Spiritual Journeys in Tending the Land, Permaculture, Wildcrafting, and Regenerative Living. This group serves to be a space of conversation and collaboration about the role that sustainability, permaculture design, organic gardening, wildcrafting, simple living, and other earth-based living practices have within druidry today.
When I was growing up in the Allegheny mountains of Western PA, and I was still a very small child, my father and I would seek out the sweet birch saplings. A good sapling was tall and lithe, but bent easily. Dad would bend a sapling down, and hold me on the end of it, letting me bounce up and down like a ride. A few days later, when we walked back through those same woods, the sapling was back upright and growing tall. It was no trouble for a birch to bend to give a small child a ride and then bounce right back up!
When I was 14, the a forest behind my house that I loved dearly was logged. For many years, my sorrow kept me out of that forest–I didn’t want to see it cut, I didn’t want to see my many tree friends gone. And when I started on the druid path, a decade later I finally went back into that forest. There, in every clearing, growing in huge clumps creating a thicket that was nearly impassable, were the black birch seedlings. They ended only where the outstretched hemlock branches came, circling around. For years and years, I would go into that seedling patch as they grew into saplings and cut black birch branches for teas, birch beer, cleaning, and medicine. Now, only a few years later, the strongest grew tallest and many of the smaller ones died back–it is looking once more like a forest. The birches have helped regenerate the land so quickly–in less than 10 years. Birches are the true forest healers.
These two stories have much to offer those of us who are interested in the sacred power of the birch tree, a tree of new beginnings, regeneration, and illumination. This is part of my larger Sacred trees of the Americas series–where I explore the various trees in the Eastern US for their many qualities to help those of us living here understand these sacred trees. Previous trees in this series have included: Elder, Walnut, Eastern White Cedar, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, Hawthorn, Hickory, Beech, Ash, White Pine, and Oak. Come with me now and let’s delve into the magic, medicine, and mythology of the incredible birch tree!
Birches in fall
Growth and Habit
Birch trees of varying kinds are found up and down the eastern seaboard and midwest of the US, although the specific species and their range vary widely. In the Alleghney mountains, we have two primary birch trees: black birches (sweet birch, betlua lenta), who smell like wintergreen, and yellow birches (betula alleghaniensis), who have beautiful golden curled barks once they reach about 15 years and older. In people’s yards, you might also occasionally see a river birch or white birch, but these are not our native birches.
Birches are pioneering species, often quickly being the first tree to regrow after logging or fire. Because of this, most birches come up in a large thicket, with intense competition, as my story above shares. All of this quick growth comes at a cost, as most birch species are not considered pinnacle species, but rather, regenerative pioneers. Given the widespread deforestation, logging, and other kinds of damage that forests are facing in the 21st century, we certainly need the power of the birch to regenerate damaged ecosystems.
Both of these trees grow 80 feet and up to 100 feet tall, and are usually short-lived (although there are cases of sweet birches living up to 250 years). Often though, competition in birch forests eventually shade out older birch trees. Birches of both species, here, can be found in a healthy forest along with beeches and hemlocks with understories of witch hazel or mountain laurel. Yellow birches, in particular, like the same wet and cool forest habitats that Eastern Hemlocks do, and they can often be found growing along the same creek edges in moist forests.
Where I live, up in the ridges, you can find chaga mushrooms growing on birch trees. Not only are birches themselves highly medicinal, chaga mushrooms are as well. They look like burned and charred pieces of wood growing out of old birch trees. Eventually, the birch will die from the chaga mushroom’s incursion–and at that time, all the medicinal aspects of either die as well.
Wood and Uses
Harvesting Birch Sticks for Drinks and Medicine
Each birch that grows in the Eastern US has unique contributions in terms of human use. Paper birches (Betula papyrifera) obviously got their name from the paper-like quality of mature trees’ white bark. This white bark was used by many different native american tribes for baskets of various sizes as well as arrow quivers, and canoes. As Eric Sloane writes in A Reverence for Wood, native americans along the eastern seaboard would choose a large paper birch tree and make two cuts down the bark of the tree on opposite sides. In the spring, the bark would peel; they would cut away both sides of the bark–these are the two halves of the canoe. They used roots from white spruce trees for lashing it together and used balsam fir resin and pine pitch to seal it. Albert Reagan describes in “Plants Used by the Bois Fort Chippewa (Ojibwa) how the Ojibwa used paper birch for dwellings, sweat lodges, canoes, containers, buckets for collecting maple or birch sap, dishes and trays, and coffins.
All birch barks, particularly paper birch or yellow birch, have excellent fire starting capabilities. You can start a fire quickly from the outer bark of most birch trees. Slices of birch bark are commonly carried and used in natural firestarting kits (such as those including flint and steel). They also are great when one is looking to start a camp fire! Even when fresh or wet, birch bark will burn, making it ideal for survival situations.
The wood of certain species of birch trees is pale and soft grained and indoor decorative and vaneer purposes. Yellow Birch wood is the most sought wood from the speces and is used for a variety of indoor applications, including birch flooring, toothpicks, furniture, cabinets, and so on. If you buy “birch” wood for your home, chances are, you are purchasing yellow birch wood.
Finally, birch species around the world have long been used as paper, even before the invention of paper in certain cultures.
Recipes and Treats
In the Appalacian mountains, sweet birch and yellow birch, have long been used for a variety of tasy beverages and treats because they contain methyl salicylate (the flavoring agent for wintergreen).
Birch Sap. Euell Gibbons in the classic Stalking the Wild Asparagus book has a host of advice describes birch trees as “natural woodland fountains” to be tapped and drank from in the spring. And certainly, while this same advice can be applied to many of the trees that run (walnut, hickory, sugar maple, other maples, sycamore); none are quite as refreshing as the water with hints of wintergreen that come out of black birch trees. Birches start running much later in the spring, typically about 4 weeks later here in PA, just as the dandelions are starting to come out. LIke the maple, birch sap can be boiled down to make a syrup, although the sugar content of birch is 100:1, meaning you will need to boil down 100 gallons of birch sap to get 1 gallon of syrup (sugar maple is a 40:1 ratio). Like maple, I am sure anyone who drinks birch water will find it incredibly vitalizing and refreshing!
Birch Beverages. One of my favorite beverages is a simple black birch twig or birch bark tea. The inner bark (cambium) has the strongest flavor. I suggest you boil fresh or dried twigs or larger shavings from branches for about 20 minutes with the lid on. Strain, and add cream and sugar if you’d like. It is a delicious wintergreen treat!
Birch Beer (Non-Alcoholic) and Root Beer. Birch beer refers to two different beverages–one fermented and one not. The non-fermented kind can be made as a simple syrup. In a large pot, combine birch twigs with 2 cups sugar and two cups water. Put a lid on it and simmer it for 30 min. Cool, and strain. Take the resulting syrup and add it to simple seltzer water, and you have a delightful and refreshing “birch beer.” Birch twigs are one of the three traditional ingredients for root beer, along with sassafras bark and either sarsipirilla or star anise. You can make a traditional root beer in the same way above, with these added ingredients.
Birch Leaf Ecoprint
Birch Beer (Alcoholic / fermented). Just as there are lots of ways to make a good non-alcoholic root beer, you can also make numerous variations on fermented or alcoholic versions. I highly recommend Stephen Buehner’s Sacred and Healing Beers for some great recipes involving birch. I’m going to share one I have tried only once, and it was a crazy experience. This was adapted from Euell Gibbons Stalking the Wild Asparagus. Get a 5 gallon bucket or crock, and put four quarts of finely cut sweet birch twigs at the bottom. Combine 1 gallon of honey and 4 gallons of birch sap (or spring water), and boil for 10 minutes. Pour this mixture over the twigs and cover it. Let cool for 6-8 hours. When its just warm to the touch, add a package of brewing yeast on top. (The traditional recipe uses a piece of rye bread to float the cake of yeast, but I omitted this and it still worked). Let it ferment (I used a lid and a fermentation trap, but the traditional recipe uses a cloth cover). The cloudiness will go away after about a week and the beverage will settle. Bottle and store in a cool, dark place.
White Birch Vinegar. I know it was traditional to make vinegar from white birch sap, but these traditional recipes seem lost (at least, I haven’t been able to find them in any of my resources). however, Fergus the Forager in the UK has developed his own recipe (which appears about 2/3 of the way down his page).
Medicinal Qualities of the Birch
Matthew Wood notes in The Earthwise Herbal (Old World Plants) that Betula Alba is considered the official medicinal tree of the UK; while Betula Lenta is considered the official for North America. Black birch, with its saliclate-rich bark and oil of wintergreen, helps sooth sore muscles and achey joints. Wood notes that internally, birch tea functions as a diaphoretic (moving fluids out of the body and encouraging a sweat response) and diuretic (encouraging the flow of urine), both of these medicinal actions are useful in the case of atrophied or stagnant tissues (such as, as Woot notes, lack of digestion, kidney stones, bladder infections, arthritis, or poor circulation).
Wood also notes that traditionally in Europe, a combination of birch and nettle were used as a hair tonic. For this, you can make a strong tea of the leaves and the branches, and use it on the hair. Or, create a vinegar infusion of nettle and birch leaves or branches and use the vinegar as a hair rinse. I’ve done this and it is wonderfully nourishing for the hair.
Wood also notes that leaves and twigs of black birch, in some American traditions, are gathered in midsummer to make a tea that is taken tonically. The tea was particularly useful for cases of severe diahrehea or other gastrointestinal issues. I have firsthand experience with this–birch is certainly soothing for a variety of GI issues (and also soothing to the mind).
Birch’s Magical Qualities
Birch is one of the 22 sacred trees in the celtic Ogham, the sacred tree alphabet. It is not surprising that birch functions ecologically in the UK the same it does in North America, and likewise, the theme of renewal, protection, and new beginnings is consistent. In the ogham, birch represents the letter “B” and is “Beith”, being represented by a single line extending to the right of the line in the few.
According to John Michael Greer in his Encyclopedia of Natural Magic, Birch species are used interchangeably in terms of magical properties. Birch is represented by Venus in Sagittarius. Birch twigs were used as protective in traditional western folk magic–a bundle of birch twigs along the edges of a property keeps away “evil forces” and bad luck. Birch trees were tied with red and white cloth and were put near stable doors to drive away elves (who were known to knot horses manes and also tire out the animals).
Scraping off the birch bark!
