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2019-2020 Art Contest

Rules

Contestants must be 18-years-old or younger and have been impacted by or know someone affected by pediatric cancer in any capacity.

Submissions must be scannable on white unlined 8.5 x 11 inch paper.

Artist name and title of artwork must be on back of the entered piece.

Winners will be chosen by a voting committee.

There will be 13 winners:

  • One winner will be featured on the cover of the calendar and receive (1) *specs* iPad!
  • 12 winners will fill out each month of the year and receive an NPCF t-shirt and PopSocket!

The deadline for entry is ___. You can submit via mail.

Guidelines

Art should be based around the themes of inspiring hope and strength and must incorporate NPCF’s trademark sun logo.

[Sun Logo]

Previous examples of calendar pages can be found here.

Ready to Submit?


Mail your art and completed entry form to [addy]

Scan your art (examples further down) and attach it in an email with a completed entry form to someone@nationalpcf.org with “NPCF Art Contest” in the subject line.

Past Winners!

The post NPCF 2019-2020 Art Contest appeared first on National Pediatric Cancer Foundation.

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TAMPA, FL, June 3, 2019 – The National Pediatric Cancer Foundation (NPCF) – the top-rated cancer charity according to Charity Navigator – is partnering with The SebastianStrong Foundation to advance research into less toxic cures for pediatric cancers. SebastianStrong Foundation has awarded researchers associated with NPCF’s Sunshine Initiative grants to help fund two different research studies. One study will address “Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma” and the other addresses “Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors for High-Risk Neuroblastoma Therapy”. Mr. Oscar Ortiz, Founder of SebastianStrong and father of the foundation’s namesake, states “We are proud to establish and award an annual research grant to be named SebastianStrong Discovery Science Award at the $250,000 level. We believe that by partnering with the NPCF and their ability to bring together leading doctors and researchers across the nation to fund research that fast-tracks less toxic, more targeted treatments by encouraging collaboration across hospitals is the best usage of our resources. This year, we have chosen to make two Discovery Science Awards, both fully funded over a 2-year period for a total of $500,000”.

Every day, 43 children are diagnosed with cancer and 43 families are faced with a future of uncertainty. Cancer is the number one cause of death by disease among children, yet only 4% of the billions of dollars spent annually on cancer research and treatment is directed toward pediatric cancer. Since 1980, fewer than 10 drugs have been developed for use in children with cancer, which means most children are treated with drugs designed specifically for adults, often leading to significant health-related issues later in life.

The National Pediatric Cancer Foundation supports unique and innovative research through a collaborative model (The Sunshine Project) with 24 hospitals nationwide. Mr. David Frazer (CEO) states, “we are both humbled and grateful for the support being provided by SebastianStrong. We strongly believe that by working together, we can accomplish mutual goals”.

About Sebastian Strong:
Sebastian Strong’s mission is to raise awareness and funds for less toxic, more targeted childhood cancer cures. For more information, visit www.sebastianstrong.org

About the National Pediatric Cancer Foundation:
The National Pediatric Cancer Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to funding research to eliminate childhood cancer through the Sunshine Project, the Foundation’s collaborative research initiative. By partnering with doctors and researchers from the country’s top institutions, the Sunshine Project is fast-tracking the development of new drugs and therapies that will ultimately lead to the cure of childhood cancers. For more information, visit www.NationalPCF.org

The post Pediatric Cancer Charities Partner to Fund $500,000 in Research appeared first on National Pediatric Cancer Foundation.

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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma starts in immature forms of nerve cells (called neuroblasts) usually found in the embryo or fetus.

Neuroblastoma occurs most often in young children or infants and rarely occurs in children over 10 years old. This type of cancer affects the sympathetic nervous system so neuroblastomas can be found anywhere along this system.

The most common starting location of neuroblastoma is the sympathetic nerve ganglia around the adrenal glands which sit on top of the kidneys. However, neuroblastoma can develop in nerve cells located in other parts of the abdomen, chest, neck, or spinal area.

