When it comes to the dairy industry, it is crucial to find the right cheese vat for your cheese making process. For starters, this dairy equipment is designed for maximised output as well as usability. It means that different scenarios will require different cheese vats. These cheese vats can vary in sizes from 100L for a small production to 2,000L. There are even those options that are custom-made depending on the needs of the cheese maker.
So how do you choose the right cheese vat? If you are just a novice cheese maker, this question can be tricky. Here are some factors that you should consider when selecting your cheese vat.
What type of cheese are you making?
The first question that you should answer is what type of cheese are you planning to make? There are specific cheese vats for specific cheese. On the other hand, there are vats that are meant for a good range of products as well.
Let’s take a closer look at soft cheese, for instance. You will notice that the designs of these cheese vats soft cheese such as feta, and Camembert are usually small. Now, why is a soft cheese vat designed to be small? You must understand the characteristic of the cheese. For soft cheese, for instance, it is important to consider the duration which you transfer the cheese into the mould. It would take too long to scoop a huge amount of curd from the cheese vat. Ph of a cheese could drop to low and acidy of final product will be out of set range. It’s also worth to say some small cheese vats may do two or more batches in a day saving you real estate and lowering initial purchase price.
You should also pay attention to the automation of the cheese vat. There are cheese vats available on the market that require just a few people in charge of its operations. When it comes to making cheese, any cheese maker will tell you that making consistent high-quality cheese is a must. This means that no matter who oversees making the cheese, it should produce the same kind of cheese that you want to sell.
The good news is that there are many automated cheese vats out there. This equipment manages the entire process of making cheese for you. Automation also plays a role in your cheese production. It guarantees that there is maximum output.
Now, the thing with automated cheese vats is that you will have to also ensure that it runs properly. Be sure that you are going to work with a company that can carry out maintenance on regular basis. This way, you prevent productivity issues along the way ensuring consistent production.
Shape and Size of the Cheese Vats
It is crucial that you also take a closer look at your goals as a company. You must understand that many cheese makers buy large capacity cheese vats from the get-go because they don’t want to switch equipment in the next years. It’s not always a good way as its always takes time to grown your business and experiment with products. When you are more established it’s when you should think of larger production and streamlining production time.
Now, you also must worry about the shape of your cheese vat Square vats usually have ‘cold spots’ in the corners. It’s where the dimple jacket is of lower temperature then the rest of the kettle. This may cause different PH of product at the hooping. As a rule of thumb, stick to the oval and double O design.
Steam or Electricity Heating?
The cheese is going to enter the vat and you will need to warm the vat at the right temperature. Now when it comes to having a batch pasteurised, you will have to decide how exactly are you going to heat the vat?
If you are going to have an electric element, you may be limited to a single phase. However, it is a great option if you only have a small up to 2000ltr cheese production.
Vats using steam are usually used for large batches over 5000ltr at a time and setup costs is very expensive.
Not all cheese vats are created equal. You must understand that there are several considerations that you will have to make before you go for a cheese vat. By having a closer look at these factors, it becomes possible to minimise unnecessary costs on equipment. Also, you can cut your losses on your raw material as you minimize the wastes from the production process
First things first, before you will get into the exciting stage of equipment orders, you have to ask yourself following questions:
What products will you make? Will you make soft cheese, hard cheese, yoghurt or perhaps a combination of all? Focusing on two
Sell forecast for in first 3, 6 and 12 months – this is crucial! You have to predict what will be your initial turnover to keep the Profit&Lost in good shape and your accountant off your back! Always be prepared for a worst-case scenario. My rule of thumbs is to take off 30-40% of forecasted sells for the first year. Sometimes not meeting initial business plan targets not having to be related directly to your business performance. They may be events you will be out of control with: unpredicted weather or ‘overnight’ price drop of your best selling product by a large retail network are best examples.
From where Sourcing raw milk will give you an advantage of better milk quality control and usually slightly better price versus getting in bulk pasteurised milk. Unfortunately, raw milk comes with requirements for transporting the raw product to your doors either yourself or contracting out. If you will decide to get in raw milk you will have to pasteurise onsite following very strict government guidelines.
