At the close of WWI, an estimated 50 million people died from the Spanish flu. Masks were the uninfected’s main line of defense.
The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, the deadliest in history, infected an estimated 500 million people worldwide—about one-third of the planet’s population—and killed an estimated 20 million to 50 million victims, including some 675,000 Americans.
The 1918 flu was first observed in Europe, the United States and parts of Asia before swiftly spreading around the world. At the time, there were no effective drugs or vaccines to treat this killer flu strain. Citizens were ordered to wear masks, schools, theaters and businesses were shuttered and bodies piled up in makeshift morgues before the virus ended its deadly global march.
Why “Spanish”? According to Mashable, to read the newspapers of 1918, Spain was hit particularly hard by the virus. On the contrary: 1918 was the last year of World War I and, in an attempt to maintain morale, the United States, Britain, France and Germany suppressed newspaper reports of the illness. Neutral Spain, with no war morale to maintain, did not censor its newspapers; so, to the rest of the world, the flu appeared particularly nasty there.
Two women speak through flu masks during the epidemic, c.1918.
An American policeman wears a 'flu mask' to protect himself from the Spanish flu outbreak that followed World War I, c.1918.
A U.S. Red Cross employee wears a face mask in an attempt to help decrease the spread of influenza, c.1918.
A nurse protects herself while fetching water, September 13 1918.
A typist works while wearing a mask, in New York City, October 16 1918.
The Chinese have Chinatown. The Italians have Little Italy. And before the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel pummeled its way into Manhattan, people from the Middle East also shared a slice of the city's history. Little Syria, as it was known, was the cultural hub of America’s first middle eastern immigrant community and it was located just south of where the current World Trade Center stands today.
For 60 years between 1880 until the 1940s, Arab-Americans poured into New York City from Greater Syria made up of present-day countries including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel to escape religious persecution and poverty. They found homes in crowded tenements on a six block stretch of Washington Street from Liberty Street to Battery Park, alongside Armenians, Greeks, and other communities from the Middle East and the Mediterranean.
According to an 1899 article from the New York Times about the Syrian Quarter and its 3,000 residents, the newly arrived immigrants made a home for themselves in this “tousled unwashed section of New York”.
“Turks, Armenians, Syrians, when they ship for America, do not leave all their quaint customs, garments, ways of thinking at home. Nor do they become ordinary American citizens directly after landing. Just enough of their traits, dress, ideas remain, no matter how long they have been here, to give the colonies they form spice and a touch of novelty.”
Many of the early Syrian-Americans began their new lives as street vendors before saving up to establish their own businesses. According to the New York Public Library, over 300 Syrian businesses were listed in the 1908 Syrian Business Directory of New York.
It wasn't quite the British Invasion of the 1960s, which involved timeless bands like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, but ABBA managed to pull off a one-band Swedish coupe starting in the 1970s. Indeed, even before the band's formation, Benny Andersson was part of the pop group called The Hep Stars, which was nicknamed “The Swedish Beatles.”
Andersson was married to Anni-Frid Lyngstad, and the couple joined another pair of young love birds, Agnetha Fältskog and Björn Ulvaeus, for a vacation on the isle of Cyprus. Their lighthearted singing during the trip morphed into an impromptu show for a troop of United Nations soldiers in the foursome's first-ever public performance together.
The couples dabbled with making music together from 1970 to 1973, going by the rather unwieldy name of Agnetha, Anni-Frid, Benny & Björn. They were known informally as ABBA, an acronym taken from the first letters of each band member's name. The shortened name took hold in 1973, and it's the one under which they took the world by storm, giving Sweden its first win in the Eurovision Song Contest and topping the charts in the United States and the rest of the English-speaking world.
The 1970s were ABBA's peak years, when they churned out smash hits like “Dancing Queen.” “Waterloo,” “SOS,” “Mama Mia,” and “Take a Chance on Me.” They hit the pinnacle in 1976, topping worldwide charts with their Greatest Hits album, which also contained a new song, “Fernando” that hit number one in 19 countries.
ABBA didn't do a major tour until 1977, when the group headed off to Europe and Australia, followed by another European tour and a trek across North America in 1979. Sadly, that was also the year that Fältskog and Ulvaeus divorced, followed by the break-up of Lyngstad and Andersson in 1981.