Neuroblastomas vary in behavior with some spreading quickly and others growing slowly. Sometimes the cancer will die for no apparent reason and go away on its own. Treatment for your child will vary depending on the kind of neuroblastoma diagnosed.


What are the symptoms of neuroblastoma?

Symptoms will depend on what area of the body is affected by the neuroblastoma.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma in the abdomen (the most common form) include:
  • Abdominal pain
  • A mass under the skin
  • Diarrhea or constipation
Symptoms of neuroblastoma in the chest include:
  • Wheezing
  • Chest pain
  • Eye changes such as drooping eyelids or unequal pupil size
Other general signs include:
  • Lumps of tissue underneath the skin
  • Proptosis
  • General pain or fever
  • Bone pain
  • Inexplicable weight loss

Are there any known risk factors?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of developing a disease such as cancer. Different diseases have different risk factors.

Having a family history of neuroblastoma may increase the likelihood of developing neuroblastoma, but these sorts of cases are few. In most cases, there is never an identifiable cause of neuroblastoma.


How are neuroblastomas treated?

Treatment of neuroblastoma depends on several aspects of the cancer such as the risk group, the patient’s age, their overall health, and may include one or more forms of treatment.

Low risk cases are not very intensive and, due to the chance of the tumor maturing or going away on its own, have the possibility of not needing treatment at all! If the tumor needs to be removed, surgery may be required. Chemotherapy may also be used if the tumor does not go away after surgery or if the child starts showing symptoms. Children with low risk neuroblastomas should be watched carefully to ensure that the neuroblastoma safely goes away or is treated accordingly.

Intermediate risk cases require more intense treatment. Surgery is often necessary and mixed with other forms of treatment such as chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is usually only required in cases of emergency or if the disease does not respond to chemotherapy.

High risk cases demand the most aggressive forms of treatment and involve a mix of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell transplant, immunotherapy, and retinoid therapy. Treatment is split up into three phases, the first being induction, in which the doctors will try to destroy as much of the cancer as possible to force the disease into remission. The second phase is consolidation, which uses more intensive treatments to clean up remaining cancer cells. The last phase is maintenance, which is focused on lowering the chance of the cancer coming back.


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Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Leukemias are cancers that begin in cells that would normally develop into blood cells. Leukemias most often affect white blood cells, but some forms of the disease may start in other blood cell types. There are several types of leukemias out there based on how fast they grow and in what cells they start in.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, is the second most common type of leukemia in children (behind acute lymphocytic leukemia, or ALL). “Acute” means that the disease spreads quickly (and is likely fatal if not caught early) and “myeloid” or “myelogenous” means it affects myeloids, a type of white blood cell.


What are the symptoms of AML?

It’s important to note that the following symptoms may be caused by something other than the leukemia.

General symptoms of AML include:
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Frequent nosebleeds
  • Bleeding that is difficult to stop
  • Joint or bone pain
  • Night sweats
  • Loss of appetite

If certain symptoms suggest your child may have AML, your doctor may suggest testing for the disease, which would include medical history and physical examinations and some sort of sampling test (blood, bone marrow, etc.).


What are the survival rates for AML?

When discussing cancer survival statistics, a “five-year survival rate” is used as the chances of a cancer coming back after that period of time is highly unlikely. Five-year survival rates for ALL range from 65% to 75%.

About 90% of children with AML will have no cancer cells in their blood post-induction, although AML returns in about a fifth of these cases.


How is AML treated?

The main treatment option for AML is chemotherapy, alongside targeted therapy drugs.

The treatment of AML is divided into three phases:

Induction

The first of the phases, which is the shortest but most intense. This stage of treatment is meant to clear all leukemia cells and reduce the number of blast cells to normal.

Consolidation

The patient is given chemo in order to kill off the small amount of remaining leukemia cells post-induction. This stage is given in cycles, with the body being given periods of rest in between.

Maintenance

This phase is low chemo dosage for months or years post-consolidation. This is primarily only for acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (APL).


