Like adults, concussions in children are a type of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). This type of injury can produce a multitude of mental and physical effects that range from mild to severe. More often than not, children receive a concussion when they suffer a blow to the head as a direct result of a fall, sports injury, whiplash, car crash, or other traumatic event.
Suffering a Concussion as a Child
Children can receive concussions from hard hits to their body, face, neck, or head. The result of the hard hit can be a rapid acceleration of the brain, which causes the concussion. The most common causes of concussions in children are sports injuries, car accidents, falls, and being hit by another object or person. The good news is that many concussions in children can be prevented by taking the right steps. Through research and support groups, parents can avoid common concussion myths that could unintentionally harm their children. For example, it is a common misconception that a helmet will prevent a concussion. Instead, the helmet is designed to prevent catastrophic brain injuries. With this in mind, if a child is wearing a helmet, but still suffers a hard hit to the neck, body, or head, then he or she could still suffer a concussion.
Children can help prevent concussions by wearing their seatbelt any time they are in a car or bus. They can also use mouth guards to prevent facial trauma and possibly reduce the risk of a concussion during sporting events. Child athletes can complete neck-strengthening exercises to help reduce the impact of sports concussions. Finally, parents should carefully monitor their children after a suspected concussion. Through time and rest, children can heal. However, if a child returns to high impact situations or rigorous exercises too early, then they can worsen their symptoms and increase their risk for a second concussion.
What Are the Common Symptoms of a Concussion?
Concussion symptoms will vary based on the child, as well as the level of the TBI. The most common concussion symptoms include:
A slow response time after injury to the head, neck, or body
Consistent and pounding headache
Changes in normal sleeping or eating habits
Dizziness and increased fatigue
Trouble concentrating, paying attention, or remembering
In extreme cases, excessive vomiting, slurred speech, convulsions, loss of consciousness for more than one minute, and problems with balance or coordination
If your child is experiencing any of the above symptoms, contact their doctor or visit your local emergency room immediately.
Get the Support Your Child Needs After a Traumatic Brain Injury
Regardless of their severity, concussions in children can be a traumatic experience. The good news is that TryMunity is here to help with a supportive social community. Our members are ready to answer your questions, offer guidance on the best prevention methods, and support you and your child after a concussion. To learn more about how TryMunity can support your child’s journey to recovery, visit our frequently asked questions or join at community.trymunity.com.
A concussion is considered a type of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). It is typically caused by a blow, bump, or jolt to a person’s head. In fact, many concussions occur when a person falls or receives a hard blow that causes their head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. Concussions are a fairly common TBI, but, unfortunately, there are many myths surrounding this type of injury.
Myth #1: Concussions are only sustained when you experience a loss of consciousness.
The truth is that loss of consciousness only occurs in a small amount of concussions. The most common signs of a concussion are dizziness, tinnitus, noise or light sensitivity, fatigue, balance issues, headache, and nausea.
Myth #2: A concussion can only occur if you receive a direct blow to the head.
The reality is that a concussion can occur without a direct blow to the head. In layman’s terms, a concussion is caused by force that has been transmitted to the head. For example, extreme cases of whiplash can trigger a concussion. In fact, any sudden movement that causes the brain to move, bounce, or twist within your skull can lead to a traumatic brain injury.
Myth #3: If you receive a concussion, then you need to immediately have a CT scan or MRI.
In many cases, a conventional CT or MRI scan will appear “normal” immediately after a concussion. In severe traumatic brain injuries, the CT scan will be used to identify intracranial clots; however, in the majority of cases, physicians will forgo CT scans and instead conduct a neurological exam. The exam will evaluate your reflexes, memory, balance, concentration, and vision. Depending on the results of your neurological exam, a CT scan might be completed.
Myth #4: Someone with a concussion needs to be woken up every 20 minutes.
The truth is that rest is very important during brain injuries; it helps the brain heal and recover. After a concussion, a person should be woken up every two to three hours to assess how they are looking, acting, and feeling. Once a doctor has cleared a person from the latter evaluation stage, you only need to wake them up periodically.
Myth #5: Injury to the brain can only occur at the exact moment of impact.
A concussion might be considered a “minor” TBI, however, chemical changes can occur hours, days, weeks, and even months after the initial impact. Additionally, the brain is more susceptible to additional injuries after it has suffered from a concussion. In this vein, it is important to seek proper treatment immediately after a concussion so that you can better monitor changes to your symptoms in the days, weeks, and months following your TBI.
Get the Support You Need After a TBI
At TryMunity, we offer a supportive social community that is built to assist anyone who has suffered from a TBI. From concussions to severe brain injuries, our members are ready to share their messages of support, inspiration, and healing with you. To learn how TryMunity can help you in your journey to recovery, we invite you to ask questions, get involved, find solutions, and join our online community.
Every year, an estimated 1.7 million people suffer from a type of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Concussions, dizziness, lightheadedness, and blurred vision are all symptoms of a TBI. Whether your friend or family member has just started the rehabilitation process or has been living with their injury for an extended period of time, there are several steps that you can take to support their journey to recovery.
3 Ways You Can Support a Traumatic Brain Injury Survivor
Did you know that falls account for an estimated 35 percent of all TBIs? Motor vehicle accidents account for an estimated 17 percent, while repetitive trauma causes 16 percent of TBI cases. No matter how the injury occurred, many traumatic brain injury survivors struggle to adjust to their “new normal.” The good news is that, with compassion, you can help a survivor adjust to their new life through the following three tips.