Space and media Floor space is important to create best product flow possible. Think twice where to put doors or drainage as it is very expensive to change the layout later. Three phase power will give you a wider range of options compare with single phase. Are you on town or tank water? If you using tank water extra filtration and bacteriological control must be implemented to get consistent products.
A good business plan is backed by a feasibility stud, which will help you jump over the hoods of guessing. Such studies will cover most common questions of where your products may be sold, in what quantity and for what price. What is your client base and what your clients expect? Think of hiring a consultant to help you get your head around. Where to find one I hear you asking? DIAA – Australian Dairy Listening is the best place to start looking.
Here is a bare essential list of equipment to start a micro/small cheese factory addressing the most common problems, which new cheesemakers are faced with:
Limited budget and big
Limited production space, often of a size of a single garage (it’s still durable)
Followed by hard to meet
– It will be a central peace of your new factory. Nice and shiny kettle, which you will spend a larger chunk of Small cheese factory must-haves equipment
your day working with. Here, you will pasteurise your raw milk (if you choose to do so) or make cheese from a supplied pasteurised milk. A good sized kettle will be in the range of 50ltr to 500ltr. Based on my experience, usually in an early stage of business, you will make more often smaller batches of different products. It’s caused by either testing your market with a variety of product or simply mastering your procedures to get the best shelf life of your products. Once the business grows, you will narrow down your best sellers upgrading to a larger kettle thereby making setup much easier.
Work table/drainage table – get yourself the largest table, which will comfortably fit in your ‘shop’. You will be using it every day and night (for pressing or drainage of cheese)! Must be on wheels and preferably have two . Bottom shelving is handy to store any equipment for close reach (very importing when you working alone) and for extra storage for off pick time.
Simple gravity/pneumatic cheese press. If you are planning to make semi-hard or hard cheeses, you will need a cheese press. Too much or too little or uneven pressure are the most common problems causing cheese makers headaches for long matured cheeses. Mechanical Cheese press
Nowadays, we are spoilt with options when it comes to smaller add-up equipment. If you are planning to make soft cheeses like Camembert or wash rinds look for multi molds. Multi mold will save you time on cleaning and labour costs in a long run If you would like to make the best Stilton style cheese, think of using piercing machine to save time and effort.
Maturation room (aka cheese cave) – it’s the most overlooked item on the list. Properly designed and sized cooling equipment will save you a lot (and I mean it). In lost sells, product quality problems and grey hear! Talk to an expert to get professional advice on how your needs may be met.
TIP: Local refrigeration business (unless experiences in building cheese caves) – it’s not always the best for an expert!
Here’s where the rubber meets the road. Like with anything else in life, before you buy, do your research! Read any related book, talk with other cheese makers and call suppliers asking them as many questions as you can about your dream equipment. What are the estimated delivery times or if things will go par shape, who will cover the warranty work (if your supplier is based overseas and not having office domestically, it’s not as obvious as you think!) and who will cover the service afterwards? How quick supplier reply to your queries (if you are waiting couple days on reply, what makes you think you will have the best service after the sell)?
There were many before you succeeding in starting their own dairy business and most (if not all) started small. I am sure with research, support from a family and friends and a pinch of luck, you will succeed as well. Good luck!
If you would like to read full article published in DIAA Australian Dairy Food you can click here:
If you are serious about cheese making you will quickly realise PH (and TA – covered in a separate article) of your dairy products is essential to be successful. So, what does PH meter do? The pH meter measures the difference in electrical potential between a pH electrode and a reference electrode, and so the pH meter is sometimes referred to as a “potentiometric pH meter”.
Although, it does sound very scientific but in a day-to-day usage, it comes down to simply taking the reading of ph meter clearly displayed in a digital form. Until you are close to the set points in your recipe, you are on the winning side.
Over the last six years, I have been using both Hanna HI 9813-5 (Two units purchased within 24months) and Testo 206 model (also two sets).