Birch does not make an appearance in traditional American hoodoo, which is somewhat surprising to me, but given that most of it originated in the deep south where there aren’t that many birch trees, this makes sense. However, birch does make an appearance in The Long Lost Friend, which is a 19th century grimoire from Pennsylvania. Here is the full charm, focusing on a restoration for the limbs:
HOW TO CURE WEAKNESS OF THE LIMBS.
Take the buds of the birch tree, or the inner bark of the root of the tree at the time of the budding of the birch, and make a tea of it, and drink it occasionally through the day. Yet, after having used it for two weeks, it must be discontinued for a while, before it is resorted to again; and during the two weeks of its use it is well at times to use water for a day instead of the tea.
Birch in World Mythology
The birch features prominently in many world religions, particularly those of siberia and russia. Frazer writes in The Golden Bough about a Russian tradition involving a birch tree. This tradition that involves welcoming a birch as a guest into the house for the duration of Whitsunday (Easter sunday). Russian villagers go into the woods, sing to the birch, and weave garlands for themselves before cutting it down and dressing it in women’s clothing with many colored ribbons. They then feats, and they carry the tree back to their village, with more garlands, dancing, and singing, and set it up in someone’s house as a guest. The villagers visit the tree for two more days. On Whitsunday (Easter Sunday) they go to a nearby stream and throw the birch in along with their garlands. Frazer believes that this shows both the personification of the tree by Russians as well as the likelihood of throwing the birch in the stream as a raincharm.
In a second tradition, described by Czaplicka in Shamanism in Siberia, birch is used as part of the preparation that Siberian shamans, called the Chukchee, use to gather their power. They believe that new shamans, either male or female, must have a prepatory year or two where the new shaman gathers his or her power through various means including heeding the call of the spirits, gathering up tools, goes inward for ritual and fasting. When the new shaman is ready, the elder shamans gather up birch seedlings, which are fashioned into a birch broom. A goat is sacrificed into a pot, and then the birch broom is dipped in the water in the pot and used to beat the back of the new shaman as a purification ritual. More birch trees are cut, with the approrpriate offerings, and then they are planted near the south-west corner of the shaman’s yurta. Czaplicka writes, “This birch represents symbolically the porter-god who allows the shaman ingress into heaven. It points the way by which the shaman can reach the sky, and remains permanently in the yurta as a sign that the dwelling is that of a shaman. The other birches are planted in front of the yurta in the place where sacrifices are usually offered, in the following order, from west to east”
Birch in Native American Mythology
In American Indian Fairy Tales by Margaret Compton, the story of the Fighting Hare features the uses of birch. The prince of the hares, who is very much a trickster, goes on a journey after having his feet burnt by the sun. He encounters many beings who try to kill him, but each time he bests them instead and kills them through his magic, plotting, and scheming. He eventually comes to the edge of the world where a cliff of trees stands. He asks each of the trees what they are good for. The ash says, “From me is taken the bow that speeds the arrow in its flight.” The birch says, “My bark is for the picture-writing of the people. How, but for me, could one Chief talk to his brother who lives by the distant river?” The oak says, “I shelter the great warriors. I mark the spot for their councils. From my boughs are..
As the Winter Solstice is coming up quickly and the tree just went up this past week, I’ve been busy in my art studio and out on the land looking for great things to add to the Yule tree. As a druid who is deeply concerned about the amount of plastic and “throw away‘ quick purchase items, like cheap plastic ornaments, I didn’t want to buy any ornaments for the tree, but rather, to make them from wildcrafted materials. So today, I wanted to share two simple ways to make nice ornaments for a Yule tree from natural materials and simple tools.
Handmade Stag and Pentacle Tree Topper with Handmade Ornaments
Painted or Burned Wooden Round Ornaments
One simple method for creating ornaments is a painted or woodburned wood rounds. These are simple slices of wood that you can decorate in a variety of ways–painting them, burning them, or staining them.
A variety of wood rounds that are burned or painted. These are just about ready to hang!
You can cut rounds from either fresh or dry (seasoned) wood. Most wood cracks as it dries out, so if you are cutting wood rounds fresh, you want to cut extra because some will crack as it dries. If it is already seasoned wood, you can cut it without too much concern as the cracks are already present. Even if you find dry wood in the woods, if its a rainy year, it may still crack a bit as it dries. The longer the wood sits outdoors, the more dark areas it will have and at some point, it will start to break down.
You might spend time looking for wood–what I like to do is take a small foldable hand saw with me regularly on my walks or hikes, and if I see a nice piece of wood that has recently fallen, I’ll take a piece of it back with me, using it as a walking stick till I get home. I store these in my garage, and eventually, I have a nice pile for cutting. You want fairly long pieces for using the saws (see below).
Some of my favorite woods to use are sugar maple, red maple, oak (harder to woodburn), sassafras, walnut, eastern helmock, or cherry. Different woods produce different grains and colors, which you can all use to your artistic advantage.
Cutting rounds: In order to cut your wood rounds, you need either a table saw or miter saw to cut them; you could also use a hand saw but it would be very tedious. If you don’t have one, ask around; chances are, a lot of people have these saws and would be willing to cut wood rounds for you or let you take 30 min to cut your own. I was without such a saw for many years, but finally invested in my own.
Cut your rounds to any thickness or size. A miter saw also lets you cut them on a nice angle.
If you are cutting wet or fresh wood, one of the ways to minimize cracking is to put your freshly cut wood rounds in a paper bag for a few days. The paper bag slows down the drying and there is less cracking.
Regardless, you will want to wait a few days before painting or burning them to make sure they aren’t going to crack.
Cut rounds of different sizes and woods.
Decorating Wood Rounds: You can do many different things to decorate your wood rounds. If you have a woodburner, this is a great and simple way to decorate them. You can also paint them with acrylic. Wood stains are not meant to be precise and will likely leak all through your wood, so unless you are staining the round all one color (say, on top of a woodburned design), stay away from traditional wood stains. Yes, I learned this the hard way!
If you are not confident in your drawing skills, two options may help you. First, you can purchase or make stencils of simple shapes and symbols, and use a stencil technique for your wood rounds. The second is to print out designs and use a transfer paper (available in any art or craft supply store) to transfer the design, then paint or burn over it.
Simple woodburned rounds
Stick Wreaths, Awens, and Pentacle Ornaments
This second kind of ornament is a little more involved, but produces beautiful results. For this, you will need some hand clippers or loppers, wire of various colors, wire snippers, and access to various kinds of brush, shrubbery, vines, and/or small sticks. Here’s a photo of what we will be making next.
Some ornaments laying out to dry out
Finding the Right Woods
To make these delightful ornaments, you need two kinds of wood: one that is relatively bendy and one that is relatively firm and less bendy. You can test the bendability of wood by trying to bend them in half–if they bend easily, you have a good “wreath” material. If they snap, that is a good “straight” material.
Bendable material should be able to do this without snapping
Wreath materials can be a lot of different things: most woody fines work great (Fox grape, other kinds of grape, buckthorn, bittersweet, to name a few). Willow branches are fantastic for this–look for them of various kinds near wet areas. Other bushes and shrubbery of various kinds can also be used. For mine, I used an unidentified shrub (that was planted by the previous owners of the land) as well as some very young dogwood branches (that I needed to cut back anyways near my coop). Ideally, you should be able to bend it at least as far as in the photo above before it snaps (if not more, in the case of many thinner vines, etc). Thin materials and new growth are best for the smaller ornaments. These materials *must* be cut fresh and used within a few hours or they will dry out and lose their bendable quality.
Straight materials can be anything that you like. I have some really lovely rose bushes that produce thornless straight branches–I like them for the green color. Other branches I used this time around were some beaked hazels, cherry, and some maple.
A harvest for wreath materials
Plan on harvesting the woods the same day you will make your wreaths and ornaments.
Making the Wreath
Depending on the length of your bendy wreath materials, you will likely need 1-3 pieces of material for each wreath. You will have to coax the material to do what you want it to do. Start by making a circle of the initial material, tucking in the end so it is held by the wreath.
Making your first loop
For this, I like to start with the thicker end first, and keep working around, twisting it as I go. You may have to help the wood bend by slowly bending it till it will keep the bend–each wood is unique. The stuff I’m working with for this demo was definately less bendy than willow or grape vine, but still did a fine job as long as I was patient.
Wreath – step 2
At some point, you should be able to have the end tuck in around the wreath. Don’t worry if its completely circular at this point yet–just keep adding material.
Wreath – Step 3
You can see above where I have a little bend in the wreath material–once I add more, you won’t be able to see the bend.
Every year, I look forward to the black raspberries that grow all throughout the fields and wild places where I live. These black raspberries are incredibly flavorful with with crunchy seeds. They have never been commercialized, meaning no company has grown them for profit. You cannot buy them in the store. You can only wait for late June and watch them ripen and invest the energy in picking. Each year, the black raspberries and so many other fruits, nuts, and wild foods are a gift from the land, the land that offers such abundance. If I would purchase such berries in a store, my relationship with those berries would be fairly instrumental–I pay for them, they become part of a transaction, and then I eat them. There is no heart in such a transaction. But because these berries can’t be bought or sold, when I pick them, the land is offering me the gift of sustenance. Gifting is a much different kind of relationship, a powerful and connected relationship, a relationship that asks not only for reciprocation but gratitude.
Gratitude is an incredibly important aspect of reconnecting and reciprocating with the living earth. Given the recent cultural holiday of giving of thanks, I wanted to reflect on the idea of gratitude practices and share ideas for what we could do in the druid tradition to offer gratitude to the living earth and her many aspects. So in today’s post, we’ll explore how to develop a gratitude practice and why it matters.
What is a gratitude practice?
There are lots of words you might use to describe a gratitude practice: honoring, venerating, giving thanks, respecting, and so forth. What I’m calling a “gratitude practice” puts us in regular contact with the living earth and allows us to express our respect, gratitude, and offer our thanks to the living earth and various aspects of nature. Nature provides everything for us–even if we are mostly disconnected in the western world from that process. Re-imagining our relationship as one full of gratitude helps us reconnect to the living earth in incredibly powerful ways.
There are many, many ways to engage in gratitude practices–speaking them, writing them, saying them. One common gratitude practice is ancestor work, which I wrote more about in an earlier post, and where we are in gratitude towards those who came before. Today, I’ll explore a long-term strategy for gratitude practices surrounding the living earth–through choosing aspects of nature to honor, creating shrines, and making offerings.
