Wireless and Networking World is a forum for Communication professionals, providing latest information on happenings and trends in these areas.It includes LTE, Wi-MAX, Wi-Fi, Small Cells, RF Engineering, 5G, IoT and other advanced topics.
Typically, there are 2 kinds of monitoring system solutions.
1. On-site/inverter monitoring solution – For many customers, an inverter’s basic display is informative enough. It is easy to access—right on the front of the inverter—and provides a basic level of monitoring, which often includes instantaneous power output, daily energy production, and total to-date energy production.
2. Remote monitoring solution – Remote monitoring options offered with some inverters can provide the same basic system performance information in a portable device, allowing homeowners the luxury to view the data anywhere with internet connectivity.
3. System parameters that can be viewed on the inverter display
PV Input (DC)
Power Grid Inductive Reactive Energy
Capacity Reactive Energy Voltage MPPT
Advanced Solar Power Monitoring System
Conventional Systems do a reasonable job of identifying the gross level under-performance. But, plants can definitely benefit from more advanced monitoring solutions. Some benefits are:
Monitor plant performance and health of various components
Monitor change in the performance and raise a flag before the problem actually happens
Identify any warranty breach so that they can get compensation from the manufacturers
String-level monitoring helps reduce the maintenance turnaround time
Additional parameters that can be monitored
Module- and ambient temperature
wind speed (hybrid systems)
Components monitored by advanced solar power monitoring system
Energy Meters – For electricity yield measurements electricity meters or true-rms power meters The inverter integrated instruments are not sufficiently precise especially for utility-scale plants.
Pyranometers for radiation measurements
Weather Station – Measures wind speed, wind direction, ambient temperature, and relative humidity
Sensors – for Ambient temperature, Panel temperature, Inverters String combiners, AC subsystems
Unique features offered by advanced Solar Power Monitoring System
Easy-to-use dashboards that provide EPCs a common platform to view the performance of all their power plants
Better alerts and analytics capability that provides stakeholders updates in the form of emails and SMSes
Spatiotemporal analysis of the generation from panels placed in different directions and thereby providing useful analytics for optimizing solar panel layout
Mobile platforms (such as android application) wherein information on generation details, historical data and status of inverters can be viewed anywhere.
Advanced analytics capabilities offered
Performance parameters like Performance Ratio (PR) and Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF)
Spatiotemporal analysis of generation Root cause analysis to evaluate factors that impact energy production
Market for which Solar Power Monitoring Systems cater to
Solar monitoring solutions are generally offered for solar project sizes greater that 50 kW in the commercial and industrial segment
With the increase in computing power of IoT devices, hackers will possess more and more computing power. The computing power and powerful learning algorithms will enable attackers to commit more malicious actions. This will make possible mainly two types of attacks:
1. Vulnerability Learning
Based on artificial intelligence techniques, hackers can develop intelligent malware to learn vulnerable points in cyberspace. Even though defenders can also take the same strategy to find vulnerabilities and patch them, timely patching is a problem due to the scale and distributed nature of IoT systems. Attackers will have sufficient time to take advantage of vulnerabilities.
2. Data Pollution Attack
Learning algorithms are training-based. Training datasets are assumed to be clean and genuine. Hackers can easily compromise a sufficient number of IoT devices and use them as “legitimate” data sources to mislead the learning algorithms and obtain the conclusions as per their expectation. Adversarial machine learning is being developed for security and reliable learning in an adversarial environment. Also, privacy-aware machine learning is being developed for the privacy protection of data source owners.
There are two main alternatives for V2X communication:
Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC)
Long Term Evolution (LTE)-V2X in traditional frequency bands
However, both of these alternatives cannot provide the multi-gigabit-per-second capability required to exchange real-time sensor data. mmWave technology is a good alternative for V2X communication, due to the availability of a huge amount of channel bandwidth at this frequency band. Additionally, it is possible to pack many more antennas in mmWave than in the centimetre-wave band. It brings the benefits from massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) and beamforming feature. These features increase received signal power; reduce interference and improve secrecy. However, the use of mmWave poses additional challenges that must be analyzed and solved.
Even though, 3GPP Release 15 is complete. But 5G development is not finished. Release 16, sometimes referred to as “Phase 2” of 5G on ITU timelines, will contain standardization for a lot of use cases and scenarios not addressed in Release 15.
Release 16 will wrap up at the end of 2019. The three key 5G features are enhanced mobile broadband, eMBB), massive machine-type communication, (mMTC), and ultra-reliable low-latency communications, (URLLC). Release 15 focused on the eMBB use case. Release 16 will focus more on URLLC.
