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The Benefits of Mass and Disadvantage of Muscle Mass

It is common knowledge that exercise is beneficial to your health. The question is what type of exercise is the best. The suggestion has been to do either weight training or aerobic exercise. Livestrong has made the recommendation of increasing the amount of weight training in a person’s exercise regimen. The idea of weightlifting produces images of hyper macho men and Schwarzenegger types. The truth is fitness and bodybuilding can be for everyone. Women, the elderly, and children can benefit from exercise. According to Alison Stellner ” gaining muscle mass offers plenty of benefits for everyone.” Women may have second thoughts based on the fear of “looking too big.” Bodies come in different shapes and sizes. Fortunately some women are challenging body image conformity. There are more benefits that women can gain from adding muscle to their frame. The idea that muscles are masculine must be discarded. Considering that both men and women have a muscular system, saying muscles are for men is biologically inaccurate. The health benefits of building muscle mass include weight control, increased strength, and reduced risk of injury. There are also miscellaneous benefits that are rarely discussed. There is also an opposing view that is articulated by Victoria Weinblatt. The way in which a person gains weight from weigh training may cause some challenges. There is the possibility of stress fractures, which women may be more vulnerable to. Muscle pain can occur as the body adjusts to a new exercise regimen. A recently new phenomenon related to body image has emerged from fitness culture known as muscle dysmorphia. These are a few disadvantages related to being devoted to building muscle mass. While these are concerns, it seems that there are more benefits rather than disadvantages.

         Weight control is important to health. Poor diets and lack of exercise has made obesity a public health concern. Some people may not be obese, rather overweight. The health issue it creates can become numerous. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes become a threat to human health. Knee and joint issue can occur due to more weight that the skeleton cannot accommodate. Changing diet to fat and sugar free can aid in weight loss. Exercise combined with this is effective. However, weightlifting seems to be more efficient in reduction of excess weight compared to cardiovascular exercise. Muscles have the ability to burn calories. The more muscle that a person builds the more efficient they become at burning calories.

Weights may be more effective than cardio exercise in burning off fat. Women should incorporate weight training into their weight management program.The average woman who exercise will not automatically look like a crossit athlete or female bodybuilder. That takes years of training and diet.There is a difference between training for physical strength and muscular hypertrophy. One is for  aesthetics and the other for performance.

Allison Stellner states ” the more you tone your muscles the easier it is to maintain weight.” The problem with this statement is that there is no such thing as toning. Women if they are engaged in a weightlifting program can experience muscular hypertrophy. The term tone is used for women to reduce their fears about becoming muscular. There seems to be a bias against women who demonstrate or appear to be physically strong. Muscle and weightlifting does not turn women ugly, which seems to be a persistent myth. It is unhealthy to be too thin, which some encourage as a beauty standard. Weight loss is directed at women by a section of the fitness industry, but there should be a different approach. Weight gain should be the goal. Not in the context of more fat, rather lean body mass. Doing so can prevent chronic illness. Childhood obesity has increased because fewer children are playing outside or getting the physical activity they need. This could effect girls worse and with the hormonal changes during puberty body composition will be altered. Women will find it more difficult to lose weight due to sex hormones. It is important for men, women, and children to get active and be knowledgeable about their diet.

        Through weight training strength can be increased. Building musculoskeletal mass can maintain health throughout life. The human body changes over the span of life. People around age 50 can lose about 10% of their muscle mass according to findings by the American College of Sports Medicine. From sixties to seventies muscle strength dissipates an estimated 15 % per decade. Following this part of life  muscle mass goes down even further to 30%. This becomes a concern to women who on average live longer, which increases the chances of more health conditions later in life. Women seeing as they have less bone and muscle mass should be active to avoid osteoporosis or sarcopenia. The good news is that it is never too late to start an exercise regimen. Seniors can increase their strength by engaging in resistance training.

Seniors should incorporate exercise into their daily routine. It does not have to be intense. It could a physical activity like a simple walk.Contrary to popular belief women can gain strength and build muscle. Strength sports are no longer a male only domain.Training for strength does not mean building large muscles. Body sculpting has a different objective compared to a performance based one.

