and virtualization attacks. The more popular mobile device sessions are typically well attended, and we’ve had a spate of recent high-profile vulnerabilities that may drive even heavier traffic this year. Industrial controls are receiving renewed focus, though I’m surprised to see little to nothing in the area of medical devices given the security research community’s focus on this topic for the last 12-18 months.

McKee: Topics focused around our critical infrastructure and transportation will continue to play an important role, as these topics are growing fast with a security focus. As major companies continue to strive towards greater automation, how we protect this automation will play a key role in our everyday lives.

Philippe Laulheret, Senior Security Researcher: Although it’s not new, hackers and security researchers are looking into the security of secondary targets and then pivoting towards their main goal, which is usually hardened and more difficult to reach. Of particular interest are two talks centering on communication modules, and few others concerning equipment. Targeting VoIP phones, printers, faxes, etc., is really interesting: These devices sit on the network, are hard to monitor, and if compromised, can be used as a stepping stone to attack other machines. At the same time, they’re also valuable targets for eavesdropping or stealing confidential information.

Q: What is one of the biggest cyber concerns in 2019, and how can consumers or enterprises stay protected?

Povolny: The BlueKeep vulnerability (CVE-2019-0708) is a prime example of what should be top of mind for both enterprises and consumers. As WannaCry quickly taught the world, eliminating legacy operating systems and defunct protocols should be a foremost priority. These systems tend to be the most valuable targets, as attackers can reach millions of targets quickly through self-propagating code. I anticipate we will likely still see BlueKeep exploited publicly, perhaps (and maybe likely) turned into a worm in 2019. This is a rare opportunity for consumers and enterprise to address a likely breach before it happens, and to invest extra attention into removing or securing similar systems.

McKee: In 2019 it is almost impossible to buy a device that doesn’t have an IP address; everything is network connected. As both consumers and enterprises, we need to stay vigilant about what devices and information we are allowing to connect to the internet. Both our homes and offices are only as strong as our weakest device. The industry needs to continue to invest in developing secure products from the beginning while consumers direct extra attention to what they are buying.

Q: What are you hoping to get out of Black Hat or DEF CON this year and what do you want your attendees to take away from your session?

Povolny: I’m always interested in which topics tend to generate the most interest and why. So, I will be curious to see if my assessments of the most interesting topics are on point and will be spending additional time networking with researchers and attendees to find out what is driving them towards the topic. I’ll be speaking on IoT security, which encompasses threats across many of the industries, devices, protocols and technologies being presented at this year’s Black Hat. I’m hoping to give attendees a better understanding of the breadth and depth of the problem space and what the impacts are to them by showing them first-hand research from McAfee’s Advanced Threat Research team on a few IoT targets.

McKee: As a security researcher, I am always most interested in what new techniques the industry has uncovered to continue to find new vulnerabilities. It’s a constant game between evolving protections and new bypasses. In my session at DEFCON, I hope to convey some of the new methods we have used over the last year. More importantly I hope to highlight how, when researchers work together with vendors, very critical vulnerabilities can be swiftly mitigated.

 Laulheret: My presentation, “Intro to Embedded Hacking—How You, Too, Can Find A Decade-old Bug In Widely Deployed Devices,” is part of the DC 101 track and has the same aspiration of sharing one’s passion. The goal of this track is to get people up to speed on topics they are not familiar with yet. Hardware hacking can be intimidating if you are coming from a software background or if you never had any electronic/electricity classes. What I really want for this session is to show people that hardware hacking is neither hard nor scary, and by learning the basics, they will be able to investigate devices from their day-to-day life, potentially finding previously unknown critical flaws. There’s something extremely empowering in gaining the ability to dissect devices that used to be magic black boxes sitting on your network.

Best ways to catch McAfee at Black Hat & DEF CON:

Speaking Sessions:

Black Hat: Internet of Threats – The Current State of IoT Device Security

Steve Povolny, Head of Advanced Threat Research

Wednesday, August 7 | 12:40pm PT | Business Hall Theater B

 

DEF CON: Intro to Embedded Hacking—How You, Too, Can Find A Decade-old Bug In Widely Deployed Devices

Philippe Laulheret, McAfee Security Researcher

Thursday, August 8 | 1:00pm PT | Paris Theater

 

DEF CON: HVACking: Understand the Difference Between Security and Reality

Douglas McKee, McAfee Senior Security Researcher

Mark Bereza, McAfee Security Researcher

Friday, August 9 | 1:00pm PT | Track 2

 

Booth Presence:

Visit us at Booth #914 and test your hacking skills with our Capture the Flag contest.