Frequencies above 52.6 GHz
Not in demand from Industry so slow progress
Up to 2 GHz bandwidth available, more than double the 800 MHz from Release 15
Identification of Target band ranges, use cases, and deployment scenarios
Release 15 basic URLLC features not developed enough beyond the typical cellular use case
Focus on Improvements in the protocol and physical layer
Data duplication enhancements to improve reliability (especially L1)
Enhancements for Time Sensitive Networking, including wireless Ethernet, accurate reference timing, and Ethernet header compression
5G for Non-Terrestrial Communications
To use commercial 5G networks to communicate with satellites
Features include physical layer control procedures, uplink timing advances, retransmission schemes and handover
Doppler Effect is different from a traditional mobile cellular communications application
Focus on the continuance of LTE’s cellular V2X and advanced use cases like vehicle platooning
Enhanced vehicle to infrastructure features
Advanced driving (to enable semi automated or full-automated driving), and remote driving.
Plan to address both low and high bands. Low band is a higher priority
Access to Unlicensed Spectrum
Create a single global solution for NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum in a stand-alone manner without assistance from a licensed carrier for bands both below and above 6 GHz.
Coexistence methods need to be established within NR, between unlicensed and LTE-based LAA, with other incumbent Radio Access Technologies (RATs)
Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB)
Support for wireless backhaul and relay links
Critical for mmWave Base stations need to be deployed very densely for mmWave, but linking fiber to all the new installations is not viable from a cost or an installation perspective. IAB also adds flexibility to NR cells and avoids densifying the transport network proportionately.
Both in-band and out-of-band relaying options for indoor and outdoor scenarios under consideration
Interference from remote base stations for semi-static uplink/downlink configurations
Network coordination mechanisms for uplink/downlink configurations
Software-Defined Network (SDN) and Big Data
Adding machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI)
Collections of RAN-centric data for self-optimizing networks (SONs), RAT optimization, load sharing, and mobility optimization.
There is a need for the more efficient use of spectrum in 5G to meet more and more demand for data. Regulators and operators have to come out with more innovative methods to use the spectrum. These are some of the key areas that are being focused in order to deal with spectral efficiency challenges within the scope of 5G mobile networks.
1. Dynamic Spectrum Access
More versatile Spectrum allocation approach has to be used to optimize spectrum usage, compared to the traditional static allocation of spectrum to optimize spectrum usage.
There are three models:
a) Exclusive Use Model
Flexibility is added into the current spectrum regulatory policy in order to improve spectrum efficiency. Following are the two approaches:
Spectrum Property Right – licensees are permitted to sell and trade their acquired spectrum and freely select a suitable technology
Dynamic Spectrum Allocation – exploits the spatial and temporal traffic information for different applications and services.
b) Open Sharing Model or spectrum commons
This is similar to the model used for sharing spectrum in unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio band. Work is being carried out on centralized and distributed approaches to address this model.
c) Hierarchical Access Model
In this model, users are divided into Primary and Secondary categories. There are two approaches for sharing the spectrum:
Spectrum Overlay approach or Opportunistic Spectrum Access ( OSA) – Secondary users use white spaces by transmitting when primary users are not using the spectrum band
Spectrum Underlay Approach or Spectrum Wide band ( UWB) – Both primary and secondary users are allowed to use spectrum bands simultaneously. However strict constraints are imposed on the level of transmission the secondary users.
2. Regulatory Policy
Regulators have to adopt flexible‐use policies. Operators should be allowed to use any wireless technology or standard to provide a given service. This will encourage operators to develop and enhance their networks with the latest technologies. However, the impacts of sharing spectrum between different technologies need to be approached with extreme caution in order to guarantee the QoS for services. The operating conditions of the spectrum band, various performance indicators and interference mitigation techniques will have to be taken care of.
3. Market oriented spectrum spectrum management
The wireless regulatory models are undergoing changes in accordance with evolving policy priorities, driven by market and industry requirements. These shifts in approach have been triggered by advances in wireless communication technologies and socio‐economic needs.
Efforts for spectrum optimization are leading regulatory bodies to manage spectrum using both administrative and market‐oriented approaches. They are adopting new approaches in spectrum allocation and assignment through spectrum sharing, greater use of unlicensed spectrum, international and regional harmonization and incentive pricing mechanisms.
Licensed Shared Access (LSA) and Authorized Shared Access (ASA) are examples of these initiatives. The LSA and ASA concepts permit spectrum licensed for mobile communications to be used by more than one entity. Another application scenario for LSA/ASA is government and military spectrum which are sparingly used either in geographical coverage or temporal characteristics.
LSA/ASA licensees require an agreement with the incumbent user, which will be based on a sharing framework negotiated jointly between the involve parties and a regulator.