It would be detrimental to say to senior to stop doing too much as they age. One main reason for age related decline is when a person stops doing an activity they love to do. Learning new things or doing a something different can help improve mental well being. Better physical health enable seniors to remain independent. This should be the goal rather than proposing elders be sent to nursing homes or assisted living. There are indications that enough exercise can keep the circulatory system healthy. Knowing this it may be the best prevention against cognitive decline associated with age. The exact  causes of dementia are unknown, but it may have to do with poor cerebrovascular health. Resistance training is not too much for seniors as long as it is done with proper instruction from a knowledgeable  personal trainer. Independence can be gained for younger women with added strength. Some activities ranging from carrying groceries, moving objects, or doing chores that require brawn free women of the need for male assistance. Another practical and safety related benefit also can aid women. Having some strength can aid in self-defense if attacked. While learning proper martial arts techniques can also ensure security learning physical competence is important. The mindset should not be to find a man for the sake of personal protection, rather be strong enough to ensure your own safety. This flawed concept of needing a male protector actually ensures abuse seeing as it is statistically shown that a woman will most likely get abused by her intimate partner. Women through proper training can gain muscle, but amount varies depending on genetics, response to exercise stimuli, and somatotype.

            As people age, joints become vulnerable. Losing balance and falling become particularly hazardous when it happens to seniors. Fractures or broken hips can be fatal. If such injuries are healed, many elders lose their independence and become reliant on family for care. Joints by definition are two or more bones meet in the human body. Joints can be classified as pivot, hinge, ellipsoidal, ball and socket. Cartilage reduces friction among the joints. The bursus also prevents friction. The synovial membrane has the responsibility of sealing certain joints into a capsule. Tendons attach muscle to the bones, while ligaments connect bones to other bones.

This is the general classification of joints in the human body.Gymnastics is an example of a sport in which multiple joints of the legs and arms are utilized.     Women tend to be more flexible .

Women are more flexible compared to men. This is also partially age related. Younger women tend to have higher flexibility. Between the age of 14 and 30, women produce higher amounts of relaxin hormone. This softens ligaments and tendons. This is required for a reproductive function of the changes induced in the body during gestation. This flexibility allows the female body to prepare for the physically demanding task of carrying the baby and giving birth . As the body ages joints stiffen.  This can happen from overuse. Joint damage can sometimes result in bone spurs,which can stop mobility. Muscle can help support the joints as Stellner claims. It is a myth that muscle makes a person less flexible. Muscle building can benefit joints and bones. For athletes, it a great method of injury prevention which could be career ending.

        There are miscellaneous benefits that can come from building muscle mass. Improvement of self -esteem seems to be a psychological  benefit that most women benefit from.  Getting physically stronger give women more confidence that extends beyond just exercise. Women apply this new found competitive spirit to other areas of their lives. There are indications that exercise may improve mood due to possible increase in endorphins. If more studies are conducted exercise may be a means to treat depression or anxiety. Mental health is just as important as physical health. Yet, it has only been recently that the medical establishment has become serious about effective treatment. Having a hobby or a fun activity can be useful in preserving a person’s well being. Weight training or any other form of physical activity can be such a hobby. One does not have to train like a professional athlete to get health benefits.

Average women can benefit from weightlifting.
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Women's Gym in Afghanistan - Dailymotion

The first ever women’s fitness club open in Kabul. Fitness culture has been growing around the world and it is no longer exclusive to men. This fitness club in Afghanistan shows that women are doing something to reassert the rights they lost under years of war and neocolonial conquest. The gym is owned by Tahmina Madidnuristani and she states that it was her lifelong ambition to run a business. Violence from the Taliban, Haqqani network, and multiple terrorist organizations make leisure activity difficult in Afghanistan. Sports facilities are limited and few women have access to them. This however is changing. Women’s lives are so restricted in remote areas they are forbidden to go to school or gain employment. The opening of a fitness club is a major women’s rights statement. The new fitness clubs that are emerging have grown in popularity and male disapproval has not stopped women from joining. For once, Afghanistan has at least some positive news.