 

Be sure to follow @McAfee for real-time updates from the show throughout the week.

The post Black Hat 2019: Q&A with McAfee appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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If you’ve been on social media recently, you’ve probably seen some people in your feed posting images of themselves looking elderly. That’s because FaceApp, an AI face editor that went viral in 2017, is making a major comeback with the so-called FaceApp Challenge — where celebrities and others use the app’s old age filter to add decades onto their photos. While many folks have participated in the fun, there are some concerns about the way that the app operates when it comes to users’ personal privacy.

According to Forbes, over 100,000 million people have reportedly downloaded FaceApp from the Google Play Store and the app is the number one downloaded app on the Apple App Store in 121 different countries. But what many of these users are unaware of is that when they download the app, they are granting FaceApp full access to the photos they have uploaded. The company can then use these photos for their benefit, such as training their AI facial recognition algorithm. And while there is currently nothing to indicate that the app is taking photos for malicious intent, it is important for users to be aware that their personal photos may be used for other purposes beyond the original intent.

So, how can users enjoy the entertainment of apps like FaceApp without sacrificing their privacy? Follow these tips to help keep your personal information secure:

  • Think before you upload. It’s always best to err on the side of caution with any personal data and think carefully about what you are uploading or sharing. A good security practice is to only share personal data, including personal photos, when it’s truly necessary.
  • Update your settings. If you’re concerned about FaceApp having permission to access your photos, it’s time to assess the tools on your smartphone. Check which apps have access to information like your photos and location data. Change permissions by either deleting the app or changing your settings on your device.

And, of course, to stay updated on all of the latest consumer and mobile security threats, follow @McAfee_Home on Twitter, listen to our podcast Hackable?, and ‘Like’ us on Facebook.

The post Downloaded FaceApp? Here’s How Your Privacy is Now Affected appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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Phishing attacks, in which scammers try to trick you out of your private information or money, are one of the most prevalent threats we see today. Part of the problem is that the cybercriminals have numerous ways in which to hook you, either online, over the phone, or even in person.

In today’s busy world we are often bombarded with information and it can be hard to tell who to trust, and when to be wary. But given that new phishing web pages grew by 900,000 in the third-quarter of 2018 alone, costing consumers and businesses potentially billions of dollars, it’s worth learning more about common phishing lures and how to avoid them. After all, most malware is delivered by phishing attacks, and malware grew by a stunning 53% in the third quarter of last year.

The first thing you should know about phishing is that it almost always involves a form of “social engineering”, in which the scammer tries to manipulate you into trusting them for fraudulent purposes, often by pretending to be a legitimate person or business.

You can get a better idea of how this works by learning about some of the most popular threats circulating today, the first of which are a growing number of business-related scams:

  • The CEO/Executive Scam—This scam appears as an email from a leader in your organization, asking for highly sensitive information like company accounts, employee salaries and Social Security numbers, or even sensitive client information.The hackers “spoof”, or fake, the executive’s email address so it looks like a legitimate internal company email. That’s what makes this, and the other business scams, so convincing—the lure is that you want to do your job well and please your coworkers.
  • The Business Entity Scam—This one targets corporations with the clever trick of filing phony Statements of Information with the Secretary of State using the government’s website. The fraudsters then use these doctored statements to apply for hard money loans, using them to prove they have assets. This scam works because the states don’t double check corporate statements for accuracy.
  • File Sharing & DocuSign—Phony requests to access files in Dropbox accounts are on the rise, tricking workers into clicking on dangerous links that download malware. There has also been a rash of threats masquerading as requests to electronically sign documents, pretending to be legitimate services like DocuSign, which is often used for real estate and other important transactions.
  • The Urgent Email Attachment—Phishing emails that try to trick you into downloading a dangerous attachment that can potentially infect your computer and steal your private information have been around for a long time. This is because they work. You’ve probably received emails asking you to download attachments confirming a package delivery, trip itinerary, or prize. They might urge you to “respond immediately!” The lure here is offering you something you want, and invoking a sense of urgency to get you to click.
  • The “Lucky” Phone Call—How fortunate! You’ve won a free gift, an exclusive service, or a great deal on a trip to Las Vegas. Just remember, whatever “limited time offer” you’re being sold, it’s probably a phishing scam designed to get you to give up your credit card number or identity information. The lure here is something free or exciting at what appears to be little or no cost to you.
  • The Romance Scam—This one can happen completely online, over the phone, or in person once contact is established. But the romance scam always starts with someone supposedly looking for love. The scammer often puts a phony ad online, or poses as a friend-of-a-friend on social media and contacts you directly. But what starts as the promise of love or partnership, often leads to requests for money or pricey gifts. The lure here is simple—love and acceptance.
  • The Mobile Phish—Our heavy use of mobile devices have given scammers yet another avenue of attack. They may distribute fake mobile apps that secretly gather your personal information in the background, or they could send phony text messages, inviting you to click on a dangerous link. Either way, you may be misled by a false sense of trust in who has access to your mobile device. In this case, you may be lured by the convenience of an app, or expediency of a message.

Here are some more smart ways not to get hooked:

  • Be wary of anyone who asks for more information than they need, even if you are talking to a company or bank you do business with.
  • When responding to a message, first check to see if you recognize the sender’s name and email address.
  • Before clicking on a link, hover over it to see if the URL address looks legitimate.
  • Before logging into an online account, make sure the web address is correct.
    Phishers often forge legitimate websites, like online storage accounts, hoping to trick you into entering your login details.
  • Avoid “free” offers, or deals that sound too good to be true. They probably are.
  • Review your bank statements and business filings on a regular basis to check for suspicious activities.
  • Always use comprehensive security software to protect your devices and information from malware and other threats that might result from a phishing scam.

Looking for more mobile security tips and trends? Be sure to follow @McAfee Home on Twitter, and like us on Facebook.

 

The post How to Spot Phishing Lures appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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Healthcare is a business much like all verticals I work with; however, it has a whole different set of concerns beyond those of traditional businesses. The compounding threats of malware, data thieves, supply chain issues, and the limited understanding of security within healthcare introduces astronomical risk. Walking through a hospital a few weeks ago, I was quickly reminded of how many different devices are used in healthcare—CT scanners, traditional laptops, desktops, and various other devices that could be classified as IoT.

Sitting in the hospital, I witnessed people reporting for treatment being required to sign and date various forms electronically. Then, on a fixed-function device, patients were asked to provide a palm scan for additional biometric confirmation. Credit card information, patient history, and all sorts of other data was also exchanged. In my opinion, patients should be asking, “Once the sign-in process is complete, where is the patient data stored, and who has access to it? Is it locked away, encrypted, or sent to the “cloud” where it’s stored and retrieved as necessary? If it’s stored on the cloud, who has access to that?” I do recall seeing a form asking that I consent to releasing records electronically, but that brings up a whole new line of questions. I could go on and on …

Are these challenges unique to healthcare? I would contend that at some level, no, they’re not. Every vertical I work with has compounding pressures based on the ever-increasing attack surface area. More devices mean more potential vulnerabilities and risk. Think about your home: You no doubt have internet access through a device you don’t control, a router, and many other devices attached to that network. Each device generally has a unique operating system with its own set of capabilities and with its own set of complexities. Heck, my refrigerator has an IP address associated with it these days! In healthcare, the risks are the same, but on a bigger scale. There are lives at stake, and the various staff members—from doctors, to nurses, to administrators—are there to hopefully focus on the patient and the experience. They don’t have the time or necessarily the education to understand the threat landscape—they simply need the devices and systems in the hospital network to “just work.”

Many times, I see doctors in hospital networks and clinics get fed up with having to enter and change passwords. As a result, they’ll bring in their personal laptops to bypass what IT security has put in place. Rogue devices have always been an issue, and since those devices are accessing patient records without tight security controls, they are a conduit for data loss. Furthermore, that data is being accessed from outside the network using cloud services. Teleradiology is a great example of how many different access points there are for patient data—from the referring doctor, to the radiologist, to the hospital, and more.