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Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

A brain or spinal cord tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain or spinal cord develop and grow out of control.

Tumors can be identified as either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors don’t spread around the body and typically have no potential to be fatal. Malignant tumors are more dangerous as they can spread to other parts of the body. However, the distinction is less necessary for brain tumors as both benign and malignant forms of this disease can be life-threateningly dangerous due to the fragility and space of the nervous system.

What are the Symptoms of Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors?

Symptoms of brain and spinal cord tumors may develop gradually or appear suddenly from events such as seizures.

General symptoms include:
  • Headaches (which may worsen with time)
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Crossed eyes or blurred vision
  • Balance problems
  • Behavioral changes
  • Seizures
  • Chronic drowsiness
Are there any known risk factors?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of developing a disease such as cancer. Different diseases have different risk factors.

Lifestyle-related factors such as body weight, physical health, diet, and tobacco usage are well-known to contribute heavily to adult cancers. However, these factors usually take many years to influence cancer risks and are not thought to play as significant of a role in pediatric cancer.

There are very few known risk factors for brain and spinal cord tumors. Currently, the only established risk factor is radiation exposure, which usually is a part of treatment for other diseases and conditions. The chance of developing a brain tumor in life after radiation treatment is very slim, but it is still something to note when preparing treatment.

Certain inherited conditions and abnormal genetic conditions have also been linked to brain and spinal cord tumors.

How are brain and spinal cord tumors diagnosed?

Tumors are more likely to have a positive outlook the earlier they are detected. If a child possesses any risk factors or inherited or genetic conditions that may be linked to brain or spinal cord cancer, doctors recommend frequent medical and physical exams in order to spot any early developments.

If results are abnormal, your child’s doctor may recommend a neurologist or neurosurgeon for further screening. Tests to spot a brain and spinal cord tumor may include biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, computed tomography (CT) scans, or positron emission tomography (PET) scans.

What are the survival rates for brain and spinal cord tumors?

When discussing cancer survival statistics, the term 5-year survival rate is often used. This refers to the percentage of patients that live at least 5 years after their cancer is diagnosed. It is important to note that many patients will live longer than 5 years and also includes cured patients.

Survival rates for common brain and spinal cord tumors:
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma – about 95%
  • Diffuse astrocytoma – about 80% to 85%
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma – about 25%
  • Glioblastoma – about 20%
  • Oligodendroglioma – about 90%
  • Ependymoma/anaplastic ependymoma – about 75%
  • Embryonal tumors (includes medulloblastoma) – about 60% to 65%

Credit to the American Cancer Society.

How are brain and spinal cord tumors treated?

The main treatment options for brain and spinal cord tumors include various forms of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy drugs. Due to the individual qualities of patients and the range of uses for each form of treatment, every case of brain and spinal cord cancer will differ and a child’s treatment will be specific to them. It is likely that a child will receive some combination of the mentioned treatments.

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Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma)

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children (the second being Ewing’s sarcoma), and accounts for about 3% of pediatric cancer cases. Most other types of cancer start elsewhere in the body and then spread to the skeleton, however osteosarcoma is one of the few types of cancer that begin in the bones.

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form the bones. Our bones can be separated into two main types: “flat” and “long.” Flat bones protect the brain and other organs, and long bones support the legs and arms. Osteosarcoma can occur all over the body, but typically develops in the growing ends of long bones (called the “metaphysis”), and mostly occurs in the areas that form the knees. The second most common site of osteosarcoma is at the ends of the upper arms around the shoulders.

What are the symptoms of osteosarcoma?

Signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma vary from case-to-case, depending on the size and location of the tumor and the patient’s age and health prior to diagnosis.

Symptoms can include:
  • Pain, especially in the site of the tumor
  • Swelling around affected areas
  • Decreased motion in the joints
  • Weak bones (which, in rare cases, can lead to fractures)
  • General fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Anemia
Are there any known risk factors?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of developing a disease such as cancer. Different diseases have different risk factors.