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Running on The Moon

It was in 1969 that humankind reached the moon. The Apollo 11 spacecraft carried astronauts Neil Armstrong, Micheal Collins,  and Buzz Aldrin. The Apollo program was discontinued in 1972, with unmanned  probes doing exploring.  The space race between the Soviet Union and the United States had ended, but this did not mean more space exploration stopped. There has been discussion of a possible return to the moon in 2024.  As the 20th century drew to a close many discoveries were making humanity change the way it thought about the universe. Kepler has stumbled upon planets out the Solar System that could be Earth like. If so, then it means that they are ripe for human colonization. What must be done first is to understand the long term effects of space on the human body and experiment with making a quality base. The only solution would be to return to the Moon. The University of Washington’s Women’s Sports Medicine blog wrote in 2013 about a  major concern facing astronauts on the International Space Station. Living in microgravity environments can negatively impact musculoskeletal health. Looking for a solution  the Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine   collaborated with the National Space Biomedical Research Institute along the NASA Flight Opportunities Program. An experiment was conducted with parabolic flight. Subjects were exercising and being monitored for specific changes in the body. It should be noted that their may be some differences in how male and female bodies react to limited gravity environments. Although there are fewer women astronauts, the number is gradually increasing. The problem for NASA is that it has not adjusted to this change. One problem is that there may not be enough space suits fitted to women’s bodies. The first all female space walk was cancelled due to this problem. The parabolic flight simulation experiment only examined one aspect of space travel. Other factors are just as important in such a journey.

       The parabolic flight experiment used nine subjects. The subjects would then do locomotor activities in the experiment. How changes were measured was by senors on the mid-lower back and around the ankle. The subjects were placed on a treadmill along with a load device ( to simulate loads on Earth). Two flight campaigns were conducted. There conditions were present in the experiment which subjects exercised in. These conditions were zero, lunar, and Martian gravity. The team remains in the process of taking data and using it to create software to recognize activity done in microgravity environments. What will then be extrapolated is an exercise monitoring system to monitor musculoskeletal health while in Outer Space. This may even have applications to treating osteoporosis in the biomedical fields.

Earth is not the only planet that has a moon. Neptune, Saturn, Uranus,  and Jupiter have them. Beyond the Solar System are exoplanets. Most of the known universe’s mass consists of dark matter, which remains a mystery to astronomers and astrophysicists. One of the test subjects running in zero-G along with a simulated lunar load. There should have been more subjects than just nine. A bigger sample probably would have given more data. If astronauts are going to be in space for long periods of time all hazards must be assessed. Only then can humanity master space travel. Another barrier is technology. Spacecraft must be durable for harsh environments.

The experiment seems to be sound in its methods. Yet some problems arise if examined critically. There were only nine subjects, which is not an enormous sample. This may distort the data in the final analysis. Having a large enough sample can at least reveal an average in terms of potential outcomes. It was not revealed exactly was the fitness level of all the subjects. Random selections tell what will happen to a person not trained to be an astronaut. The purpose to redesign fitness programs to accommodate such professionals. The reasoning is not unsound, but the point is to reach as much precision as possible. When applied to sexual dimorphism  in terms of exercise physiology , women should be given more investigation. Male and female bodies may react differently during space travel.

         Women’s bodies have lower levels of musculoskeletal mass and a body composition that retains more adipose tissue. What is already known tells us what could happen to women in space long periods of time. Women’s bodies may suffer more atrophy from a microgravity  environment compared to a man. The reason being is the a man does have more muscle mass , so the rate would be slower in terms of loss. This explains why women have higher rates of osteoporosis. If the baseline of musculoskeletal mass is low age can gradually reduce it. Other diseases and conditions such as sarcopenia can happen to both sexes. Women have a higher risk factor due to differences in mass of the  the muscular and skeletal system. The erroneous conclusion is that women’s bodies are not suited for space travel. Weight training would be essential part of women’s fitness regimen along with some running to be prepared to explore the Solar System and  beyond .

Even the most muscular woman has a higher level of body fat compared to a man of similar fitness level . Sex is not the only factor. Somatotype may be one as well. This man going into space could face a dramatic loss of msuculoskeletal mass due to being ectomorphic in body type. If she were to be in a space mission with the thin man above, she might fare better in terms of how her body reacts to microgravity.