Both brands of ph meters have been fitted with ph probes dedicated to thicker solids and temperature probs.
It’s the most cost-effective way to measure PH of your milk but it does has its major downfalls.
PH paper may come in a roll or pre-cut strips packed in either ‘matches’ style box or a plastic container. I would highly recommend packaging which protects paper from moisture and splashes when stored. The major downfall of PH paper is the fact that readings are not only inaccurate (often to a full point) but also unconclusive. It varies greatly on the operator (or how good the eyesight of the operator is) but also of a light type presented when taking a reading. I have found very different reading when checking against daylight or artificial LED or fluorescent lamps presented in a laboratory room/production space.
I am personally using PH paper to check my brine solution as high saturation of salt and low PH (Acidy) will cause PH probe of your meter go par shape quickly.
Cheese making Hanna PH meter
Let’s start with Hanna PH meter:
I really like the fact that both temperature and pH probe are on a cord not as a single-handed device. It makes things easy when measuring sample product. You may be surprised how often you will be measuring a curd ph which means a lot of samples. You want a narrow/tall container to make sure PH probe end is fully ‘submerge’ in a measuring product. Hence, having a probe on a cord make it easier to not tip over the container – like Tiesto does.
A quick reading from both curds/ liquid and temperature sensors often in less than 10 seconds.
Probes have been holding reading quite well and I have found only casual re-calibration required.
PH probe and temperature probe both were fantastic. Unfortunately, the main hand peace prove to be VERY moisture sensitive and both knob’s for PH regulation failed within 12months – in both sets! Clearly, it’s not a mishandling problem.
Unfortunately, Australian Hanna distributor proofed to be very hard to deal with in regards to any claims or even products on hand. I had to often wait few weeks in order for the distributor to get the ordered products.
testo 206 PH meter
Testo 206 PH meter is one of the old single handed hand peace’s available on the market.
I have found the shape hard to use when measuring small samples in a tall container due to gravity point being very high. Testo seems to tip on a side making a mess and cause to re-sample the same product.
To some of you who will not pasteurise milk but get in pasteurise milk, this may not be a big deal. I have been pasteurising milk to 63deg C and later chilling to a set temperature. When I have been measuring PH at a higher temperature screen often fog-out making impossible to read to scale.
Pocket size is a plus if you walking into a tight space maturation room often holding a heavy wheel one hand and measuring second.
Splash resistant (great future when working in a fast peace moving environment with few colleges/employees around you)
PH probe lasting longer compare with Hanna
The so-called automatic calibration sometimes may take 60seconds or 10min and repeat over and over again. Often, PH meter will properly re-calibrate at PH4 but failed with PH7 buffer. After a failed attempt, you have to start over, which is adding another 5-10min as a hold-up. I have often found a PH meter failing at 5-7 attempts on which time I was prepared to bin the meter.
PH probe required re-calibration on a regular interval (in my case, each 1h or before major step in a cheese making – for example hooping). Sometimes, difference was as high as 0.5!
example of a wireless ph meter
Here is an example of a new concept of a wifi probe paired with a mobile phone.
I have never used such set before, therefore my comments are limited. Saying this, I worked for many years in a commercial setup. I wonder how a linked set will deal with thick insulated walls (the so-called sandwich panels) of any small/medium size factory? Also, keeping your mobile phone in a commercial cheese factory/dairy must later or rather sooner end up with a splash or full dip in. I would love to hear comment from anyone who had one.
Few tips which I learned over the years:
Replace your PH buffers each 6 to 12months (even if you haven’t used those much in that time). It’s a good idea to write a date when PH buffer has been opened in a packaging. As illustrated in the below picture, some manufacturer will not mark lids which can lead to off reading when lid from one buffer will be accidently screwed on a different bottle. Before opening a black Sharpe to mark the lids will sort this out.
Submerge tip of your PH probe in PH10 buffer at least once a week for around 10min. This will help preserve probe, works really well with Testo meter.
When dry cleaning, use a liner motion from the end of the probe to the tip. Do not rub with rotation motion as this simply tear in the solid remains in a porous surface of a probe. This truly expand ph probe life if you work with lactic or semi-hard cheeses.