The relationship turmoil foreshadowed the end of ABBA making beautiful music together. The band's airy, upbeat music started moving down a darker path in 1981, and they disbanded the following year. Members went on to their own careers, with Andersson and Ulvaeus both writing songs for the stage and Lyngstad and Fältskog taking on the daunting task of getting their solo careers off the ground. Neither managed to find the sort of success they'd enjoyed during their ABBA heydays.
In 1906, Punch magazine predicted that people would be able to use “wireless telegraphs” to read sport results, news or messages. Amazingly, they said that this would happen in 1907!
Replace these “wireless telegraphs” with smartphones, update the dress a little, and this vision from a 1906 issue of Punch magazine could easily be for 110 years in the future. Part of a series of “forecasts” for the year to come, the caption reads: “These two figures are not communicating with one another. The lady receives an amatory message, and the gentleman some racing results.” It’s a reminder that the idea of technology leading to a breakdown in “authentic” human interaction is a worry not solely limited to our age.
Punch seemed to have a knack for uncanny predictions of distant technologies to come.
According to the memory of Douglas Coakley, the Rolling Stones set is an example of a set which A&BC thought would sell, but which did not, so they only ever appeared in the testing shops. This may help explain why cards from this set are so hard to come by.
Unfortunately the production records from A&BC Chewing Gum are not thought to have survived, so there is no known record of the actual numbers of each card produced.
Remember A&BC Chewing Gum cards through a photo collection of the Rolling Stones in 1965 from dant melys.
During the 1960s styles were constantly changing and there were many brief fashion fads and trends. One such trend was that of the paper dress.
'Disposable' clothing reached its peak around 1966-68 but was generally more of a gimmick than a viable alternative. Society was adopting an increasingly 'throw-away' attitude; disposable cutlery, and cigarette lighters were already commonplace. Throw-away clothes, furniture etc. were the next logical step.
In 1966, Scott Paper Company invented the paper dress, intended as a marketing and publicity tool. For one dollar, women could buy the dress and also receive coupons for Scott paper products. It originally came in two designs, a black and white Op Art motif and a red bandanna pattern. Scott advertisers described the paper dress as “created to make you the conversation piece at parties. Smashingly different at dances or perfectly packaged at picnics. Wear it anytime...anywhere. Won't last forever...who cares? Wear it for kicks -- then give it the air.” When orders for half a million dresses poured in, the promotion overwhelmed the Scott Company. Six months after it began, company executives abruptly ended the advertising campaign stating they “didn't want to turn into dress manufacturers.”
When Scott stepped out of the paper garment industry, others quickly filled the void. By 1967, Mars Manufacturing Company of Asheville was the nation's leading producer of paper dresses, selling 80,000 to 100,000 a week. From its basic A-line shift, the company expanded its line to include bell-bottom jump suits, evening gowns, aprons, men's vests, children's dresses and even swimming trunks.
What began as a mail order business turned into a huge fad. Paper dresses were sold conveniently in drug and grocery stores as well as department stores and boutiques. Consumers often could buy matching paper party decorations right along with the disposable clothes. The disposability of the garments and their expedient purchase implied modernity and leisure. Paper dresses were an attractive alternative since you could shorten them with a pair of scissors and mend them with scotch tape, or throw them away when they got soiled.
When paper clothing hit the UK's shores in 1967, even the Beatles got in on the fad and wore paper jackets in public. However, disposable clothes were not really much cheaper to make than ordinary dress production. The rage for paper lasted a short time and by 1974 it was already passé. Fashionable paper clothes died out rather suddenly, as Mod and Pop styles were replaced by the back-to-nature hippie lifestyle and as concerns about pollution, waste and flamability materialized.
Bananarama formed in the London in late 1981. Comprising three best friends Keren Woodward Sarah Dallin and Siobhan Farley, the latter whom they met at the London College of Fashion. Their success on both pop and dance charts has earned them a listing in the Guinness World Records as the all-female group with the most chart entries in the world.
Here's some ways to dress like Bananarama in the 1980s:
Early 80s Bananarama Look
For an early 80s Bananrama look, you don't need to look like you've tried too hard! Just get hold of a stripy jumper or top, a hat and some pedal pushers or cropped jeans. Hair must be wild and messed up, make up bold.