Prior to entering a space mission men and women should be in good health. Part of this requires a standard of fitness and a consistent exercise regimen on Earth and in Outer Space. Sometimes sex would not be a factor in the rate of atrophy of bone and muscle mass. Ectomorphic body types may be more vulnerable in space. Once more this is the result of having less musculoskeletal mass to begin with. For endomorphic body types space travel would be rougher. There must also be a consideration for long term effects of microgravity on the circulatory system. The only way to get a hold of the settlement of space is to establish a colony on the moon. Astronauts would have to stay there for a period of time and document changes in their bodies. Differences related to sex must be accounted for if method of space travel and settlement is to be successful.

      The moon is 384,400 km from Earth. The surface gravity is about 0.17 x Earth’s. One year on the Moon is  the equivalent of 27.32 Earth days. The temperature can be a maximum 123 degrees Celsius and at minimal -233 degrees Celsius. One aspect about the Moon is that the same side faces Earth. What can be seen on the surface are dark plains known as maria. Thanks to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter thousands of images have been gathered giving more geographical details. The far side of the Moon was not fully seen until the space age. This area is populated with craters. Regolith a rubble substance covers the surface.

The moon could possibly serve as a laboratory for terraforming.  Earth Moon could also be used as a lunching pad to the Moon. Human’s bodies were evolved to adapt to environments with gravitation. The challenge is adjusting our bodies to a radically different habitat all together. It was once believed that women could not be astronauts because they lack the strength and physical endurance. Since then, this has been discredited with exercise physiology.

  The near side of the Moon would probably be the best candidate for for settlement. Carters and regolith could make habitation difficult. The Moon has no atmosphere, making terraforming a more difficult engineering task. The South Pole of the Moon may have water ice. If so, there are two possibilities. There may be a..

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The 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup will be significant for women’s sports history for a number of reasons. It was able to generate high ratings during TV  broadcasts, which discredits the myth that viewers would never like watching female athletes. The number of  women athletes getting international exposure has shown that women really have reached a level of prominence in professional sport. The US women’s soccer team beat the Netherlands to secure victory in the final. The next question is will they ever receive equal pay seeing as they have won so many matches. Despite persistent challenges for women in the sports world, there is a positive result. More young girls may be inspired to play soccer. To celebrate, here are some photos capturing an important Women’s World Cup.

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Eight Myths About Women in Combat

Women entering primarily male occupations will face hostility and discrimination. Prejudice and false claims cloud rational judgement. Women entering military combat jobs has gradually become another wedge issue in American politics. The American right seems to disapprove of women in combat or  break from traditional gender roles. The Republican Party may as the years go by struggle to gain more women voters if their is not a change in regards to women’s  reproductive rights or that women are not given more leadership roles in the party itself. The American left regarding this issue may gloss over the realization that women may not enlist in large numbers or be as physically capable as a man of the same fitness level. What that means is that all branches of the US Military will not be gender balanced. Difficulties can be countered through new policies and strict enforcement . There are plenty of capable women who could make greater soldiers and slowly the US Military is realizing this . Women have been in combat throughout history, so this change since 2013 is nothing new. The Mino warriors, the Onna bugeisha, and Scythian warriors are just a few examples in history of female combatants. American history also has instances of female combatants. Women during the Civil War disguised themselves as men to fight. Even with this information, skeptics and opponents still object to women in combat. There are some myths that must be challenged to prevent hostility and sex prejudice in military ranks. Sex integration can be done in the US Military. Women’s rise to prominence really started in 1978 and their roles are going to expand in the coming decades.

              The persistent argument is objecting to women in combat roles is that they are not physically fit enough. Leanne K. Simpsons uses the more harsh statement ” women are physically inferior to men.” While detractors or sexists do not make such a blatantly sexist statement, they make it clear they think all men are stronger than all women. No such woman would be qualified unless standards are lowered. The reality is that on average men are stronger, but that does not mean women cannot improve their physical fitness capacity. This would not result in women being as strong or as fast as men with a the same training regimen. However, women can acquire enough strength and speed to meet the demands of a certain military occupational specialty. Males have more muscle mass compared to women. Even the most muscular woman contains a higher body fat percentage compared to a man of similar training. Women need to be strong enough to carry a wounded soldier, march under load, and hold supplies as well as weapons.