Never use your PH meter for brine checks. Use a specialty dedicated meter or PH paper. Combination of salt and low ph is deadly for any probe.
The probe should be stored in a PH friendly solution when un-used (even when seated on your workbench on a production day).
Sometimes, getting second-hand equipment is very tempting specialty when looking at PH meter heavy price tags. Proceed with caution as you never know how the probe was used (or abused) before and whether it was properly stored.
The last one is obvious but I feel it’s worth mentioning . Do not leave meter (probe) in a highly moisture environment. After the job is done, take it back to your office and store in a dry/sun off room temp and humid environment.
Cheese making worksheet or how other call it make sheet is a step-by-step process of recording your cheesemaking venture.
It’s not needed for cheesemaking as such, however is often an excellent tool. A make sheet is quite a direction, it’s a worksheet you utilize to trace your cheesemaking expertise from begin to end. It includes info about when you created a cheese, the sort of milk you used, what you probably did, and the way you liked the end result.
Fresh cheeses, like mozzarella (often eaten the same day), are created and consumed quickly. however several cheeses have also long process of afinage. Initial they’re made then they’re aged. Cheesemakers often referring to make sheet when grading cheeses down the track. this is often the day after you heat your milk, add culture and rennet, and type your cheese. it should include steps like preparation and cutting the curd, pressing the cheese, and brining or dry salting. The time between the create and consumption the cheese is termed the affinage (French for finishing). A create sheet helps you track what you probably did for the create, the affinage, or both!
I use create sheets to record the milk, culture, and steps I used to make my cheese. My worksheet incorporates a section for the direction and documented (online, that page within which book, or a combination) sections for a way I preserved and finished the cheese (natural rind or waxed?), and one for my comments on however well I liked the result (too salty! must age longer! too ripe!).
Cultured butter what it is and what is the difference between cultured and ‘standard’ butter?
first things first – little bit of a history
19 century butter churner used to make cultured butter
Butter is created of animal fat, water, and a few milk proteins. business butter is 80–82 % milk fat, 16–17 % water, and 1–2 % milk solids aside from fat (sometimes named as curd). it’s going to contain salt , intercalary on to the butter in concentrations of one to a pair of %. Unseasoned butter is usually named as “sweet” butter. this could not be confused with “sweet cream” butter, which can or might not be preserved. Reduced-fat, or “light” or no fat butter, butter at four-hundredth fat … Well, we tend to shall opt for to not discuss that here.
In the Australia, butter should contain eightieth minimum animal fat by law, whereas in France, butter should be composed of a minimum of eighty two fat. Home churned butter are going to be right up there within the eighty six vary. business butter may be a terribly uniform dispersion of water in oil. The eightieth target fat level and continuous churn process need such a product.
Batch-churning cream into butter takes concerning half-hour, however it’s solely within the previous couple of minutes that the butter begins to create. In Brief, the mechanical agitation of the churning method breaks down associate degree emulsifying membrane around droplets of animal fat, permitting the animal fat to solidify as butter.
In XX century most farm wives were skilled butter manufacturers. Butter sales were done localy and made on family farms and in little creameries or family owns dairies. This butter was typically created in very small batches.
Traditionally, butter creating began with the separation of cream from milk by gravity. Simply after milking, the milk was allowed to sit down in pans or cans till the cream, being lighter, floated to top of the milkcan. The cream was collected off and keep in an exceedingly cool place for some days. When many days’ later, cream volume had accumulated, it has been churned into butter.
This very small scale butter making process took time and energy, however only required simple and straightforward equipment. Very basic butter churners have been used in rural parts of USA within the mid-20th century. Great Britain became less common for average families make their own butter within the course of the nineteenth century, and start outsourcing churning process to the larges factorys. However simple setups were still used on small farms and within the family owned dairies until XXI century.
It’s long tradition to cultured the cream before churning. Culturing was the by-product of the necessity to store few milking’s before churning. There was no refrigeration, therefore the cream was keep in a cool space (often a basement) and therefore the natural microorganism from the milk worked to culture it.