Choosing Aspects of Nature to offer Gratitude
The word “honor” refers to treating someone or something with admiration, respect, and recognition. If we think about the way we honor humans–soldiers, guests, or dignitaries–we may offer gifts, set aside special spaces for them (statuary, memorials, etc), or hold various kinds of celebrations for them. For example, in American culture we have presidential monuments, days honoring Martin Luther king and others of importance, monuments to fallen soldiers, and we offer regular respect to those humans who have done something extraordinary. If we use this same kind of thinking to honor nature and aspects of nature, we can develop a deeper relationship to nature over time and make this a core of a gratitude practice.
Some druids may choose to honor all of nature or focus on “the land” or “the earth” as the center of a nature honoring practice, while other druids may choose to focus and work with a specific aspect of nature intensively. Working to honor that aspect of nature—say, an element manifested in the world, an animal, a tree or plant, a mountain, a river, a natural phenomenon (storms), etc, can put you in a very deep relationship with that particular aspect. Thus, choosing who or what to honor in the natural world is important and is highly individual. Some druids may have already been drawn to a particular animal, plant, place, or other aspect of nature, while others may need to seek out different aspects to honor. Perhaps you have a plant species you have always been drawn to, or perhaps an animal species frequently visits you. Perhaps you’ve had powerful experiences in a particular place, or along a particular mountain ridge. Perhaps you feel energized and excited by the storm. You can select one, or multiple aspects of nature, to honor. As you choose to work with nature or aspects of nature, recognize that gratitude is work of the heart. The most important choice, then, deals with your own personal connection to the living earth and her spirits. What aspect of nature is deeply meaningful to one person may not be to another—the point of all of this is to develop, for yourself, deep relationships. Follow your heart and intuition. In this section’s activity, a specific ritual is given that can help you choose which aspects of nature you want to develop a devotional practice towards.
In an animistic perspective, we recognize the difference between matter and spirit, and in this case, both can be honored. For example, one druid decided to honor the black bear, so she begins by bringing in black bear imagery and statuary into her home; learning about the black bear; and creates a small shrine in the woods near her home to honor the greater spirit of the bear. She also learns about a local movement to protect bear populations and volunteers her time. In doing these kinds of honoring activities, she is able to deeply connect with the bear energies and bring those energies into their life. In a second example, a druid chooses to honor the local mountain range where he was born and raised. He learns about this mountain range, its history, and what lives there and grows there; he spends time hiking and backpacking on various parts of the mountain range; and he does regular ritual to protect the mountain from harm. He also carries a piece of wood in his pocket from the mountain and places a second piece of wood on his home altar. He connects to the spirit of the mountain through deep meditation and journeying work.
Nature Shrines as a Gratitude Practice
Poison Ivy shrine
One way of engaging in a gratitude practice is through creating a shrine or special space inside or outside of your home to honor the living earth and/or specific aspects of nature. In the druid tradition, a “shrine” is typically dedicated to a specific aspect of nature, while an “altar” is typically more of a working tool where you might engage in various kinds of rituals and practices. “Sacred spaces” are larger areas, perhaps containing a shrine or altar, that are dedicated to sacred activity. However, these can blend together, and we druids don’t get too picky about the differences.
To create a nature shrine, you need to consider four aspects: where the shrine will be, how you will construct the shrine, what the goal of the shrine is, and how often you will interact with the shrine. There is no right or wrong way to answer these questions–but you should give them some thought.
To start getting your own creative juices flowing, I will now share a few shrines I’ve built over time:
Honoring the Fallen Shrine (Outdoor). The “honoring the fallen” shrine was a large shrine on a recently cut stump. The shrine consisted of sticks, stones, and bones, with a stack of stones in the middle. The sticks, stones, and bones came from sites that were damaged or hurting. The shrine honored trees, animals, and others who were passing on due to human interference. I would honor species going extinct, trees and forests that were cut, making regular weekly offerings at the shrine.
Protecting Waters Shrine (Indoor). The “waters” shrine was to honor the waters of all kinds: rain, lakes, rivers, streams, springs, and so on. I gathered water offerings from all over the world (and asked friends to bring me water from various places) and I would put the new waters in little glass vials with a label. The shrine held the glass vials. This shrine had a beautiful large bowl of water as the centerpiece, which I kept regularly filled. This shrine was near a large tub I had in my bathroom, up on a little ledge.
Poison Ivy Shrine (Outdoor). Everywhere I’ve lived, poison ivy has lived with me, and I’m one of the very sensitive people who get it easily. The poison ivy shrine was created to honor the poison ivy on the property and ask it not to harm me or my guests. I built this shrine in the winter when the poison ivy was more dormant after scoping out a place with the most poison ivy on the property. I created a small shelf with several rocks and then created a clay statue that was my personification of poison ivy. I put the statue on the rock shelf. And then, I let this shrine alone. As the poison ivy grew back into the space, it mostly covered the stone and statue. I left this shrine largely be, as poison ivy wanted to be left alone!
Land Healing Shrine (Outdoor, Group). I created a land healing shrine with a group of druids was a land healing shrine, also on a large stump. We took fallen wood from the property, cut it into wood rounds, and then woodburned protective and healing symbols and ogham onto the wood. We left these on the shrine along with aspects of the four elements. The goal of this shrine was to send healing out to the land.
The Mother Earth Shrine (Outdoor). This shrine was created to honor the entirety of the land and all of her spirits. I would frequently gather new things for this shrine from wild places and add them to the shrine. Over time, the pile grew quite large! The shrine itself was wild—I never cleaned leaves off the shrine but rather let everything layer just like it does in nature. I left regular offerings of cornmeal here as part of my daily spiritual practices.
The Animals Shrine (Indoor). I created a small shrine, using only photographs on a wall space, in my office. I wanted to honor certain animals in my local ecosystem and also draw upon aspects of those animals while at work. The cluster of photos didn’t appear to anyone as a sacred space, but I understood the intent of the work.
One the things you might notice about the shrine examples I’ve offered above is that the shrines don’t just have a theme—the have an intention or goal. Your goals and intentions may evolve as you work deeply with the spirits of nature, so you can see these kinds of shrines as evolving things. I do think as you create a shrine, the shrine will evolve just as you evolve!
Sourcing Materials for Your Shrine
Sourcing materials for your shrine is also a critical choice, and sends a particular kind of message to the land and her spirits. For outdoor spaces, it is a good idea to make sure anything that you leave will not cause harm or pollution to the land. Further, you want to make sure that the earth was not harmed in the creating of that thing or the taking of that thing. This means you might use more naturally-oriented things or representations: sticks, stones, collected objects, secondhand objects, handcrafted objects, and so on. You can make beautiful shrines, altars, and sacred spaces using materials only from the land around you in many cases. Using things directly from the land allows them to break down and return to the land gracefully.
Building Your Shrine
Spend time planning and building a shrine to nature or to a specific aspect of nature. The process shouldn’t be rushed—often, the process of building a shrine takes time and unfolds in unexpected ways! First, you want to source the right location. Whether indoors or outdoors, it takes time to find the right spot. If it is in the house, you want to think about where it might be, and how visitors and other family members may interact with it (or not), and may respect it, or not. I once created a beautiful shrine in a guest bedroom, which worked except when I had guests who didn’t understand it and didn’t respect it well.
If it is outdoors, you again want to think about other people who may have access to the shrine and how public or private the shrine will be. I prefer to keep shrines as private as possible, unless I’m working with a group of fellow druids and we are co-constructing a shrine (as one example explored above). When sourcing a location, I recommend taking some time and doing multiple visits to ascertain the right location and if the spirits of the land would welcome the shrine. There are lots of considerations for location, particularly in terms of the weather, seasons, accessibility, visibility, and human interaction.
Once you’ve selected your spot, now comes the fun part of building the shrine. I like to see a nature shrine as an evolving thing—just as the wheel of the year turns in nature, so too your shrine evolve as you find new things for it. Shrines do not have to be complex, even a small stack of stones or ring of sticks works beautifully for a shrine.
The timing of initially setting up your shrine also can be important. Choose a day or time that is meaningful—a new or full moon, one of the druid holidays (solstices, equinoxes, cross quarter days) or some other day that lends itself well to the energies of your new endeavor.
Tending Your Shrine
After you have your shrine built, you’ll want to think about how you might regularly tend it. Regular attention to the shrine assures that you are connecting deeply with the energies of the shrine and connecting with that aspect of nature and that you are investing time, energy, and care into the shrine. Regular tending may include clearing the shrine of debris, replacing objects, and so forth. It may also be quietly sitting with the shrine, meditating near it, and simply observing it during the various seasons (if outdoors). There are lots of ways you can regularly tend and visit your shrine.
Offering on a stone cairn
Another thing you can do regularly at your shrine is make offerings–this helps you “give back” and engage in a more reciprocal relationship with the living earth. Offerings are often symbolic representations of our understanding of the give and take relationship we have with the earth that provides abundance. One of the ways you might think about offerings within a druid framework is that they are part of a larger gratitude practice. That is, through offerings, we are giving thanks, acknowledging, and honoring nature.
In terms of what to offer, the general principle here that I like to follow is this: my offering should be an offering of something that I value and that is important to me, not simply an empty gesture of something that I purchased. These things may be physical or non-physical.
On the side of physical things: many things that can be purchased are problematic because their purchase put additional strain on the land (the resources that produced it, the shipping and fossil fuels, the packaging that creates plastic waste, etc.). So you want to give any physical offerings some careful thought. One of the ways you might get around this is by either growing offerings, finding them, or wildcrafting them. A great offering could be something as simple as acorn caps gathered in the fall with a symbol painted on them in a natural ink. You could gather small stones or pieces of bark and bless them with the elements, and then use them as an offering. Another option is to create or grow a sacred offering blend of herbs (I use home-grown tobacco, lavender leaf, and rose petals as my current mix, see this post for more information). You can also purchase offerings that are sustainably created—go to a farmer’s market and buy a bottle of locally produced organic wine or locally milled cornmeal or flour, for example.
Non-physical things make wonderful offerings as well. Bardic practices, like drumming, dancing, singing, and so forth can be a great offering of your time, energy and spirit. I will also note here that music in particular is a great offering if you want to honor the spirits of the land while others are around—I like to take my flute to majestic places (which often have other people visiting them) and play a song or two. The intention of the song is an offering to the land, but it doesn’t hurt to have others hear it too.
I hope that this post was useful in thinking about one way–among many–that we might engage in a regular gratitude practice as part of our paths in honoring and connecting with our most sacred earth.