Lifestyle-related factors such as body weight, physical health, diet, and tobacco usage are well-known to contribute heavily to adult cancers. However, these factors usually take many years to influence cancer risks and are not thought to play as significant of a role in pediatric cancer.

Known risk factors for osteosarcoma include:
  • Age – the risk of osteosarcoma is highest for those between the ages of 10 and 30, especially during a growth spurt, suggestion a potential link between rapid bone growth and tumor formation
  • Height – children with osteosarcoma are often tall for their age
  • Gender – osteosarcoma is more common in males than in females. However, females tend to develop it earlier, possibly to due to generally having growth spurts earlier
  • Race/ethnicity – Osteosarcoma is more common in African-Americans and Hispanic/Latinos than in whites
  • Radiation to bones – Previous encounters with radiation therapy for another cancer might have a higher risk of later developing osteosarcoma in the treated area. Two things can lead to a higher risk of Osteosarcoma; radiation treatment at a young age and being treated with higher doses of radiation
  • Bone disease – People with certain non-cancerous bone diseases (such as Paget’s disease or osteochondromas) have an increases risk of developing osteosarcoma
  • Inherited cancer syndromes – Though it is rare, people with certain inherited genes may have an increased risk of osteosarcoma. Some diseases with recorded links to risk include retinoblastoma, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Diamond-Blackfan anemia
How is osteosarcoma diagnosed?

There are currently no widely recommended screening tests for osteosarcoma. However, most cases of osteosarcoma are found at an early stage due to symptoms often prompting quick visits to the doctor.

Your health care provider may perform one or more of the following to determine a diagnosis:
  • Complete medical history
  • Physical exams
  • A blood test to measure alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme found in the blood when children are growing, when a broken bone is healing, or when a disease or tumor causes production of abnormal bone tissue
  • Imaging tests (x-rays, bone tests, CT scans, MRI, or angiogram)
  • Needle or surgical biopsy of the tumor
What is the survival rate for osteosarcoma?

If the disease has not spread to other areas of the body, the long-term survival rate is about 70-75%. However, if the disease has already spread to the lungs or other bones at the time of diagnosis, the long-term survival rate is about 30%.

What treatments are available for osteosarcoma?

Osteosarcoma is usually treated with surgery (to remove affected areas) and chemotherapy (to shrink/slow down growth).

Surgical treatments for osteosarcoma include amputation or limb-salvage surgery.

Chemotherapy is typically given to patients both before and after surgery.

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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma starts in immature forms of nerve cells (called neuroblasts) usually found in the embryo or fetus.

Neuroblastoma occurs most often in young children or infants and rarely occurs in children over 10 years old. This type of cancer affects the sympathetic nervous system so neuroblastomas can be found anywhere along this system.

The most common starting location of neuroblastoma is the sympathetic nerve ganglia around the adrenal glands which sit on top of the kidneys. However, neuroblastoma can develop in nerve cells located in other parts of the abdomen, chest, neck, or spinal area.

Neuroblastomas vary in behavior with some spreading quickly and others growing slowly. Sometimes the cancer will die for no apparent reason and go away on its own. Treatment for your child will vary depending on the kind of neuroblastoma diagnosed.

What are the symptoms of neuroblastoma?

Symptoms will depend on what area of the body is affected by the neuroblastoma.

Symptoms of neuroblastoma in the abdomen (the most common form) include:
  • Abdominal pain
  • A mass under the skin
  • Diarrhea or constipation
Symptoms of neuroblastoma in the chest include:
  • Wheezing
  • Chest pain
  • Eye changes such as drooping eyelids or unequal pupil size
Other general signs include:
  • Lumps of tissue underneath the skin
  • Proptosis
  • General pain or fever
  • Bone pain
  • Inexplicable weight loss
Are there any known risk factors?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of developing a disease such as cancer. Different diseases have different risk factors.