After few days , the cream was cultured and placed within the churn for further processing. little home producers would typically collect some days of milking to own enough cream for churning, and therefore the natural fermentation would “ripen” the flavour. The cream would, of course, ripen abundant faster throughout the nice and cozy months.
Thosedays dairy practices tend to forget about seasonal variations by feeding cows an unnatural eating regimen of year-round grain. In case you frequently will make butter from proper cream, you may start to be aware changes because the seasonal changes.
Modern small scale butter churner
Cream is skimmed from pasteurized full cream milk in comercial centrifugal separators spinning at 30,000 RPM. The skimmed cream consists of 40% butterfat, and is known as heavy, or whipping cream. From the separator, the heavy cream travels immediately into comercial butter churners, which change liquid cream it into sweet cream butter and excessive-fats buttermilk. The buttermilk is excessive fat because ribbon churns are not very efficient at churning all the butterfat into butter. This buttermilk is then re-separated to put off the extra butterfat, and dried for business packages together with industrial ice cream and baking products, in addition to consumer packaged goods like buttermilk pancake and baking mixes. The butter made this way is referred to as “sweet cream” butter due to the fact the cream it was crafted from was now not cultured or acidified.
What do you need to make your own butter
Firstly is the Cream – the better quality your cream is, the better taste your butter will be. full stop.
Heavy cream is forty procent butterfat and sixty procent milk solids and water.
The cream from jersey cows produces the A grade butter because of its higher fat content milk, plus the truth that their fats is dispersed in larger globules than milk from different sorts of cows and tends to churn into butter extra easily. Color of this cream is deep ivory to gold while it is from pastured cows due to the fact the plant life they devour have better beta carotene, which colorations the cream more than grain.
Handy trick: If you are getting very white butetr you can try to add drop of anatto or few ml of carrot juice.
Nowadays industrial butter making process takes only few hours. Commercial butter is cultured and churned the same day to save time which equal’s to saving on wages. At convenience of your home or artisan factory, you can do much better job looking on quality V quantity.
Unpasteurised cream is obviously full of suited dairy bacteria and ferments and sours on its very own, without the addition of a bacterial subculture (starters). Fermentation through lactobacillus microorganism (bacteria’s) changes cream PH and add flavours to the finish product. Amongst other adjustments, it produces lactic acid, making the cream less “sweet” and more sour. Culturing process helps in breaking the two components: butter and butter milk.
HOW TO MAKE CULTURED BUTTER – STEP BY STEP
Remember to sanitise your equipment before you will start. It’s vital when you work with a dairy products.
To culture your cream simply add mesophilic starter at the manufacture recommended dosage to around 30-32C cream leaving everything to culture for 6-24h. Temperature & time is essential in this equation. If the temperature will be to low you will need more time to incubate cream with mesophilic bacteria’s. Longer you will incubate the cream more flavour you will get from the butter. Test and trial will be the best option to begin.
Once cream have been ‘cultured’ you can start process called churning.
Cultured butter made in a jar
Fill your jar 25-50% complete of cream. The more cream you’ve got in the jar the longer it takes to form butter because there is much less movement of the cream and that is what makes the butter.
If you are using a blender, food processor, or mixer simplest fill twentyfife to forty percent full. Turn on and watch the cream changes it’s body to thick cream and then start to separate.
Depends on cream, temperature, how lengthy you let it ripen, It will take around 10-20 minutes to churn.
you’ll subsequent note the sound of the moving cream changing because the cream turns from liquid to whipped cream. you will in the end observe that it will “spoil” because the butter separates from the buttermilk. As this occurs, note the color of the cream as properly, it’s going to start to turn increasingly more yellow as the butter comes together. STEP THREE
Rinsing the butter in very cold water is
This part of the process is very important- to preserve the butter and have nice ‘clean’ flavour. Churned butter still contain lactose and milk proteins remaining in the liquid. Those remains allowed butter to ferment and go off very quickly. the rinsing process and folding is what removes maximum of those two components. Cultured butter lasts longer due to the fact this lactose has been on the whole fermented out to lactic acid.