Creating homemade smudge sticks with local ingredients is a wonderful activity to do this time of year. As the plants die back, you can harvest whatever you aren’t using for other purposes and create a number of beautiful smudges that can be used for many different purposes: clearing, honoring spirits, protection, setting intentions, letting go, bringing in, preparing for ritual or mediation, and much more.
A few years ago, I wrote an initial post on homemade smudge sticks using local ingredients–this has become my most popular post on my blog. Given that, I wanted to offer a follow-up post with some additional information and share a few smudge stick recipes for specific purposes. For initial instructions on how to make your sticks, please see my first post. This post expands the plant list that you can use to make smudges and also offers smudge stick recipes for various purposes.
Expanded Ingredient List for Smudge Stick Making
The following is a much expanded ingredient list from my first post–it not only talks about different plants you can explore in smudge stick making, but offers their latin names and also if they can be wildharvested or need to be garden grown.
Aromatic Cultivated and Wildharvested Herbs. This list represents plants that you can easily find in the wild and/or grow in a garden. The information I’m providing is based on the US East coast/Upper Midwest, so you will need to adapt accordingly. (C) refers to the need to cultivate this herb in most places in the US Upper East Coast or Midwest, while indicates you might be able to find it in the wild.
Bay leaf (C)(Laurus nobilis): Bay has a wide range of magical uses: to banish or expel, to protect, to support, to prepare folks for deeper magical work. If you aren’t sure what to use as smudge, bay is a great choice due to its flexibility! You can cultivate bay plants; alternatively, pick up some bay leaves in the spice section of the grocery store .
Coltsfoot (C)(Tussilago farfara): Coltsfoot is used primarily for divination, and due to its very early bloom time in the spring and beautiful yellow flower, it is also associated with sun work and the coming of spring. Leaves can be harvested in the spring or fall, you can find it along roadways in full sun or part shade areas. The leaf is large and can be used as a wrap for other smudge ingredients. The flower, looking similar to a dandelion but smaller, and blooming in early spring, can also be used in smudges.
Eucalyptus (C) (Eucalyptus spp.)– Another herb for clearing work; its smolders nicely and produces a powerful scent. It combines beautifully with sage and lavender. You have to plant this in my region–it doesn’t grow wild, but will grow to a nice size over the summer and you can use it. You can also get whole leaf in some places if it isn’t local. While you can find it in craft stores in the US, I don’t know what they treat it with–I’d use it from an herbal supplier first.
Hyssop (C) (Hyssopus officinalis) – An herb with ancient connections to purification work; you can also use this to keep away negativity that is thrown in your direction. Hyssop smells wonderful when burned. I’ve also used Anise hyssop in a similar way; the two do burn differently (anise hyssop is more aromatic and smells and burns like black licorice).
Lavender (C) (Lavandula spp.) – Lavender helps with clear thinking, relaxation, and focus. You can use both leaf stalks and flower heads in smudges–lavender flowers give smudges beautiful colors and appeal. Lavender combines beautifully with sage or sweetgrass.
Lemongrass (C)(Cymbopogon): Cleansing, removing obstacles, purification. You can grow this or even pick up stalks in the local grocery store. Burns with a lemony scent and produces good smoke.
Mugwort (W, C) (Artemisia vulgaris) – Mugwort has a nice smell when burned (and its also used in a lot of herbal smoking blends). Mugwort is specifically tied to dreams and can produce very vivid dreaming. It is also wonderful for any other kind of trance or journeying work. While this is a powerful dreaming is a good thing in the short term, do keep in mind that vivid dreams over a long period of time can exhaust you–so use mugwort with care and not daily, but definitely use it! Mugwort also grows beautifully straight and tall, and really does do well in smudges. A lot of people cultivate mugwort, but I find it wild growing everywhere around where I live. I really love this plant for both tea (harvested young) and smudges
ingredients laid out to make some smudges–tobacco leaf and empty seed pods in front left corner.
Mullein (Verbascum thapsus) – Soft, fuzzy mullein leaves have a nice “smoldering” quality–they smolder in the same way that sage smolders. They don’t smell nearly as nice, but the smoke itself does have a beneficial impact on the lungs and can, medicinally, be used for “clearing” out the lungs of toxins. In Buddhist practice, the lungs are said to house grief. I think, for a personal smudge stick where I was working to clear out some deep emotions and emotional recovery, I would most definitely put mullein in becuase of that clearing/grief/lung connection.
Rosemary (C) (Rosmarinus officinalis) – Rosemary is another clearing and protective herb. It is also another staple for smudges. Interestingly enough, you can use both the root and the plant of rosemary–and they have different qualities. The rosemary stalks burn wonderfully in a smudge. Don’t let them get too dried out or the needles fall off easily and you will have a hard time wrapping them and keeping them intact. You might look at the different varieties of rosemary–not only do they smell slightly different, but they burn slightly different as well.
Sage (C) (Salvia spp.) – Sage is a clearing herb that helps purify and cleanse spaces of negative energy. All sages energtically work similarly, but do have some fairly unique smells. Here are some different sage options:
White Sage can be grown in gardens and has a potent, distinctive smell. The seeds are rather hard to start (only about a 20% germination rate) and it doesn’t like it too wet–it likes it hot. I usually plant this in my greenhouse as it is hotter and drier than the rest of my yard for the summer months. You can use white sage stalks and leaves in your smudge sticks. If you can’t grow it, you often can also find sage bundles in metaphysical shops (and you can take the bundles apart and mix them with other plants).
Desert Sage also has a lighter, sweeter smell than white sage. I haven’t grown this myself, but have gotten some from friends who were out west. It also is relatively easy to find in the shops.
Garden Sage is a wonderful choice for multiple purposes–culinary arts as well as smudge sticks. I harvest back the garden sage plants in the fall for use in smudges and for cooking! It has a deeper sage smell than the other two.
Clary Sage has larger leaves and a more musky smell. Works great for smudges!
Scented Geranium (C) (Pelargonium Spp.): Geranium is associated with prosperity, happiness, and love. The leaves and stalks of scented geraniums make wonderful smudge stick ingredients. They burn similar to the smell that the geranium has. i have had the most experience with my lemon scented geranium for smudges, but there are many options here. Pick one up and it will grow in a pot all summer for you.
Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis) – A great locally available plant that smells fairly similar to sweet grass (and attracts spirits and honors them, like sweet grass) is sweet clover. Sweet clover is dotted over roadsides and fields around midsummer. It does not burn quite as sweetly as sweetgrass, it has similar qualities and a similar smell.
Sweet Grass (C) (Hierochloe odorata) – Sweet grass gets spirits’ attention and can be used any any visionary or honoring work. I cultivate a patch of sweetgrass (moved with me several times and originally given as a gift) and it works great for smudges. Sometimes, I will put a full section of a sweetgrass braid in a smudge (see my photos). That really gets some attention and looks amazing.
Thyme (C) (Thymus vulgaris): This gentle garden and culinary herb is an incredibly powerful magical plant. Thyme helps with the removal of negative emotions, healing, and emotional healing. It looks so pretty in a smudge bundle too, especially the lemon thyme varieties.
Tobacco (C) (Nicotinana Rustica): Home grown tobacco is my go-to offertory plant, making offerings in particular to the spirits of the land, particularly of the plant kingdom. Tobacco also helps other plants do their work better (it amplifies their power and connects you deeply with their energies). I grow my own tobacco, and I use the leaves for offerings and use the stalks in smudge sticks.
Valerian (C) (Valeriana officinalis) – Valerian is one of the most powerful and potent cleansing and clearing herbs. A little valerian goes a long way. The fresh flowers smell sweet, but as they dry, they take on a potent wet-dog style aroma. The dried flower stalks work great in smudges. You can also use the roots, but the roots smell even more like a wet dog–and your smudge will smell similarly when burned. And your house will smell just with the roots sitting out in a smudge stick. That physical potency lends itself well to the spirit plant, for I have found nothing better to clear out a space. Burn with the windows open!
Wormwood (C, W) (Artemisia absinthium): Another super protective and clearing herb is Artemesia Absinthium (Common Wormwood). It has a pleasant smell when it burns, and is clearing, but in a more gentle way than valerian.
Yarrow (C, W) (Achillea Millefolium): Yarrow is another herb I like to use a lot in my smudges for its energetic qualities; it smells a lot like itself when it burns due to the high volatile oil content. Yarrow is used for workings where you don’t want to be seen or you need to hide or conceal something. It is also useful for strength and divination.
Trees and Shrubs. Traditionally, cedars (like incense cedar or red cedar) were used for smudges out in the western part of the US. In my bioregion, conifers mostly produce the best smudges, although some a few other options exist.
Eastern Red Cedar/Juniper (Juniperus virginiana): Junpier is a strongly protective herb and useful for male strength and for banishing. This is a wonderfully aromatic plant with berries that also are used medicinally. I love using juniper in my smudges–but it has little prickly bits, so use it carefully so that you don’t get stabbed.
Eastern White Cedar (Thuja Occidantalis): Eastern white cedar is a great smudge to help cleanse and open up a sacred space. It also helps with cleansing negative emotions, grief, or other pain. It is also tied to longevity and illumination. Eastern White Cedar crackles and pops when it is freshly dry due to its high amount of volatile oils. If you use the cedar branches when they are first dried, they smell wonderful but literally crackle and pop when you burn them due to all of the volatile oils—which is a bit of a fire hazard, but also can kind of be fun. However, if you hang the cedar in your house for a few months and let it dry out, the oils slowly dry out of the cedar and then you can make your smudge sticks. The sticks at this point will smoke beautifully.
White Pine (Pinus Strobus): White pine is associated with peace (both outer and inner), drawing things out (including pain), cleansing and purification, and wayfinding. White pine needles burn beautifully and smell a bit like a pine-vanilla when they burn. Wonderful in any smudge stick!
Blue Spruce (Picea pungens, Picea glauca): Spruce offers healing, resilience, strength, getting past the darkness. The latin name says a lot about the scent of the spruce tree: pungens – it is pungent! The blue spruce has a very musky smell which goes well for working with animal magic and other nature-focused approaches. The white spruce is less musky and very strengthening and potent. Beware–most spruce needles are sharp and may need to be handled carefully when harvesting and making smudges.