Having a family history of neuroblastoma may increase the likelihood of developing neuroblastoma, but these sorts of cases are few. In most cases, there is never an identifiable cause of neuroblastoma.

How are neuroblastomas treated?

Treatment of neuroblastoma depends on several aspects of the cancer such as the risk group, the patient’s age, their overall health, and may include one or more forms of treatment.

Low risk cases are not very intensive and, due to the chance of the tumor maturing or going away on its own, have the possibility of not needing treatment at all! If the tumor needs to be removed, surgery may be required. Chemotherapy may also be used if the tumor does not go away after surgery or if the child starts showing symptoms. Children with low risk neuroblastomas should be watched carefully to ensure that the neuroblastoma safely goes away or is treated accordingly.

Intermediate risk cases require more intense treatment. Surgery is often necessary and mixed with other forms of treatment such as chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is usually only required in cases of emergency or if the disease does not respond to chemotherapy.

High risk cases demand the most aggressive forms of treatment and involve a mix of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, stem cell transplant, immunotherapy, and retinoid therapy. Treatment is split up into three phases, the first being induction, in which the doctors will try to destroy as much of the cancer as possible to force the disease into remission. The second phase is consolidation, which uses more intensive treatments to clean up remaining cancer cells. The last phase is maintenance, which is focused on lowering the chance of the cancer coming back.

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Wilms tumor (also known as nephroblastoma)

Wilms tumor is a type of childhood cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children, accounting for about 9 out of 10 cases of pediatric kidney cancer.

Wilms tumor most commonly affects children ages 3 to 4 with the rate of occurrence dropping off drastically after age 5. Wilms tumors are typically unilateral, most often found only in one kidney, though there have been cases of both kidneys being affected.


Wilms tumors are grouped into 2 different types based on their histology (how a specimen looks underneath a microscope)

Types of Wilms tumors:
  • Favorable histology – These tumors do not have anaplasia and patients with favorable histology have a high chance of being cured.
  • Anaplastic histology – These tumors have anaplasia, in which the cancer cells look distorted and the cells’ nuclei tend to be large and irregular. Tumors with anaplasia that has spread throughout the tumor are more difficult to treat than tumors with limited anaplasia.
What are the symptoms of Wilms tumor?

As with many cancers, symptoms of Wilms tumor can vary to an individual level, but most children with Wilms tumor will experience a handful of similar symptoms.

Common symptoms include:
  • An abdominal mass
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Abdominal pain
Are there any known risk factors?

Wilms tumor is slightly more common in females than in males. African-American children possess a slightly higher risk of Wilms tumor than other ethnicities. Any family history of Wilms tumor also increases the risk of developing the disease.

Wilms tumor cannot be prevented by any specific precaution. If your child has risk factors for Wilms tumor, it may be recommended by your doctor to screen for any signs or abnormalities.

How are Wilms Tumors Treated?

About 9 out of 10 children with Wilms tumors are cured. Great strides in Wilms tumors treatment have been made in recent history due to a high participation in clinical trials aimed at increasing the cure rate while also decreasing side effects and lessening the physical toll on patients.

Children with Wilms tumors usually get some combination of treatments, typically surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation.

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Leukemia

Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and teens, accounting for about 30% of all pediatric cancer cases. Most cases of childhood leukemias are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), with most remaining cases being acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Leukemias are cancers of the bone marrow and blood. Leukemia takes over white blood cell production, creating abnormal leukemia cells. White blood cells are typically responsible for fighting infection, however defective leukemia-infected white blood cells do not function normally and instead crowd the bone marrow, suppressing development of normal cells. As leukemia progresses, this cancer can interfere with other bodily functions, causing problems such as anemia and increased risk of infection and other disease. There are several different types of leukemia based on how quickly the disease progresses and on what cells it involves.

What are the Symptoms of Leukemia?

Leukemia symptoms vary, depending on the type of leukemia.

Common leukemia signs and symptoms include:
  • Fevers or chills
  • Persistent fatigue, weakness
  • Frequent or severe infections
  • Weight loss
  • Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen
  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Recurrent nosebleeds
  • Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Bone pain or tenderness
What causes leukemia?