Add a few fresh cool water cups and rinse the butter through kneading and folding in the bowl (as you would be working on a bread , do that or three instances till the water is pretty much clear).
Pour off the very last rinse water and continue to knead with a spoon or hand till it forms a pleasant ball, you will notice you may be running water out of the butter. If the butter is just to
Ready to sell artisan cultured butter
o gentle, placed within the fridge to harden.
The butter you simply made can now be pressed flat or rolled into a ball and wrapped or pressed into a special butter mildew -for the esthetics.
As we continue to grow our portfolio of products for the Dairy and Brewery industries, we are pleased to announce being appointed the exclusive distributor for all Plevnik products for Australia and New Zeland.
What you need to know
(Probably more then you ever wanted to know!)The following is a discussion of the various types of stainless steel. For other terms and their definitions you will encounter when dealing with stainless steel click here.18-8: 300 series stainless steel having approximately (not exactly) 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The term “18-8” is used interchangeably to characterize fittings made of 302, 302HQ, 303, 304, 305, 384, XM7, and other variables of these grades with close chemical compositions. There is little overall difference in corrosion resistance among the “18-8” types, but slight differences in chemical composition do make certain grades more resistant than others do against particular chemicals or atmospheres. “18-8” has superior corrosion resistance to 400 series stainless, is generally nonmagnetic, and is hardenable only by cold working.304: The basic alloy. Type 304 (18-8) is an austenitic steel possessing a minimum of 18% chromium and 8% nickel, combined with a maximum of 0.08% carbon. It is a nonmagnetic steel which cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but instead. must be cold worked to obtain higher tensile strengths.
The 18% minimum chromium content provides corrosion and oxidation resistance. The alloy’s metallurgical characteristics are established primarily by the nickel content (8% mm.), which also extends resistance to corrosion caused by reducing chemicals. Carbon, a necessity of mixed benefit, is held at a level (0.08% max.) that is satisfactory for most service applications.
The stainless alloy resists most oxidizing acids and can withstand all ordinary rusting. HOWEVER, IT WILL TARNISH. It is immune to foodstuffs, sterilizing solutions, most of the organic chemicals and dyestuffs, and a wide variety of inorganic chemicals. Type 304, or one of its modifications, is the material specified more than 50% of the time whenever a stainless steel is used.
Because of its ability to withstand the corrosive action of various acids found in fruits, meats, milk, and vegetables, Type 304 is used for sinks, tabletops, coffee urns, stoves, refrigerators, milk and cream dispensers, and steam tables. It is also used in numerous other utensils such as cooking appliances, pots, pans, and flatware.
Type 304 is especially suited for all types of dairy equipment – milking machines, containers, homogenizers, sterilizers, and storage and hauling tanks, including piping, valves, milk trucks and railroad cars. This 18-8 alloy is equally serviceable in the brewing industry where it is used in pipelines, yeast pans, fermentation vats, storage and railway cars, etc. The citrus and fruit juice industry also uses Type 304 for all their handling, crushing, preparation, storage and hauling equipment.
In those food processing applications such as in mills, bakeries, and slaughter and packing houses, all metal equipment exposed to animal and vegetable oils, fats, and acids is manufactured from Type 304.
Type 304 is also used for the dye tanks, pipelines buckets, dippers, etc. that come in contact with the lormic, acetic, and other organic acids used in the dyeing industry.
In the marine environment, because of it slightly higher strength and wear resistance than type 316 it is also used for nuts, bolts, screws, and other fasteners. It is also used for springs, cogs, and other components where both wear and corrosion resistance is needed.
Type Analysis of Stainless Type 304
316: For severe environments. Of course, there are many industrial processes that require a higher level of resistance to corrosion than Type 304 can offer. For these applications, Type 316 is the answer.