You do not need much strength to fire a gun, but some assault rifles and machine guns can be heavy unlike smaller hand guns. Women must be given the same fitness training as their male counterparts. So far, the only changes are for functional fitness related to certain jobs. A Somalian female soldier fights as a tank gunner against Al-Shabab. Stella Rose is part of the African Union Mission in Somalia. Just being really strong does not automatically make you a quality soldier.  There are many skills sets that need to be obtained from basic training to MOS.

Women can increase their strength through weight training. Women can build muscle mass, but not to the same level as a man. This is based around endocrinology and the influence of sex hormones. Prior to puberty, the physical fitness capacity of boys and girls is similar. When testosterone levels increase in a boy’s body they will a strength spurt. This means a dramatic increase in musculoskeletal mass. Tendon and ligaments also contribute to strength. Training does not enhance women’s ligament strength to the same degree. This explains why women are vulnerable to anterior cruciate ligament tears . The reason female soldier may suffer more musculoskeletal injuries is due to the fact women have less body mass to handle intense pressure. Another reason is that women are not training properly for maximal strength gain. Modern technology has negated some  requirements for physical strength. Most wars are not fought with bare fists, rather with tanks, airplanes, bombs, guns, and artillery. Nuclear weapons also complicate warfare and make it that much worse. Cyber warfare will become more prevalent in future conflicts. It seems technology and the more lethal the weapon matters more than how many points a soldier can score on a fitness examination. Fitness still is important. A combat soldier depending on their occupation or branch of service still needs to be fit and healthy enough to meet the rigorous demands of combat. Some assault rifles can weigh up to 8  pounds or more.

There is some strength needed to carry and assault rifle . Then the weight of gear poses the problem of extra weight and slower speed. Women must build their upper bodies to meet the demands of some positions. When women weight train, this is the most difficult part of the body to increase strength. This is field artillery that requires loading shells. A female soldier would have to load them fast enough and have the upper body strength to do so. Artillery shells can be heavy . Doing this for a sustained period of time also requires muscular endurance. Other countries seem to be following the new phenomenon of allowing women to serve in combat. Here a woman soldier is training with her male counterparts in China . She is out running them. Biological and physical differences are not a limitation if women are trained properly.

Women will require a weight training program and a nutritious diet to prevent health problems. Rather than calling the  new standards  gender neutral it should be occupational requirements. The problem using the term gender neutral is that it is too politically charged. Women in combat will be successful just as long standards are not lowered. This has not occurred so far, rather standards are being adjusted to meet new challenges in 21st century warfare.Another factor in physical fitness aerobic capacity. Some aspects of physiology will not be altered by training.  Women’s running speed does is slower than a man’s due to differences in pelvic structure as well as the size of the heart and lungs. The hardest part of meeting physical requirements may be reaching the necessary mile runs in fitness examinations.  Women would have to have some level of physical fitness training prior to entry. Doing so would dramatically reduce basic  and MOS training injuries. It is a myth that women are physically inferior, but physical fitness capacity is not equal. The gap is much wider between the average man and average woman. If women were to be drafted it would require that get a fitness program to boost their strength. For both men and women, a weight management program may be required for them to be eligible. A large portion of the American population either is overweight or struggling with obesity. Other people devoid of weight related issues are just not physically active enough. As history has shown and the current women filling combat jobs it is clear that women are capable.

           There is a gender stereotype that men are more aggressive, while women are more passive. One myth is that women lack the aggression required to be effective combat soldiers. The truth is both sexes can show aggression, but men seem to show physical aggression more. The reasons are both biological and sociological. Sexual dimorphism and aggression may be linked to sexual selection. Men evolved to be bigger and stronger in the competition for mates. Fighting for food and territory was probably the daily existence of early hominids. There is a reason that more men are present in armies even when combat positions are open to women. Occupations that have a high degree of risk women make up small numbers. Construction, law enforcement,  and firefighting  are other occupations that have low numbers of women. There remain social barriers, but it seems it comes down to personal choice. Men may just be hardwired to engage in dangerous behavior compared to women. Then there are physical challenges. All women may not have the strength and endurance to increase the numbers in such jobs. Sociologically, young boys are raised to be more aggressive. Girls are taught to adhere to a certain set of behavior that does not deviate from a traditional gender role norm. Aggression, competitiveness, or independence were qualities  never encouraged in girls.