Figure 1:  Remote Teleradiology Architecture

With healthcare, as in most industries, the exposure risk is potentially great. The solution, as always, will come from identifying the most important thing that needs to be protected, and figuring out the best way to safeguard it. In this case, it is patient data, but that data is not just sitting locked up in a file cabinet in the back of the office anymore. The data is everywhere—it’s on laptops, mobile devices, servers, and now more than ever in cloud services such as IaaS, PaaS and SaaS. Fragmented data drives great uncertainty as to where the data is and who has access to it.

The security industry as a whole needs to step up. There is a need for a unified approach to healthcare data. No matter where it sits, there needs to be some level of technical control over it based on who needs access to it. Furthermore, as that data is traversing between traditional data centers and the cloud, we need to be able to track where it is and whether or not it has the right permissions assigned to it.

The market has sped up, and new trends in technology are challenging organizations every day. In order to help you keep up, McAfee for Healthcare (and other verticals) are focusing on the following areas:

  • Device – OS platforms—including mobile devices, Chromebooks and IoT—are increasingly locked down, but the steadily increasing number of devices provides other avenues for attack and data loss.
  • Network – Networks are becoming more opaque. HTTP is rarely used anymore in favor of HTTPS, so the need for a CASB safety net is essential in order to see the data stored with services such as Box or OneDrive.
  • Cloud – With workloads increasingly moving to the cloud, the traditional datacenter has been largely replaced by IaaS and PaaS environments. Lines of business are moving to the cloud with little oversight from the security teams.
  • Talent – Security expertise is extremely difficult to find. The talent shortage is real, particularly when it comes to cloud and cloud security. There is also a major shortage in quality security professionals capable of threat hunting and incident response.

McAfee has a three-pronged approach to addressing and mitigating these concerns:

  • Platform Approach – Unified management and orchestration with a consistent user experience and differentiated insights, delivered in the cloud.
    • To enhance the plaform, there is a large focus on Platform Driven Managed Services—focused on selling outcomes, not just technology.
  • Minimized Device Footprint – Powerful yet minimally invasive protection, detection and response spanning full-stack tech, native engine management and ‘as a service’ browser isolation. This is becoming increasingly important as the typical healthcare environment has an increasing variety of endpoints but contuinues to be limited in resources such as RAM and CPU.
  • Unified Cloud Security – Spanning data centers, integrated web gateway/SaaS, DLP and CASB. The unification of these technologies provides a safety net for data moving to the cloud, as well as the ability to enforce controls as data moves from on-prem to cloud services. Furthermore, the unification of DLP and CASB offers a “1 Policy” for both models, making administration simpler and more consistent. Consistent policy definition and enforcement is ideal for healthcare, where patient data privacy is essential.

In summary, security in healthcare is a complex undertaking. A vast attack surface area, the transformation to cloud services, the need to for data privacy and the talent shortage compound the overall problem of security in healthcare. At McAfee, we plan to address these issues through innovative technologies that offer a consistent way to define policy by leveraging a superior platform. We’re also utilizing sophisticated machine learning to simplify the detection of and response to bad actors and malware. These technologies are ideal for healthcare and will offer any healthcare organization long-term stability across the spectrum of security requirements.

The post Data Privacy and Security Risks in Healthcare appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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Everyday thousands of people receive emails with malicious attachments in their email inbox. Disguised as a missed payment or an invoice, a cybercriminal sender tries to entice a victim to open the document and enable the embedded macro. This macro then proceeds to pull in a whole array of nastiness and infect a victim’s machine. Given the high success rate, malicious Office documents remain a preferred weapon in a cyber criminal’s arsenal. To take advantage of this demand and generate revenue, some criminals decided to create off-the-shelf toolkits for building malicious Office documents. These toolkits are mostly offered for sale on underground cybercriminal forums.