Staghorn sumac(Rhus Typhina): Staghorn sumac is a wonderful addition to any smudge stick. While you can use the leaves or fuzzy berry clusters, I much prefer the berry clusters. If you are using the leaves, you need to get them into the center of the smudge stick or they crumble as they dry. You can make smudges with small clusters of berries and or collect and use the leaves after they have gone red in the fall for the best smoke. Staghorn sumac has a very calming effect (I use it as an herbal smoke for my bees) and smolders nicely–plus, it is a beautiful red color that provides visual beauty in your smudge. It has a fairly pleasant smoke (not very aromatic, but copious). Staghorn sumac is a plant that offers creative approaches to thinking and cunning, which can certainly be of use.
Smudge sticks with various components–center one has a sweetgrass braid!
Visual Components. There is also a visual component to making a nice smudge stick, and I think this is where various wild flowers can lend a hand. Most of the flowers don’t have a particularly strong smell when burned, but a bit of purple or yellow or white in your smudge can look absolutely beautiful (and add energetically to your smudge). A visit to any flower field in the height of the summer will certainly give you much to work with–I love adding black eyed susans, sprigs of blue queen sage, or yellow ox-eye daies to smudges. You can also cultivate flowers like statice or baby’s breath which hold their beautify for long periods of time for your smudges (I would not buy these commercially as they are almost always sprayed with something you don’t want to make airborne). There are SO many options to experiment with!
Recipes for Smudge Sticks
Now that we have so many wonderful ingredients to choose from for home-grown smudges, what kinds of combinations smell nice and work well? The following are some combinations I have used for various purposes. You may not have all of the ingredients on these lists–you can eliminate ingredients you don’t have and mix and match. In the end, your intuition should be the best gauge for what plants to put together for what purposes. Here are some of my personal favorites:
Recipes for the Wheel of the Year
Winter Solstice Smudge:For bringing the light back into the world. Cedar, Juniper, and White Pine.
Imbolc Smudge: For Purification and Renewal: Hyssop, Rosemary, Cedar, and Sage
Spring Equinox Smudge: Letting the Awen Flow: Lavender, Sage, and Cedar
There is nothing quite as majestic as an oak, which is likely why ancient druids met in groves of them to perform their ceremonies. As I write this, I look at my glorious black oaks, white oaks, and burr oaks in the surrounding landscape and their incredible mantle of gold, tan, crimson and oranges. Where I live, the oaks keep the green on their leaves through most of the fall season, and begin their transition into color just before Samhain. The oaks and beeches, here, are the very last to lose their leaves–if they lose them at all. Many of the oaks, especially the younger ones, keep their leaves all winter, dry and crackling, and only drop them before they bud out again in the spring. Their behavior in the fall and winter months is certainly a testament to their energy and strength. All across the land, the oaks’ powerful presence here at this time of no time, holding space for all of us as we move further into the dark half of the year.
This is a post in my “sacred trees in the Americas” series where I explore sacred trees in the context of North America, particularly the upper Midwest and East coast. Often, the meaning of trees and the place of these sacred trees in the ecosystem differs from traditional European sources, and so I’m working through a number of dominant trees here with extensive research, exploring their physical uses, meanings, magic, sacred traditions, and more. Previous trees in this series have included: Elder, Walnut, Eastern White Cedar, Hemlock, Sugar Maple, Hawthorn, Hickory, Beech, Ash, and White Pine. Today, we will be exploring the majestic oak, a dominant tree in much of North America.
Oaks in Many Forms
In North America alone, over 56 species of Oaks make their home. Where I live, we have about 20 different species of oak, although certainly, a few oak species dominate: chestnut oak, white oak, northern red oak, swamp oak, and black oak. In other parts of the US and Canada, different oaks may be present or dominant. The good news is pretty much wherever you go that is not a desert here, you can find oaks! And this is great news for druids, as the oak has been a primary symbol of druidry since the time of the ancients.
One dominant, majestic oak in the eastern seaboard is the White Oak (quercus alba); white oak is the most dominant species in North America. White oaks can grow up to 100 feet high, with a 5 foot diameter trunk. One of the few places you see such large oaks are in old growth forests, such as Cooks Forest in Western PA. Black oaks (quercus veluntina) are much smaller trees, getting up to 80 feet high with a smaller 3′ trunk. All oaks have a very strong, hard wood with a close grain. Oak in past times was used for any situation where strength and durability were required: old barns, oak barrels, railroad ties, posts, ships, hardwood floors, and furniture, to name a few.
Like most other hardwood nut trees (hickory, walnut, butternut), oaks are relatively slow growing and long lived. Some white oaks can live 600 years or more. Oaks are considered a “climax” species, meaning that once mature oaks are present, the forest is considered mature and no additional ecological succession will take place. Oaks are a keystone species in many forests on the East coast and in the Appalachian mountains: the oaks provide understory, food, and habitat for many other species and drive the overall shape of the forest. A typical mixed oak forest may also include hickory, white ash, tulip poplar, beech, sugar maple, or black cherry with an understory of serviceberry, spicebush, or witch hazel. This is contrast to the other typical forest type, which here, would be the birch/beech/hemlock forest with an understory of witch hazel. Of course, I am writing here of the typical types of forests found in the Allegheny mountains; your own observations of your local ecosystem will also be helpful to determine how oak functions where you live.
Honey mushrooms (known around here as “pa-pinkies”) can be found on the roots of oaks infected with them. The infection that produces the honey mushrooms is armirillia root rot; it can be characterized by, as writes in Field and Forest, “blackish, fibrous, rootish strands extending up the tree beneath the bark.” Unfortunately, honey mushrooms, while delicious, kill oak trees. The cycle of life can be a fierce one; I’ve seen honey mushrooms take out ancient oaks, turning them into soil once again, and have watched young acorns sprout in the remains of their ancestors.
Acorns from the Tree of Life
Acorns and Acorn Eating Cultures
“The World looks different when you eat acorns.” Samuel Thayer, Nature’s Garden
Most oaks, like other hardwoods, have to be between 30-40 to produce acorns and up to 60 years to produce a full crop of nuts. Oaks flower in the spring; depending on the frosts that year, the frost may impact their nut harvest. According to Samuel Thayer in Nature’s Garden, oaks produce a strong acorn crop every 2-3 years. This is an ecological adaptation to prevent the populations of squirrels and other rodents that eat acorns to eat the entire crop each year. Smaller crops for two years keep populations small, and a large crop in a 3rd year will ensure the survival and continuance of the oak. Further, smaller crops train animals to “hoard” the nuts, stowing them in the ground and forgetting them, so that more oaks are born.
All acorns are edible, but in order to eat them, they have to be properly prepared. Different oaks have smaller or larger nuts–around here, my favorite for eating is the chestnut oak or the white oak, both of which produce very large nuts. These nuts are also both delicious when roasted. Acorns, like all other parts of the oak, contain tannic acid, which makes the acorn bitter without preparation. Leeching the tannic acid out of the acorns (through water extraction or boiling) turns acorns into incredibly delicious nuts and flour. For extensive instructions on how to harvest, leech, and prepare acorns, I suggest Samuel Thayer’s Nature’s Garden. Another good resource is the book Acorn and EatEm by Suellen Ocean. Euell Gibbons has several great recipes for Acorns in Stalking the Wild Asparagus, including candied acorns, acorn grits, acorn meal, and acorn bread and cakes.
The Native Americans used acorns as a key food source, making acorn meal and creating a flatbread that was eaten by many tribes (acorn was so important to so many tribes, they were called “acorn eating” tribes). Native Americans also used the inner bark (containing tannins up to 11%) which could be used as an astringent for many internal purposes. Thayer suggests that because of the history of exploitation and conquering in North America, part of the reason that acorns are widely thought to be poisonous was due to European-Americans disdain for Native American peoples. Returning, then, to the acorn as a food source can help us not only connect with the oak, but also deeply honor the ancestors of the land.
As druids know, the term “druid” is commonly translated “oak knowledge”, “oak-knower” or “oak-seer” referring to the fact that druids had knowledge of the oaks (and as oaks are a pinnacle species, therefore, druids had knowledge of the broader landscape) or perhaps, understood oaks on the inner and outer planes. In the druid tradition, oak is tied to that same ancient symbol of the druid possessing strength, knowledge, and wisdom. Through taking on the term druid, we bring the power and strength of the oak int our lives and tradition. We don’t have a lot of surviving information about the Ancient Druids and their rituals, but one of the most famous was described by Pliny the Elder describes the druids as “magicians” who “hold nothing more sacred than mistletoe and a tree on which it is growing, provided it is a hard-timbered oak….mistletoe is rare and when found it is gathered with great ceremony, and particularly on the sixth day of the moon.” The ritual is that two white bulls are brought, a white-clad priest climbs the oak tree and cuts the mistletoe with a golden sickle, and then they sacrifice the bulls and pray. This mistletoe, growing on the oak, was said to be the most powerful medicine, curing all poisons and allowing an infertile animal to reproduce. Pliny notes that druids performed all of their rites in sacred oak groves; when the druids were destroyed, the Romans cut all of their sacred oak groves down. You can imagine what those ancient groves must have been like when you encounter even a single ancient oak tree–majesty and presence.
Oak leaves in late fall
In the Encyclopedia of Natural Magic, John Michael Greer notes that oak is a tree of power you can use it to direct and channel high levels of energy., particularly earth magic or weather magic. He suggests that the oak is the “most powerful of trees in Northern European tree magic.”
In the American Hoodoo tradition, Cat Yronwode describes in Hoodoo Herb and Root Magic that Oak (especially Quercus Alba) can be brewed into a tea and then added to a bath to remove jinxes; usually, a rootworker will also rub the client vigorously downward and pray as part of this removal. She also notes that oak and mistletoe are burned together to smoke jinxed people or to remove unsettled spirits or ghosts from a house/place of business (I wonder if this oak and mistletoe combination ties back to the ancient druids? Most certainly!). She also notes that oak galls increase the power of any herbal blend for any magical purpose; it can be carried or brewed into a tea for bathing to increase the potency of other workings.
Culpepper’s Herbal notes that the oak is governed by jupiter and that the oak is known to to help resist poison of both “venomous creatures” and those of herbs and plants.
Finally, in alchemical circles, an article by Jean Dubuis titled The Preparation of a Powerful Spagyric Elixir without a Laboratory also offers some additional insight on the oak (here’s a link to one version). Dubuis essentially made a vitalizing spagyric tincture of acorn (for those not familiar with spagyrics, spagyrics are plant alchemy and allow you to make powerful, energetic plant medicine made in line with the alignment of the planets using specific techniques.) This oak elixir is vitalizing, carrying the energies of life.