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Shawn Ray (1990s) and Margie Martin (2010s) present  impressive physiques. There is no reason why both men and women should be treated equally in the bodybuilding sports.

Shaw Ray on the Possible Return of the Ms.Olympia

Shaw Ray bodybuilding champion and fitness promoter released a very interesting video for Muscle and Fitness . He stated that it was a possibility that the Ms.Olympia contest could be revived, if the industry promotes it. There is an untrue stereotype that male bodybuilders do not welcome their female counterparts, but clearly there is no truth to that. Shawn Ray and others have shown their support for female bodybuilding and there is no shortage of talent. The Wings of Strength has done much to promote female bodybuilding contests ever since the end of the Ms.Olympia in 2014. Many detractors stated that female bodybuilding would be dead or gone forever, but it seems that it never disappeared. The IFBB support just was lacking. Shawn Ray has been a part of the bodybuilding sports for decades, which means he has some insider information. Going to shows speaking to both fans and athletes there seems to be a new enthusiasm for competitive female bodybuilding. Jake Woods has successfully tapped into a market and niche of fans that the IFBB could have if they cared enough about their female athletes. Now that it could show some potential for success that what to revive what they previous canceled. There continue to be professional shows with certain athletes making an impressive mark. Margie Marin, Alina Popa, and Helle Trevino are just a few of familiar and new faces coming on stage. It would be simply ludicrous to say that women are poor bodybuilders.They are not only showing that they are good at it; they are magnificent.

Michelle Jin is not new to the sport , but made a transition to the bodybuilding class to physique. What this indicates is that physique could easily be classified as lightweight bodybuilding. Their physiques resemble women’s bodybuilding of the 1980s. Women actually have more choices in terms of divisions compared to when they first entered bodybuilding and physique sports. That is an example of progress, yet there always is some form of backlash. Even back in the classic era many objected to women’s participation. The large debate has been what type of female body best represents the sport. There are two factions. One advocates a smaller look and the other a more massive female body. To an extent this debate has been settled with the various divisions of figure, bikini, fitness, and physique. The idea of saying that women go “too far” or are “too extreme”  has a sexist double standard. If men are allowed to be the biggest and strongest, why can’t women strive for their goals. If the Ms.Olympia returns in 2020, then judges must have a definite idea of what they want. So many inconsistencies create confusion and frustrate athletes. Can the Ms.Olympia be revived ? It depends on several factors. First, promotion and marketing must be given priority. There is a demographic of female muscle fans that would love to see the Ms.Olympia back and they are the ones who will buy tickets. Another step in this revival should be equal respect and treatment of female athletes in the fitness culture. Low prize money and limited media exposure reveal this sex bias. One pivotal adjustment is to have weight classes so that women can at least have an option in how their body looks. Some women may not care to get hypermuscular or bigger women cannot fit into the figure or physique classes. Making this change can help get more women to compete. All the divisions that women compete in should have a united front to deal with low pay or unjust treatment in the IFBB. There still should be some cautious optimism, but Shawn Ray’s prediction could happen.

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The Weaker Sex ? What Medicine Tells Us

The term weaker sex was a general statement that women were both mentally and physically inferior to men. Historically, biomedical science also made this assumption and as a result women’s health did suffer. While it is obvious there are biological and physiological differences among the sexes, this does not indicate either superiority or inferiority. The biological sexist normally use men’s greater strength as an example of male superiority. Even more ludicrous is the argument that men’s mental capacities are greater. On average men are  physically stronger, but that does not mean women cannot be strong. Intelligence varies from person to person regardless of sex. Arguments for biological superiority lack cogency. The frailty myth still continues to be a part of the consciousness of  in the study of medicine and biology. Loweri Turner makes the wrong conclusion in her investigation. She claims ”  overall, when you add up the number of individuals affected by all these conditions, women are the weaker sex.” Turner asks the question which sex is better built to withstand disease. The assumption is that men with their greater physical strength are better suited to survive and avoid disease. The fact is women will live longer on average even when health conditions and environment are optimal. Even in countries with low live expectancy women still out live men. Women have more durational strength. Sex differences in biology and physiology do have a impact on health and how the body reacts to disease.