Announced today, the Dutch National High-Tech Crime Unit (NHTCU) arrested an individual suspected of building and selling such a criminal toolkit named the Rubella Macro Builder. McAfee Advanced Threat Research spotted the Rubella toolkit in the wild some time ago and was able to provide NHTCU with insights that proved crucial in its investigation. In the following blog we will explain some of the details we found that helped unmask the suspected actor behind the Rubella Macro Builder.

What is an Office Macro Builder?

An Office Macro Builder is a toolkit designed to weaponize an Office document so it can deliver a malicious payload by the use an obfuscated macro code that purposely tries to bypass endpoint security defenses. By using a toolkit dedicated to this purpose, an actor can push out higher quantities of malicious documents and successfully outsource the first stage evasion and delivery process to a specialized third party. Below is an overview with the general workings of an Office Macro Builder. The Defense evasion shown here is specific to Rubella Office Macro Builder. Additional techniques can be found in other builders.

Dutch Language OpSec fail….

Rubella Macro Builder is such a toolkit and was offered by an actor by the same nickname “Rubella”. The toolkit was marketed with colorful banners on different underground forums. For the price of 500 US Dollars per month you could use his toolkit to weaponize Office documents that bypass end-point security systems and deliver a malicious payload or run a PowerShell Code of your choice.

Rubella advertisement banner

In one of Rubella’s forum postings the actor was detailing the toolkit and that it managed to bypass the Windows Anti Malware Scan Interface (AMSI) present in Windows 10. To prove this success, the post contained a link to a screenshot. Being a Dutch researcher, this screenshot immediately stood out because of the Dutch version of Microsoft Word that was used. Dutch is a very uncommon language, only a small percentage of the world’s population speaks it, let alone an even smaller percentage of cybercriminals who use it.

The linked screenshot with the Dutch version of Microsoft Word.

Interestingly enough we reported last year on the individuals behind Coinvault ransomware. One of the reasons they got caught was the use of flawless Dutch in their code. With this in the back of our minds we decided to go deeper down the rabbit hole.

Forum Research

We looked further into the large amount of posts by Rubella to learn more about the person behind the builder. The actor Rubella was actually promoting a variety of different, some self-written, products and services, ranging from (stolen) credit card data, a crypto wallet stealer and a malicious loader software to a newly pitched product called Tantalus ransomware-as-a-service.

During our research we were able to link different nicknames used by the actor on several forums across a timespan of many years. Piecing it all together, Rubella showed a classic growth pattern of an aspiring cybercriminal, started by gaining technical security knowledge on beginner forums with low op-sec and gradually moved to some of the bigger, exclusive forums to offer products and services.

PDB path Breitling

One of the posts Rubella placed on a popular hacker forum was promoting a piece of free software the actor coded to spoof email. The posting contained a link to VirusTotal and included a SHA-256 hash of the software. This gained our interest since it provided a possibility to link the adversary to the capability.

Email spoofer posting including the VirusTotal link 

Closer examination of the piece of software on VirusTotal showed that the mail Spoofer contained a debug or PDB path “C:\Users\Breitling”. Even though the username Breitling isn’t very revealing about an actual person, leaving such a specific PDB path within malware is a classic mistake.

By pivoting on the specific PDB path we found additional samples on VirusTotal, including a file that was named RubellaBuilder.exe, which was a version of the Macro builder that Rubella was offering. Later in the blog post we will take a closer look at the builder itself.

Finding additional samples with the Breitling PDB path

Since Breitling was most likely the username used on the development machine, we were wondering if we could find Office documents that were crafted on the same machine and thus also containing the author name Breitling. We found an Office document with Breitling as author and the document happened to be created with a Dutch version of Microsoft Word.

The Word document containing the author name Breitling.

Closer inspection of the content of the Word document revealed that it also contained a string with the familiar Jabber account of Rubella; Rubella(@)exploit.im.

The Malicious document containing the string with the actor’s jabber account.

Circling back to the forums we found an older posting under one of the nicknames we could link to Rubella. In this posting the actor is asking for advice on how to add a registry key using C#. They placed another screenshot to show the community what they were doing. This behavior clearly shows a lack of skill but at the same time his thirst for knowledge.

Older posting where the actor asks for help.

A closer look at the screenshot revealed the same PDB path C:\Users\Breitling\.