Type 316 is also austenitic, non-magnetic, and thermally nonhardenable stainless steel like Type 304. The carbon content is held to 0.08% maximum, while the nickel content is increased slightly. What distinguishes Type 316 from Type 304 is the addition of molybdenum up to a maximum of 3%.
Molybdenum increases the corrosion resistance of this chromium-nickel alloy to withstand attack by many industrial chemicals and solvents, and, in particular, inhibits pitting caused by chlorides. As such, molybdenum is one of the single most useful alloying additives in the fight against corrosion.
By virtue of the molybdenum addition, Type 316 can withstand corrosive attack by sodium and calcium brines, hypochlorite solutions, phosphoric acid; and the sulfite liquors and sulfurous acids used in the paper pulp industry. This alloy, therefore, is specified for industrial equipment that handles the corrosive process chemicals used to produce inks, rayons, photographic chemicals, paper, textiles, bleaches, and rubber. Type 316 is also used extensively for surgical implants within the hostile environment of the body.
Type 316 is the main stainless used in the marine environment, with the exception of fasteners and other items where strength and wear resistance are needed, then Type 304 (18-8) is typically used.
We’ve added this more basic breakdown that includes just about every other grade of stainless steel we’ve heard of:
Other Types of Stainless and grades: Austenitic: Type 301 contains less chromium and nickel than 302 for more work hardening. Type 302 is the basic type of the 300 series, 18% chromium— 8% nickel group. It is the renowned 188
Stainless and is the most widely used of the chromium nickel stainless and heat resisting steels. Type 303 contains added phosphorus and sulfur for better machining characteristics.Corrosion resistance is slightly less than 302/304. Type 303Se contains Se and P added to improve machinability. Type 305 has increased nickel to lower work hardening properties. Type 309-309S have added chromium and nickel for more corrosion resistance and high temperature scaling resistance. 309S contains less carbon to minimize carbide precipitation. Type 310-310S have higher nickel content than 309309Sto further increase scaling resistance.310S contains less carbon than 310 to minimize carbide precipitation. Type 321 contains titanium to tie up the carbon and avoid chromium carbide precipitation in welding.
b ultra high nickel content provides best corrosion resistance to most furnace atmospheres. This grade has low coefficient of expansion, excellent ductility and high strength. Type 347 – 348 have columbium tantalum added to tie up the carbon and avoid chromium carbide precipitation in welding. Use for temperatures from 800to 1650 degrees F.
Ferritic: Type 405 contains 12% chromium with aluminum added to prevent hardening. Type 430 is the basic type in the ferritic group, possessing good ductility and excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Its scaling resistance is higher than 302 in intermittent service, somewhat lower in continuous use. Type 430F-430Se have sulfur and selenium (respectively) added for increased machinability. Type 442 has added chromium for improved resistance to scaling. Type 446 has still higher chromium content (27%) for added scaling resistance and is highest of the standard straight chromium types. Alloys with over 30% chromium become too brittle to process.
Martensitic: Type 410 is the basic Martensitic type. It is the general purpose corrosion and heat resisting chromium stainless steel. It can be hardened by thermal treatment to a wide range of mechanical properties. It can be annealed soft for cold drawing and forming. This grade is always magnetic.
b is a special high quality steel made for blades and buckets for steam turbine and jetengine compressors. This grade is eminently suited for very highly stressed parts. This material is magnetic in all conditions. Type 416-416Se
are modifications of Type 410, being the free machining, nonseizing, nongalling alloys. These properties are obtained by the addition of sulfur or selenium to Type 410.This is a heat treatable grade with corrosion resistance and other characteristics closely approaching those of Type 410. Type 420 is a chromium stainless steel capable of heat treatment to a maximum hardness of approximately 500 Brinell. It has a maximum corrosion resistance only in the fully hardened condition. Type 420 is magnetic in all conditions. Type 431 is a nickel bearing (1.25-2.00%)chromium stainless steel which may be heat treated to high mechanical properties. It is magnetic in all conditions of use. It has superior corrosion resistance to Types 410, 416, 420, 430 and 440 stainless steels. Type 440C is the stainless steel that can be heat treated to the highest hardness of any of the