Oak as Herbal Medicine
Primarily, oak is used as an astringent to help tone and firm up lax or leaky tissue. Of the astringents available in North America, it is one of the most potent. I was taught by herbalist Jim McDonald to harvest the inner bark of oaks for this purpose, specifically, the oak’s cambium. This, we dried and made into a tea/toner or into a tincture for internal use. Matthew Wood in his Earthwise Herbal (Old World Plants) likewise shares that oaks’ astringency is present in any oak tree. He mentions specifically the usefulness of oak for gum disease/loose gums, varicose veins, and other such lax/goopy conditions in the body. He also notes that oak can be used mentally just like it is physically. He writes that Oak, when used as a flower essence, “is the great remedy when the integrity of mind or body has been broken down by long, arduous suffering or usage….persons who struggle against adversity; never give up but never succeed; [oak] helps a person choose the battles they can win” (294-5).
Oak in the Mythology of Native American Peoples
I have already written of the critical importance of oak as a sustaining food for many of the tribes of North America, spanning the whole way from the east to the west coast.
Spirit of the Oak from the Plant Spirit Oracle
In “American Indian Fairy Tales” Margaret Compton tells a story where the prince of the hares, a trickster, has his feet burned by the sun and then decides to go on a journey. Finally, he comes to the edge of the world where a cliff of trees stands tall. He asks the trees what they are good for, and ash, birch, and oak responds. Oak tells him, “I shelter the great warriors. I mark the spot for their councils. From my boughs are made the swift arrow that bring food to the feet of the hunter and carry the death to his enemies.
In an article with a modern Native American elder of both O’odham and Chicano heritage, Dennis Martinez. In the article Martinez shared a number of features of oaks in the US west coast. He noted that both red oak and white oak were considered so important to the native peoples of California that they considered the oak the “tree of life” because of its benefits both as food and medicine. There were many acorn-eating cultures in California up even until the 19th century in the US.
In one of my favorite Senaca legends, the mighty oak stands along with the tribe of the conifers (white pine, hemlock, and the others) to hold his leaves and to wear down the winter and bring spring in again. Not only does this show the strength of the oak during the winter months (when many other deciduous trees are sleeping) but it also shows the connection of the oak to longevity and power.
A Sioux legend, The Man and the Oak, tells a story of a young woman who is taken in by a chief’s family. She falls in love with the chief’s son, but since she is now a member of the family, it is not permissible. The young woman sneaks into the son’s tent for several nights, and in attempting to see her face by stoking a fire, accidentally burns her. He is so distraught that he goes under an oak tree and stays there all day and into the night. A small oak tree grows up through him and pins him and he cannot move. The young woman disappeared, and the oak tree is found to be a curse. A thunder god appears and frees the man of his curse, crumbling the oak tree.
The Magic and Mystery of the Oak in North America
An incredibly consistent image of the oak seems present from the different kinds of literature, mythology, herbal, and magical traditions in both North America and Europe. Here are three core meanings for the oak:
Strength: The oak is obviously a sign of strength, both the strength of its branches and wood, and its strengthening qualities as a medicine and magical tree. All cultures have revered the oak and sought such strengthening qualities, and that strength can be seen throughout the lore.
Wisdom/Knowledge: Tied to the ancient term for “druid” as “oak knowledge” oak has long been associated with knowledge and wisdom. We can see this also in the Native American lore, where oak “makes space for councils”.
Vitality/Life: The most ancient druid ritual we have, as well as new work by Dubuis and others, suggests oak’s vitalizing quality. Oak can heal poison, strengthen the sick, and certainly, bring vitality and energy through the blessing of the acorn, as a “tree of life.”
Thunder/Weather: As we can see from both the IndoEuropean traditions as well as certain native american lore, oak is also tied to weather/thunder and thunder deities.
I hope you’ve enjoyed this brief foray into the majestic oak tree–and if you haven’t yet had..
A flower floats in a bowl of spring water under the sun. The drops of the resulting water contain the energetic signature of the flower; a bit of its essence and spirit. A few drops of this medicine, taken with sacred intent and combined with inner work, can create powerful transformations in the body and spirit, both inner and outer. This is potent medicine, spirit medicine, medicine to work with the soul. It is a gentle medicine, a medicine based in energy rather than matter. It is plant spirit medicine, medicine that can help move us to new places and ways of understanding. Yet, when we think of the word “medicine” today, what often comes to mind are various pills–little white and yellow tablets in bottles, created by some unknown process in some faraway place. Many of them have extremely harsh side effects; they are so potent that they work quickly (which gets someone back on their feet and back to work) but these medicines lack connection and spirit. Just as our bodies need the medicines (most of which I covered last week) or spirits also need medicine–to release the non-tangible things (hurt, sadness, grief, trauma) and to help strengthen our spirits in these difficult times. And so in today’s post, we explore the medicine of the spirit through plant and flower essences.
Medicine of the Spirit
Flower essences are energetic creations. As I shared a few weeks ago, developing spirit relationships with the plants has many forms, and one of them can be through working with flower and plant essences. This is medicine of spirit, and for spirit, and so your individual connection to the plant deeply matters. In order to talk about plant or flower essences, I think it is important to develop individualized medicine and medicinal knowledge from plant spiritsworks based on connection. There are books and websites that tell you about the different flower essences; e.g. that Aspen is good for anxiety, particularly about unknown things, or that Crab Apple flower essences help you move beyond your imperfections. And these will likely work well as they are established knowledge that has been worked with by many people. Using these kinds of resources are a great place for you to start, but I would suggest that you not end there–take it a step further. Working with the plant on both of these levels allows you to really understand and acknowledge the plant. Medicine of the spirit works differently than medicine of the body.
Creating a Healing Plant Flower Essence or Plant Essence
For some plants, you might want to work exclusively with the energy of the plant, rather than the physical body of the plant. This is because the plant may be poisonous to ingest (such as Thuja Occidentalis, the Eastern White Cedar) but you still want to work with its potent healing spirit. Or, can also be because it has a very low population at present (such as Indian Ghost Pipe); creating a flower essence allows you to not damage the plant as part of the harvest. Or it can simply be that you want to work more with the spirit and energy of the plant, rather than the physical body. Flower essences work on the same principles that cell salts, homoapathy, and reiki work on, that is, they work on subtle energy. You can make flower essences anytime of year flowers are blooming; you can make conifer essences all times of year. Given this time of year, you might want to try a witch hazel flower essence if you have any blooming around you!
Supplies. Once you are ready to proceed, you will need the following materials:
A bowl of your choosing
Fresh water (preferably rain or spring water, non-chlorinated if at all possible)
A strainer(depending on approach)
A small knife (depending on approach)
Moonlight or sunlight
Amber dropper bottle or jar for storage
Amber dropper bottle for use
Alcohol (vodka or brandy, 80 proof) for preservation. Brandy tastes better, so it is usually my choice for flower essences.
Honoring and permission. Be in a good frame of mind as you start. You may want to establish a sacred grove before creating the plant. Make an offering to the plant and then sit with the plant to make sure the plant is willing to help you create the essence. Listen for any messages that the plant wants to share.
Holding the bowl for a hemlock needle essence
Moonlight and sunlight. You can make a plant or flower essence in both moonlight or sunlight. The choice of which depends in part on the work you want to do with the plant. The energy of the sun is protective, it is outward facing, it is energizing, and it is potent. Use this for any healing work where you seek to strengthen, build, move forward, or start something new. The energy of the moon is receptive; it is inward facing, it is calming, and it is subtle. Use the moonlight for any healing work where you seek to remove old wounds, where you are doing shadow work on yourself, or where you seek to bring things in. You can also use a combination of sun and moonlight–leave your flower/plant essence out during the day and then during the evening for a full 24 hour cycle to create balance.
Plant matter: You will need a very small amount of plant matter for your flower essence. Use flowers if they are available (which means you may need to wait till the plant is flowering) or leaves/seeds if they are not. Seeds and flowers both contain the potent energy of the plants. Don’t use commercially grown flowers (like roses from the grocery store) or from greenhouses; nearly all of these are sprayed with poisons which will be infused into your water. Instead, use wild populations or those you grow yourself or that are at friends/family’s houses where spraying doesn’t happen. Grow your own on a windowsill if necessary!
Choose your approach and make your Essence. There are two approaches to making flower essences, involving cutting or not cutting plants. Both with their drawbacks and strengths.
Cut plants approach: Go to your plant, and cut a small amount of plant matter or several flowers for creating the essence. Floats the flowers/plants in the bowl in the sunlight or moonlight for 3-4 hours or up to 24 for the sun/moon balance approach. When you are finished, remove the plant matter and complete the essence (see below).
Whole plants approach: Go to your plant and dip a small amount of plant matter or plant flowers into the bowl. If you can set the bowl on the ground or hang it somehow to keep the plant matter submerged, this is ideal. If not, hold the bowl there as long as you can (at least 15-20 min) and allow the essence of the flowers or plants to infuse into the water.
Creating the “Mother Essence.” Once you have your essence, fill your jar halfway with your plant water. Now, fill the rest with alcohol. You have created a “mother” plant essence; this will last you a long time and be preserved indefinitely). Take 7 drops of your mother essence and put it in the second jar, and fill it with pure water. This is our finished flower essence, and you can take it as often as you like and use it for various purposes (ritual, meditation, medicinal, etc). You will also have plenty to offer others if you feel the need. If you have any leftover “mother” water, consider using it in a sacred manner.
Goldenrod Flower Essence
Plant and Flower Essence List
Here are a few plant and flower essences that I have used and developed (these come primarily from my own understanding and what has been taught to me as an herbalist and permaculturist):
Eastern White Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis): Getting past deep trauma and grief, getting past inner darkness, bringing light into a darkened soul
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia): Bringing clarity and insight; focusing the mind
Indian Ghost Pipe (Monotropa Uniflora): Offering distance and perspective on current or past situations; offering distance from pain, breaking through addictions
Jewelweed (Impatiens capensis): Bringing the flow of awen/creativity into your life; cultivating creative practices
Goldenrod (Soladago spp.): Bringing in power and joy into your life; bringing forth the harvest
Using Plant and Flower Essences
Once you’ve created your flower essence, you are now free to use it. But how do you use it? The most standard way to use a flower essence is to take four drops from your dropper bottle four times daily. You might do this while in ceremony or meditation, or when taking a quiet moment. If you aren’t sure you are going to be able to do this, if you carry a water bottle, add the drops to the water bottle and drink it throughout the day. Or, add them to a glass of water at meals. The point is to get the essence into you however you can (and for some of us, taking something regularly, much less 4x a day, is not something that comes easily!)