Screenshot with the Breitling PDB path

Chatting with Rubella

Since Rubella was quite extroverted on the underground forums and had stated Jabber contact details in advertisements we decided to carefully initiate contact with him in the hope that we would get access to some more information. About a week after we added Rubella to our Jabber contact list, we received a careful “Hi.” We started talking and posing as a potential buyer, carefully mentioning our interest the Rubella Macro Builder. During this chat Rubella was quite responsive and as a real businessperson, mentioned that he was offering a new “more exclusive” Macro Builder named Dryad. Rubella proceeded to share a screenshot of Dryad with us.

Screenshot of Dryad shared by Rubella

 Eventually we ended our conversation in a friendly manner and told Rubella we would be in touch if we remained interested.

Dryad Macro Builder

Based on the information provided from the chat with Rubella we performed a quick search for Dryad Macro Builder. We eventually found a sample of the Dryad Macro Builder and decided to further analyze this sample and compare it for overlap with the Rubella Macro Builder.

PE Summary

We noticed that the program was coded in .NET Assembly which is usually a preferred language for less skilled malware coders.

Dynamic Analysis

When we ran the application, it asked us to enter a login and password in order to run.

We also noticed a number-generated HWID (Hardware-ID) that was always the same when running the app. The HWID number is a unique identifier specific to the machine it was running on and was used to register the app.

When trying to enter a random name we detected a remote connection to the website ‘hxxps://tailoredtaboo.com/auth/check.php’ to verify the license.

The request is made with the following parameters ‘hwid=<HWID>&username=<username>&password=<password>’.

Once the app is running and registered it shows the following interface.

In this interface it is possible to see the function proposed by the app and it was similar to the screenshot that was shared during our chat.

Basically, the tool allows the following:

  • Download and execute a malicious executable from an URL
  • Execute a custom command
  • Type of payload can be exe, jar, vbs, pif, scr
  • Modify the dropped filename
  • Load a stub for increase obfuscation
  • Generate a Word or Excel document

It contains an Anti-virus Evasion tab:

  • Use encryption and modify the encryption key
  • Add junk code
  • Add loop code

It also contains a tab which is still in development:

  • Create Jscript or VBscript
  • Download and execute
  • Payload URL
  • Obfuscation with base64 and AMSI bypass which are not yet developed.
Reverse Engineering

The sample is coded in .Net without any obfuscation. We can see in the following screenshot the structure of the file.

Additionally, it uses the Bunifu framework for the graphic interface. (https://bunifuframework.com/)

Main function

The main function launches the interface with the pre-configuration options. We can see here the link to putty.exe (also visible in the screenshots) for the payload that needs to be changed by the user.

Instead of running an executable, it is also possible to run a command.

By default, the path for the stub is the following:

We can clearly see here a link with Rubella.

Licensing function

To use the program, it requires a license, that the user has to enter from the login form.

The following function shows the login form.

To validate the license the program will perform some check and combine a Hardware ID, a username and a password.

The following function generates the hardware id.

It gets information from ‘Win32_Processor class’ to generate the ID.

It collects information from:

  • UniqueId: Globally unique identifier for the processor. This identifier may only be unique within a processor family.
  • ProcessorId: Processor information that describes the processor features.
  • Name: This value comes from the Processor Version member of the Processor Information structure in the SMBIOS information.
  • Manufacturer: This value comes from the Processor Manufacturer member of the Processor Information structure.
  • MaxClockSpeed: Maximum speed of the processor, in MHz.

Then it will collect information from the ‘Win32_BIOS class’.

  • Manufacturer: This value comes from the Vendor member of the BIOS Information structure.
  • SMBIOSVersion: This value comes from the BIOS Version member of the BIOS Information structure
  • IdentificationCode: Manufacturer’s identifier for this software element.
  • SerialNumber: Assigned serial number of the software element.
  • ReleaseDate: Release date of the..
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USB drives seem harmless enough and they’re a convenient way to store, back up, or transfer files from your computer. So If you spot a USB drive sitting on the ground or in your office, should you assume someone lost their files? Or is it a hacker baiting you into compromising your computer and network?