          Bone health becomes a concern as we age. Men have greater bone density contributing to more physical strength. It is not just the muscles, but the frame where the muscles are placed. Women’s lower bone mass and density means that they are more vulnerable to osteoporosis or possible stress fractures. Men can be at risk for bone diseases under certain conditions. According to  Professor Ignac Fogelman men can get osteoporosis from genetic factors or long term use of cotiosteroids. Excessive drinking and alcoholism could be contributors. Women can lose bone mass during menopause due to a decrease in oestrogen levels. Hip fracture becomes even more of a concern. Men and woman are about as equally vulnerable to hip fracture. The reason why the numbers for women look high is that men do not live long enough to get certain aliments. Osteoarthritis refers to when the cartilage in your bones wears down overtime. This can strike at nay joint, but commonly occurs in the knees, hands, hips, and spine. Women are more effected, because they have less bone mass and density to work with.

Osteoarthritis will overtime erode cartilage Osteoarthritis can effect a multitude of joints. Weight training or resistance training can help maintain bone and muscle mass.

Women are not doomed to having bone related diseases unless they take certain steps. Having a proper amount of calcium and vitamin D can maintain bone health. Exercise such as load bearing exercises are important. Women need to incorporate weights into their exercise regimen. Knowing the risk factors and the nature of the diseases can aid in prevention. Race and body type can put certain individuals at risk. Asian and white women may have a higher risk factor compared to other groups. Thin people may be at risk considering they would have lower bone mass. Examining bone does not provide enough to say they men are tougher in fighting disease. The only way to fully assess that is to have men live longer in the nonagenarian stage. The what this reveals from a biomedical perspective is that women must focus and be aware of bone health more so than their male counterparts.

    The muscular system requires attention in regards to an individual’s overall health. Not only is this important to average people, but professional athletes. Women have made their mark in the fitness and sports world in such a short period of time. Some even thought that women would one day be taking over: ” there has been a lot of controversy in the sports world about whether men’s apparent physical advantage is on the wane.” It seemed as if women were breaking many records in the 1980s. The erroneous perception was that women were going to catch up to men in Olympic athletic performance. Some attribute this to performance enhancing drug use, but this would not have caused a major change due to the fact it did not alter women genetically. Drug use is higher among male athletes, so the records will never be complete representation of natural human performance. Women do not need drugs to reach impressive athletic performance. Turner notes: “a look at the bulging muscles sported by some female Wimbledon champions proves that female sportswomen aren’t the delicate flowers they once were – some experts have argued that women will eventually equal men’s speed and strength.”  Its not just female tennis players, women athletes from various sports a displaying bigger and more powerful physiques than would not have been imaginable before.

Women’s sports performance as a whole has remained stable since 1983. There is a 10 % difference in athletic performance in certain events in the Olympics. While men are on average stronger, they do not have a monopoly on physical strength. Women’s bodies are different, but that does not make them inferior. Women’s muscles respond to weight training stimuli in a similar fashion. They are capable of muscular hypertrophy, yet there is a difference in physical fitness capacity. The muscle cells as far as anatomists and exercise physiologists know are the same in both men and women. Muscle contraction and physiology operates in a similar manner between the sexes. Strength also is related to muscle fiber type. Type II muscle fibers are better designed for more power compared to more endurance based type I. The amount of type II muscle fiber can vary depending on genetics, but on average males have more type II.

Men have more of their strength concentrated in their upper body.
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Femuscleblog by Nintendo87 - 1M ago
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The track and field world awoke to some unfortunate news on June 11, 2019. Gabriele Grunewald has passed away after a struggle with cancer. Although she suffered with adenoid cystic carinoma that did not stop her from being a competitive athlete. She turned pro in 2010 and remained active in running up until the end of her life.

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