I’ve found there are other ways of using the essences, however, and they lend their own magic. One I really like is to take any leftover “mother” water and bottle it up in a spray bottle (or split it and bottle it up in several spray bottles); I use cobolt glass bottles for this purpose. Then I can spritz myself with it when I want the energy of that plant, or spritz a room with it.
I also like to add three drops of my flower water to any ritual bowls of water as a way to infuse the ritual with the energy of that plant.
Finally, especially for cleansing floral waters, you might add a few drops to your bathtub when you are taking a bath.
This concludes my post for this week–and one way, of many, to use plants for medicine of the spirit. Blessings upon your spirit medicine journey!
The moonlight shines through the window in my kitchen as I carefully use a mortar and pestle to grind dried herbs for making tea. Candlelight softly illuminates the space, and I have my recipe book with me, ensuring that I record everything that I’m doing for future use. Magic is in the air; working in a sacred space at a sacred time on the Fall Equinox ensures that these medicines will be potent, effective, and magical. On the counter, I’ve already finished my fresh New England Aster flower tincture; this keeps my lungs in good health and helps me manage my chronic asthma without pharmaceuticals. A pot of olive oil is infusing with herbs is on the stove; I am getting ready to add beeswax and pour it off into small jars. This healing salve will be for friends and family as Yule gifts. The kitchen is bursting with good things and healing energy.
Healing Salve in Tins (tins purchased from Mountain Rose Herbs)
In last week’s post, we explored some different ways to interact with and harvest plants: an animistic worldview that recognizes and honors plant spirits, planting and harvesting by the signs, and preparing for harvest through offerings. In this week’s post, we’ll talk through different ways to preserve and prepare sacred plant medicine– so let’s get started!
An Herbal Sacred Grove
Before beginning your plant preparations, I would suggest setting up a sacred space (what we druids call a Sacred Grove). You can create a sacred space in which to prepare your sacred plant medicine. I offered details for one way of doing this in my earlier post on Hawthorn tincture creating. You could also do so using an existing grove ritual (from OBOD, AODA, etc) or by creating your own. I love to do this and I have found that it really adds to the magic and power of my plant preparations. For sacred plant crafting, I typically use a modified version of AODA’s solitary grove opening, including the Sphere of Protection. The Sphere of Protection is highly adaptable, drawing upon the four elements and the solar, telluric, and lunar currents (three realms of spirit). For plant medicine, I will use something like this (depending on the plants I’m working with at that time):
East/Air – New England Aster
West/Water – Hawthorn
North/Earth – Reishi Mushroom
Spirit Below/Telluric Current – Comfrey
Spirit Above/Solar Current – Goldenrod
Spirit Within/Lunar Current – Reishi
So my opening might look something like this:
Declare the intent of the ceremony
Declare peace in the quarters (part of the druid tradition)
Druid’s prayer / Druid’s prayer for peace (part of the druid tradition)
Sphere of protection; sealing the space
Offering to the spirits of the plants
Once the grove is open, I can begin my plant preparations, recognizing the sacredness and magic in this work.
If you plan on continuing to do sacred herbalism, I would suggest developing your own version of your sacred grove opening. It can be dedicated to certain plants or activities, be done in a special room at a special time, etc. The important thing is to make it matter for you!
Once you have harvested a plant, you should engage in what is known as “garbling.” Garbling has both mundane and magical qualities. On the mundane level, this basically means going though the plant material, cleaning it, removing bugs or soiled parts, and making sure you don’t have parts of other plants (like blades of grass) in there. As part of the garbling process, if you are drying your plants, you will want to remove any thick stems–this can prevent plants from drying thoroughly. On the magical level, this process lends your energy to the plants you’ve harvested. Feel their energy, attune with them, and do a bit of energy exchange with the plants you harvested.
Plants need to be very dry if they are to stay fresh and preserved over a period of time or if you are going to use them in an herbal preparation. One of my favorite tools is a portable herb air drying rack. Its a mesh column with tiers where you can lay many fresh herbs. If you hang this up in your house or porch, your herbs can be dried in a matter of days and not use any fossil fuels. Other options include an electric dehydrator (sometimes necessary in places or times of high humidity). If using a dehydrator, make sure you keep it on the lowest (herb) setting. Solar dehydrators (such as this design here) are another good option. The oven is not a good option for most plants for drying, particularly leaf and flower parts; the oven starts out about 100 degrees Fahrenheit hotter than you want for your plants and you will likely burn them. You can use the oven to “finish off” already mostly dry material, however.
If you feel your plants and they still feel soft or cool, they are likely not yet dried enough for proper storage. This is particularly a problem in high humidity areas. You might finish them off for 10 min in the oven at the lowest setting to make sure they are super dry. Then place them in a mason jar (which has an excellent lid that won’t allow any bugs, dust, etc, inside and place them in a cool, dark place.
Typically, drying directly in the sun is not a good idea. The sun destroys many of the volatile oils, which is where a lot of medicinal content is held in the plants. So air dry them, but never in direct sunlight. (This is also why you store plants in a cool, dark space–because sunlight is damaging to the longevity and potency of dried herbs and tinctures). You can use the sun’s energy for other kinds of preparations, however!
Specific Plant Preparations: Teas, Tinctures, Oils, and Salves
Healing Plant Tea (Infusion or Decoction)
If you are drying plants and storing them, you are already ready to make tea. Tea is best used for working on the internal systems of the body; the gut and GI system can hugely benefit from healing teas. For teas, I usually grind up my plant matter a bit further (in a mortar and pestle, or cut them up further with herb scissors). This is done so that the water has more spaces and opportunities to extract the plant matter. There are two kinds of herbal teas that you can make: infusions or decotions; the kind you make depends on the plant matter you are working with.
Infusions are created when boiling water is poured over plant matter and allowed to sit for 5-20 or so minutes (what we typically know as ‘tea’ using a tea bag). This method is best for leafy plant matter and flowers. When you make an infusion, make sure to cover the tea so that you are not losing the volatile essential oils through the steam (that’s often where the most concentrated medicine is). The longer you let the tea sit, the stronger it will be, and for medicinal teas, 10-15 minutes is a good amount of time. You can use tea strainers or purchase single use tea bags that can be sealed or tied. I prefer the metal tea strainers as I make a lot of tea and don’t want the tea bag paper to go to waste. Good plants for infusion teas include: mints, rosemary, lavender, monarda, lemon balm, chamomile, catnip, nettle, and more.
Decoctions are created when you boil your plant matter, with a lid, in the water, again for 10-20 minutes. These are best for roots, barks, nuts, and other tough woody plant matter as it takes more time to extract the medicine from roots and woody material. A hard boil of a plant would destroy leafy bits and flowers, so if you are combining woody bits or roots with flowers, add your flowers after you are done boiling and allow them to sit (again with the lid on) for 10 or so minutes before drinking your tea. Plants for decoction: sassafras root, wild cherry bark, echinacea root, yellow dock root, etc.
You can also add the energy of the sun and/or the moon to your tea:
Sunlight and solar tea!
Lunar tea: A great way to bring the energy of the moon. For infusions, pour boiling water over your plant material and allow it to sit in a jar with a lid in the moonlight. For decoctions, boil your plant matter and add to a mason jar with a lid. Let it sit overnight in the moonlight. Drink the next day and enjoy the energy of the moon.
Solar tea: Some days, the sun is hot enough to do its own infusion of leafy or flower plant material. Place your material in a large mason jar (I like to use the half-gallon mason jars) and sit it in the sun. If you want to make your tea stronger, consider putting your jar on a reflective surface (like in a big stainless steel bowl) to increase the heat. For decoctions, I like to soak my plant matter in advance in the sun (in a pot or jar) and then do the final boil.
Finally, you can make a ritual out of drinking your tea: perhaps it’s what you drink each morning when you rise, or each evening as you are getting ready for meditation. I like to make my tea and then walk out on our land here, communing with the plants both within the tea and without!
Healing Plant Tincture (Alcohol, Vinegar, and Glycerine)
Tinctures are potent extracts that turn the plant medicine into a more easily accessible form by the body, and are used for an extremely wide range of uses (daily strengthening, cleansing, supporting a healthy fever, gut issues, etc). Tincturing can be a fairly complex and involved process if you want it to be (I wrote about it in much greater depth on my herbalism blog), but we are going to use a simple folk method here. A tincture suspends healing plant matter in a menstra (in our case, alcohol, vinegar, or glycerine) which makes the medicinal properties more readily available and also preserves them for a period of time (for vinegar and glycerine, about a year; for high proof alcohol, indefinitely).
Alcohol tinctures. Your goal for most plant matter is to have at least 25% alcohol for preservation purposes. Start by chopping your fresh or dried plant matter finely. If you are using fresh plant matter, you will want to start with a higher proof alcohol (as the plants add some additional water). You can use a “neutral” spirit; vodka is a typical choice for most herbalists. An 80 proof vodka is 40% alcohol, so even if your plant material has a bit of water in it, you should still be above 25% alcohol when you are finished. Place your chopped plant matter into a jar, and weigh it down with a smooth, clean stone that you have scrubbed well in advance. You can do this without the stone, but the stone really helps keep all of the plant matter submerged, which prevents mold and other issues. Pour your alcohol over it and store in a cool, dark place for one moon cycle. Strain your material, and enjoy! Tinctures can be sweetened with honey or maple syrup to make them taste a bit better (or just take them in a glass of water).
Glycerine tinctures (glycerites). Glycerites have a shelf life about a year, and often taste a lot better than alcoholic preparations. They are also very good for children or people who cannot have alcohol (such as those in recovery). Purchase some vegetable glycerine (in the USA, if you find “USP Glycyerine” the USP stands for the United States Pharmacopeia, which means it is a pure and standard formula). Water the glycerine down by 50% and add your plant matter, usually dried (or water it down less if you are using fresh). Give it all a good shake and let it sit for one moon cycle (but not more), shaking it at least once a day. Strain and enjoy.
Making herbal tinctures from wildcrafted ingredients
Vinegar tinctures. Vinegars are best for food-based material that you want to build into your cooking and consumption regularly and can be a great addition to an herbal medicine cabinet. For example, my father needed to have regular hawthorn in his diet and he enjoyed eating vinegar and oil on his salad, so I prepared him a hawthorn-infused apple cider vinegar that he could use each day with his meal. Vinegar tinctures are made similar to the others–start with a high quality vinegar, preferably organic. Chop up your plant matter finely and add it to your jar. Let the plants infuse in the jar for one moon cycle, strain, and enjoy. One more common vingear based preparation you may have heard of is “Fire Cider“; it is a vinegar-based tincture of ginger, onions, garlic, horseradish, and herbs that is used for healing purposes.