On the latest episode of “Hackable?” Geoff learns if USB drives are dangerous and — with the help of white-hat hacker Tim Martin — sets his own trap for Pedro. Listen and learn how to protect your network from dropped drives, and if Pedro takes the bait.

Listen now to the award-winning podcast “Hackable?”.

The post Could a Dropped USB Drive Expose You to Malware? appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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USB drives seem harmless enough and they’re a convenient way to store, back up, or transfer files from your computer. So If you spot a USB drive sitting on the ground or in your office, should you assume someone lost their files? Or is it a hacker baiting you into compromising your computer and network?

On the latest episode of “Hackable?” Geoff learns if USB drives are dangerous and — with the help of white-hat hacker Tim Martin — sets his own trap for Pedro. Listen and learn how to protect your network from dropped drives, and if Pedro takes the bait.

Listen now to the award-winning podcast “Hackable?”.

The post Could a Dropped USB Drive Expose You to Malware? appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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Whether you’re managing your enterprise’s cybersecurity or you’ve outsourced it to a service provider, you’re ultimately the one that will be held accountable for a data breach. If your vendor loses your data, your customers and board of directors will likely still hold you responsible.

McAfee’s recent report, Grand Theft Data II: The Drivers and Shifting State of Data Breaches, reveals a majority of IT professionals have experienced at least one data breach, and on average have dealt with six breaches over the course of their career. Nearly three-quarters of all breaches have required public disclosure or have affected financial results.

Enterprise threats are increasing in number and sophistication, while rapidly targeting new vulnerabilities. And while, the top three vectors for exfiltrating data were database leaks, cloud applications, and removable USB drives, IT professionals are most worried about leaks from cloud enterprise applications such as Microsoft OneDrive, Cisco WebEx, and Salesforce.com.

Cybersecurity hygiene best practices must not only be established but updated and followed to keep up with these agile, versatile threats. Here are eight steps your business should be taking to implement better cybersecurity hygiene:

  1. Educate Your Teams All employees are part of an organization’s security posture. And yet, 61% of IT professionals say their executives expect more lenient security policies for themselves, and 65% of those respondents believe this leniency results in more incidents. Do as I say, not as I do can be dangerous. It’s imperative that you develop a continuing cybersecurity education program for all enterprise teams including best practices for passwords and how to detect phishing emails. Your program should include re-education processes for your IT team on breach targets such as default accounts and missing patches.
  2. Timely Patches and Updates – The Data Exfiltration Report found that IT was implicated in most data breaches, and much of this can be attributed to failures in cybersecurity hygiene, such as the failure to get a security patch out across the enterprise within 24 to 72 hours. Or failing to check that all available updates are accepted on every device. The vulnerabilities these patches and updates are designed to address can remain vulnerable for months despite the availability of the fixes. Cloud and SaaS operations have proven that automated patching testing and deployment works well with minimal downside risk.
  3. Implement Data Loss Policies (DLP) Data loss prevention requires thinking through the data, the applications, and the users. Most security teams continue to operate in isolation, with 81% reporting separate policies or management consoles for cloud access security brokers (CASBs) and data loss prevention (DLP). It is more important than ever to have a set of consistent Data Loss Prevention (DLP) policies that protect data everywhere it’s stored, including the cloud and corporate endpoints, networks, or unmanaged devices.
  4. Pay Attention to Cloud Security Settings – Cloud applications are where the bulk of your data resides, and data is what most cybercriminals are after. As Dev Ops moves more workloads to the cloud your enterprise needs to pay attention to the security setting of the cloud instances it uses and be aware of the security associated with the underlying infrastructure. Many security measures and considerations in the cloud are the same as on-prem, but some are different. Understanding the security of the cloud you choose and the applications that you use in the cloud are a critical part of securely navigating digital transformation.
  5. Technology Integration and Automation – One of the top actions cited for reducing future breach risks is integrating the various security technologies into a more cohesive defense. A lack of integration between security products allows suspicious activity to dwell unnoticed. If an attack is identified and blocked, all entry points should be instantly informed. If a compromised device is detected, security products should automatically scan all other devices for evidence of similar compromise, and quarantine affected systems. Automation allows machines to make these decisions based on policy set by the security team and accelerates time to detection and remediation without incurring material risk of unintended IT consequences.
  6. Deploy and Activate CASB, DLP, EDR – A Cloud Attack Security Broker (CASB) automatically classifies sensitive information, enforces security policies such as data loss prevention, rights management, data classification, threat protection, and encryption. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) safeguards intellectual property and ensures compliance by protecting sensitive data. Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR) can help your enterprise gain visibility into emerging threats with little maintenance and by monitoring endpoint activity, detecting suspicious behavior, making sense of high-value data, and understanding context. EDR can also reduce your need for additional SOC resources.
  7. Run Proper Device Audits –It’s important to regularly review device encryption on all devices including laptops, tablets, and mobile phones. Using multifactor identification strengthens your security beyond common sense steps like evaluating and promoting password strength.
  8. Have an Incident Response Plan – You may have only minutes and hours to act on a cyberattack. Good intentions aren’t enough to effectively respond and remedy a security breach. Be prepared before it happens. An Incident Response Plan is integral in helping your enterprise respond more effectively, reduce business disruptions and a loss of reputation.