The exact cause of childhood leukemia is still unknown, and most children with leukemia do not have any identifiable risk factors.

However, we do know how certain changes in the DNA of normal bone cells can cause their transformation into leukemia cells. Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations that turn on oncogenes (genes that tell cells to grow and divide) or turn off tumor suppressor genes (genes that tell cells to die). These irregular genes can be passed down parent, or they may just happen randomly during a person’s lifetime.

What are the different types of leukemia?

The first classification of leukemia is by how fast is progresses:

  • Acute leukemia
  • Chronic leukemia

The second type of classification is based on the type of affected white blood cell:

  • Lymphocytic leukemia
  • Myelogenous leukemia

The major types of leukemia are:

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – This is the most common type of leukemia in young children. ALL can also occur in adults.
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) – AML is a common type of leukemia. It occurs in children and adults. AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults.
  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) – With CLL, the most common chronic adult leukemia, you may feel well for years without needing treatment.
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) – This type of leukemia mainly affects adults. A person with CML may have few or no symptoms for months or years before entering a phase in which the leukemia cells grow more quickly.
  • Other, rarer types of leukemia exist, including hairy cell leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative disorders.
How is leukemia diagnosed?

There are currently no widely recommended blood tests or other screening tests for most children to look for leukemia before symptoms show. Childhood leukemia is often found because of symptoms that prompt a visit to the doctor. The doctor then orders blood tests, which come back and show the diagnosis. The best way to find leukemia early is to be aware of potential signs and symptoms of the disease.

For children having a known risk factor of leukemia, such as an inherited syndrome such as Down syndrome or Li-Fraumeni, an immune system deficiency, or previous treatment with chemotherapy or radiation, doctors recommend regular medical checkups. The chance of leukemia occurring in these children is higher than the general population (although the risk is still small).

What is the survival rate for leukemia?

When discussing cancer survival statistics, the term 5-year survival rate is often used. This refers to the percentage of patients that live at least 5 years after their cancer is diagnosed. With acute leukemia, patients that are free of the disease after 5 years are very likely to have been cured as the chances of cancer returning after that length of time are very low.

Survival rates are based on previous reports from large populations of patients who have had the disease, but cannot predict what happens in any individual case. In recent years, survival rates have been rising, although it is hard to pinpoint for rarer forms of the disease.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) – more than 85%

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) – 60%-70%

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) – 50%

For chronic leukemias, 5-year survival rates are less helpful as It’s likely the patient can live for a very long time without the disease being cured. In the past, 5-year survival rates for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) were reported to be in the range of 60% to 80%.

The post Leukemia appeared first on National Pediatric Cancer Foundation.

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a type of sarcoma that is made up of cells that typically develop into skeletal muscles, or voluntary muscles, that we use to physically move our body.

Before birth, rhabdomyoblasts (cells that will form into skeletal muscles) begin to form, and it’s these cells that develop into RMS. This is a cancer that predominantly affects children, but there are cases of adults with RMS.

Types of RMS

There are two main types of RMS, along with other rarer forms.

The first is embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), which typically affects children 5 years or younger, but it can occur at older ages as well. ERMS is most commonly found in the head and neck area, bladder, vagina, or in or around the prostate and testicles.

Two subtypes of ERMS, botryoid and spindle cell rhabdomyosarcomas, tend to have a better prognosis than the more common form of ERMS.

The second is alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which affects adults and children equally. ARMS occurs mostly in the large muscles of the trunk, arms, and legs. ARMS progresses faster than ERMS, and often requires more severe treatment, but there are a few cases where the cancer cells will lack certain gene changes and easier treatment may be used.

A rare form exists called anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma, which is rare and occurs in more adults than children. Because this is a RMS that occurs in adults, it is harder to treat as adults are more likely to have a fast-growing RMS and to have them in parts of the body that are difficult to treat or operate on.

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