Some Plants for tincturing: Monarda (bee balm, antimicrobial), Nettle (anti-histamine, adrenal support), Goldenrod (anti-histamine, anti-inflammatory), Culinary Herbs (rosemary, sage, thyme, oregano – good for the vinegar infusion), Chickweed, Wild Yam.
Healing Plant Infused Oil
Infused oils are topically used primarily for wounds/stings/bug bites, for joint/muscle issues, or for varicose veins and other skin issues. Herbalists have a multitude of ways to make an infused plant oil, and I will share two of the most simple ways. Start by thoroughly drying your plant matter (see instructions above) and chopping it finely; if you are in a hurry, at least “wilt” your plant material for 12 or so hours by letting it sit on the counter before using it. Choose a good quality oil, I most often use organic olive oil as it is readily available. Coconut oil is another good choice, but only if you will be keeping it in a temperature controlled environment due to its low melt point. Otherwise, at some point, your infused oil may be solid or liquid (and this is even more important if you plan on making it into salve).
Pour the oil over the plant matter, making sure the plant matter is thoroughly saturated. Leave in a sunny window or on the porch on warm days for one week, then drain and store in a cool, dark place for use.
Alternatively, you can use a double boiler on a low setting and infuse the oil for 12-24 hours. Ensure the oil doesn’t get too hot–if your plant leaves turn brown and crispy, you likely made it too warm and boiled away the medicine. Thoroughly strain your oil with a small strainer or cheesecloth, and store in a cool, dark place for further use.
Make sure your oil is completely strained; small bits of plant matter can make it spoil much faster. Also make sure there are no water bubbles in it; they will appear on the bottom and look like little clear or brownish bubbles. These will also make the infused oil spoil much, much faster.
To make a salve from infused oil, begin by placing your strained oil into a double boiler and heating it up. Add approximately 3 tbsp of beeswax (shaved or grated finely) per cup of infused oil. As the oil heats up, the beeswax will melt. You can add less beeswax for a more liquid salve or more beeswax for a harder salve.
To test the consistency of your salve, place a spoon in the freezer and then pull it out and put a few drops of your salve on the spoon to see its consistency. When you are happy with the consistency, you can add any additional essential oils (in small quantities; I like to add sweet orange or rosemary oil to make it smell nice). Pour your salves into small jars or tins. Let them cool and then label appropriately.
Plants that work well for salve (in any combination): Plantain (skin healing, drawing), Calendula (skin healing), Comfrey (wound closing), St. John’s Wort (inflammation), Ground Ivy (skin healing, drawing), Chickweed (skin healing), Goldenrod (inflammation).
The world of plant medicine and herbalism represents a lifetime of study–but the best way to learn is to start doing it! Next week, in our final post in this series, we talk about making herbal flower/leaf essences and working deeply with the spirit of plants. Blessings!
A field of goldenrod, nettle, and aster greet me on this warm post- Fall Equinox day. As the moon comes up with a sliver in the afternoon sky, I joyfully take my basket and harvest knife into the field for my fall plant preparations. The breeze has change on the air–winter is coming soon, and the sacred medicines I prepare will bring my family nourishment and strength for the coming dark half of the year. As we are well into the harvest season at this lovely Fall Equinox, I thought I’d take the time to talk about harvesting and preparation by the sun and moon and honoring the harvest. Next week, I’ll talk about the most basic plant preparations and we’ll end this series with talking about energetic preparations through the creation of flower and leaf essences. That is, we’ll talk about the medicine of both the body and of the soul.
Wheel of the Sun, the Phase of the Moon, and the Turning of the Stars
With working with plant spirits, as we’ve been exploring in this series, we can do everything with sacred intent and awareness that plants aren’t just physical beings. This includes our planting, harvesting, and plant preparations. I have found that when I time my herbal practices by the wheel of the sun (harvesting and planting on sacred days, particularly Beltane, the Summer Solstice, Lughnasadh, the Fall Equinox, and Samhain), these sacred times add a bit of magic to my plant preparations. Further, by working with the plants on these sacred days, I begin building a more rich and full wheel of the year practice focusing on medicine and healing. This means, that, over the years, I have special plants that I harvest at certain times of year, and part of my celebration of that sacred say includes harvesting plants. Some of these plants, like tobacco, are plants that I grow while others are wild plants that I have cultivated a relationship with over time. For example, Elder is one such plant: the Summer Solstice is “here” for me when elder is in bloom, and I will often make elderflower cordial on that day to enjoy throughout the year. When the Elder is ripe with fruit, Lughnasadh is here, and I make elderberry elixir for health and healing. These two plant preparations are not only critical to the health of my family throughout the year, but also help me mark and celebrate these holidays with something meaningful. You might select a few plants to cultivate this kind of yearly relationship with.
The phases of the moon offer additional opportunities for sacred timing and herbal preparations. To me, there is little as enjoyable as going out under the full moon or dark moon to create a flower essence. There are two ways to use the phases of the moon: the simple way based only on moon phase, and the more complex way based on what planet astrologically the moon is in at that given time. In terms of moon phases, preparing and harvesting at a new moon or during the waxing moon is good for when you want to bring healing into the body, strengthen the body, or offer nutrients to the body. The full moon brings power to herbal creations and energizes them. A waning moon helps draw out or remove toxins, sickness, or other impurities. If I want to work with removing sickness from the body, perhaps I start with a lunar flower essence of wormwood or walnut, created during the waning moon, and draw upon that energy to help remove sickness.
The turning wheel of the stars combined with the moon phase through astrology, offers yet a third possibility for harvesting and herbal preparation. This way is the most in-depth, but also perhaps, most powerful. This way to plant, harvest, and prepare herbal preparations by the phase of the moon is to use astrology, specifically, the moon sign. Each month, the moon spends about two days in each of the 12 astrological signs. The easiest way to know what phase the moon is in is to purchase a biodynamic calendar or a farmer’s almanac; both of these will offer this information. Generally speaking, here is what is important to know:
Water Signs (Cancer, Pisces, and Scorpio): When the moon is in one of these signs, it is a good time for harvesting leafy, above ground material for herbal preparations.
Earth Signs (Taurus, Capricorn, Virgo): When the moon is in one of these signs, it is a good time for harvesting and working with roots (below ground material) for herbal preparations.
Air signs (Aquarius, Gemini, Libra): When the moon is in one of these signs, it is considered fairly barren and dry. Libra, however, is also associated with flowers, so flower harvests and preparations are appropriate under Libra. Otherwise, these signs should be avoided for plant preparations and harvest.
Fire Signs (Aries, Leo, Sagittarius): These signs are good “removal” signs, so good for weeding, but not very good for harvest (with the exception of the fourth quarter fire sign, this will be good for preservation). Generally, you want to avoid harvesting under these signs.
These moon phases are fairly complex and can change on a daily basis; what I like about the biodynamic calendar and/or farmer’s almanac is that they spell it out for you on each day (and down to each minute). If you are practicing astrology, you wouldn’t need this kind of tool, but if you aren’t, it is very useful.
These are all tried and true methods for working with plants and also recognizing the many different ways in which sacred timing can be used to increase the potency of the plants. There are many opportunities to choose timing that best fits your purpose with herbal creations, and doing so adds a layer of sacredness to your actions. Some of these systems may be contradictory (what if the moon is in a fire sign, but it is the Fall Equinox and you want to harvest?) so you need to pick your time and focus on the energy of that particular aspect. I have found that the wheel of the sun has the most power, and if not, I will use a combination of the second two; or work hard to find the perfect moment where all three are in alignment (like 2 days before the fall equinox when the full moon is taurus for root harvest and preparation!) You don’t always get such amazing timing, but when you can, it makes the event more meaningful.
Honoring Spirit and Harvesting Plants
From an animistic perspective, when you harvest a plant or do any other kind of plant preparation, engaging in respect and honor is part of the necessary work. Part of this is because plants are lending you healing power through its actual body; in the case of root harvests, your harvest may end the life of that plant entirely. I believe that part of the sacred medicine of the plant is built into the relationship that you, as preparer, have with the plant itself. In taking any part of a plant for healing purposes, and asking a plant to work for us, it is only right that we honor the plant spirit as part of our harvest. We can harvest ethically and with sacred intent. So let’s talk about a few ways we might do this:
Honoring the plant. Prior to harvest, make an offering of some kind to the plant. This can be anything simple: a blend of herbs specially prepared (see my tobacco Beltane blend, for example), a song, music, drumming, a dance, a bit of your own liquid gold, a bit of your own energy, a small stone or other token. Doing this ensures reciprocation between you and the plant, and lets the plant spirit know that you respect it. I belive this also makes the medicine stronger, as you are building a relationship of respect and mutuality with the plant. You might find, through inner listening, that the plant has a particular kind of offering it wants you to make–and different plants, just like other kinds of people, have a variety of different preferences.
Offering on a stone cairn
Harvesting for life. Harvest only what you need and think you’ll use. For anything above the ground, harvest parts of plants or plants at the end of their life cycle, taking a small amounts. For plants that are abundant, you can harvest more; for plants that are rare, harvest very little (or cultivate them further before harvesting anything at all). If you are doing a root harvest, make sure that your harvest will not damage the larger plant population. I grow or wild cultivate nearly all of the plants I want to do a root harvest from, that way I am in control of exactly how many plants I have planted and how many I am going to harvest. I will not harvest from wild populations unless A) they are extraordinarily abundant and B) I have already worked to spread these populations further. You can also consider doing plant or flower essences for plants that are extremely rare (Indian Ghost Pipe being a good example).
Cultivation and Relationship. Harvest and preparation are not one-shot events but rather, can be lifetime experiences rooted in a practice of nature spirituality. This means that these plants aren’t just a passerby you interact with once in a while, but can be strong plant allies and friends. Recently, I shared a post at Lughnasadh about how to cultivate long-standing relationships with plant spirits. I used sacred tobacco (nicotiana rustica) as my example for this work and offered one strategy to do so. The plant spirit posts I also recently shared offer more tools for this work.
That’s it for this week–during my next post, we’ll get into four different kinds of preparations you can make: drying herbs and teas, tinctures, infused oils and salves, and finally, plant essences.