For more on how to improve your enterprise’s cybersecurity hygiene using automation, integration, and cloud-based deployment and analytics, check out McAfee MVISION EDR.

The post Cybersecurity Hygiene: 8 Steps Your Business Should be Taking appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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The past few weeks have proven to be wins for family safety with several top social networks announcing changes to their policies and procedures to reduce the amount of hateful conduct and online bullying.

Twitter: ‘Dehumanizing Language Increases Risk’

In response to rising violence against religious minorities, Twitter said this week that it would update its hateful conduct rules to include dehumanizing speech against religious groups.

“Our primary focus is on addressing the risks of offline harm, and research shows that dehumanizing language increases that risk . . . we’re expanding our rules against hateful conduct to include language that dehumanizes others based on religion,” the company wrote on its Twitter Safety blog.

Twitter offered two resources that go in-depth on the link between dehumanizing language and offline harm that is worth reading and sharing with your kids. Experts Dr. Susan Benesch and Nick Haslam and Michelle Stratemeyer define hate speech, talk about its various contexts, and advise on how to counter it.

Instagram: ‘This intervention gives people a chance to reflect.’ 

Instagram announced it would be rolling out two new features to reduce potentially offensive content. The first, powered by artificial intelligence, prompts users to pause before posting. For instance, if a person is about to post a cruel comment such as “you are so stupid,” the user will get a pop-up notification asking, “are you sure you want to post this?”

A second anti-bullying function new to Instagram is called “Restrict,” a setting that will allow users to indiscreetly block bullies from looking at your account. Restrict is a quieter way to cut someone off from seeing your content than blocking, reporting, or unfollowing, which could spark more bullying.

These digital safety moves by both Instagram and Twitter are big wins for families concerned about the growing amount of questionable content and bullying online.

If you get a chance, go over the basics of these new social filters with your kids.

Other ways to avoid online bullying:

Wise posting. Encourage kids to pause and consider tone, word choice, and any language that may be offensive or hurtful to another person, race, or gender. You are your child’s best coach and teacher when it comes to using social apps responsibly.

Stay positive and trustworthy. Coach kids around online conflict and the importance of sharing verified information. Encourage your child to be part of the solution in stopping rumors and reporting digital skirmishes and dangerous content to appropriate platforms.

Avoid risky apps. Apps like ask.fm allow anonymity should be off limits. Kik Messenger, Yik Yak, Tinder, Down, and Whisper may also present risks. Remember: Any app is risky if kids are reckless with privacy settings, conduct, content, or the people they allow to connect with them.

Layer security. Use a comprehensive solution to help monitor screentime, filter content, and monitor potentially risky apps and websites.

Monitor gaming communities. Gaming time can skyrocket during the summer and in a competitive environment, so can cyberbullying. Listen in and monitor game time conversations and make every effort to help him or her balance summer gaming time.

Make profiles and photos private. Require kids under 18 to make all social profiles private. By doing this, you limit online circles to known friends and reduces the possibility of cyberbullying and online conflict.

The post Family Safety: Twitter, Instagram Beef Up Measures to Fight Hate Speech, Bullying appeared first on McAfee Blogs.

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