Visit survivors on a regular basis
If your friend or family member is a TBI survivor who is homebound, then you should take the time to visit them on a regular basis. Even if a TBI survivor is non-verbal, studies show that they can still feel your presence. Remember that the visit doesn’t have to be serious. Instead, you can have fun, make jokes, and be true to your emotions. A survivor doesn’t want to feel as if you are on a “pity visit.” Instead, they want to feel your loving compassion as you provide a meaningful connection. With this in mind, individuals who suffered minor TBI injuries, such as concussions, can be supported by taking them for doctor-approved activities. These activities might be something lighthearted like mini-golf or more low-key, such as a fishing.
Recognize that it is ok to be uncomfortable
Seeing a family member or friend who used to be the life of the party live with a major TBI can be a challenge. Instead of trying to pretend that everything is ok, you can and should recognize that you need to be comfortable being uncomfortable. Once you have recognized that it is ok to be uncomfortable, you will be ready to be a true friend and loved one. Don’t forget that if your loved one lives far away, you can always support their journey from afar by sending snail mail. From funny photos to a story or a lottery ticket, there are countless ways that you can use mail to stay connected and brighten their day.
Help them join a community of supporters
One of the best ways that you can support a TBI survivor is by helping them find a community of supporters, advocates, and survivors. TryMunity is an online community that provides the education, resources, and support that anyone who has been affected by a brain injury needs throughout their rehabilitation journey.
There is Hope for Caregivers and TBI Survivors
TryMunity was built with the goal of spreading hope to TBI survivors, their friends, and their families. Through a supportive online community, TryMunity helps TBI survivors and their caregivers receive the education, medical resources, information, and sense of belonging that they need to complete their rehabilitation journey. To discover a supporting environment that can help you to better understand your TBI symptoms, we invite you to join the TryMunity community today.
Brain injuries can occur in a wide number of circumstances. However, like any bodily injury, no two brain injuries are exactly the same. In fact, while many people automatically think that an injury to their brain is classified as a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), the reality is that they could have suffered from an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). TBI and ABI are two different injury classifications that will still require the support of caregivers throughout the rehabilitation journey.
What is an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)?
An ABI refers to brain injuries that occur after birth. Many ABIs are caused by strokes, a lack of oxygen to the brain for a designated period of time, infections, or prolonged drug and alcohol abuse. It is important to note that degenerative brain ailments, such as Parkinson’s disease, or injuries caused during birth are not considered ABI. In this vein, ABI survivors will have a wide range of symptoms and care requirements that can range from severe to mild.
What is a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?
A TBI is typically caused by a blow to the head; however, it can also be caused when the brain rapidly moves inside of the skull from incidents such as whiplash. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), falls constitute 35 percent of TBI cases, motor vehicles account for 17 percent of cases, and repetitive trauma makes up 16 percent of cases. TBI survivors might experience a range of symptoms from mild to severe. These symptoms could include lightheadedness, blurred vision, headaches, impaired speech, memory loss, difficulty with cognitive functions, and, in some severe cases, death. It is important to note that no two people will experience exactly the same symptoms.
ABI vs. TBI: Understanding the Key Difference
As seen through the preceding sections, TBI is a subset of ABI. In other words, ABI accounts for all brain injuries, including traumatic and non-traumatic brain injuries. TBI only refers to those brain injuries that were the result of a traumatic experience. Both ABI and TBI diagnoses can require the support of caregivers as survivors seek to adjust to their new way of life and continue their rehabilitation journeys. Regardless of the diagnosis, caregivers should provide survivors with the hope, support, and resources that they need to recover and enjoy life to its fullest.
Finding Hope and Rehabilitation for Survivors
At TryMunity, we are dedicated to helping people from all walks of life who have been affected by an ABI or TBI. Our online community focuses on raising awareness, spreading hope, and providing the resources that survivors and caregivers need during this difficult time in life. Whether you have suffered from an ABI or TBI, or you are the caregiver to a survivor, we invite you to reach out to our community members, read our FAQs on brain injuries, and share your story. To discover the support and hope that you need after a brain injury, please contact a member of our community today.
Like in adults, the signs and symptoms of a traumatic brain injury in infants can vary greatly. It all depends on the location and extent of the age, the age of the child, premorbid abilities, and which functions are affected (i.e. cognitive, sensory, etc.). The overall effects of a traumatic brain injury in infants can be temporary or permanent; it is impossible to say without a firm, in-depth diagnosis. And even then, no two children are the same. What is common for one infant may be completely the opposite in another.
Many young children who suffer a traumatic brain injury typically develop normally after their initial recovery process. The overall developmental progression goes on relatively unhindered. Some continue to display long-term difficulties, however, including learning disabilities and social interaction impairments. These cognitive functions are impacted for life.
Furthermore, with children, the overall impact of traumatic brain injuries is vastly different from an adult due to the brain still developing. Unfortunately, this means some children may not present any effects of their injury until later in life, once their sensory system and frontal lobe have developed past adolescence.
Signs of a TBI in Infants
The signs and symptoms of a traumatic brain injury in infants are similar to that of an adult, though they do vary in some regards.
The physical symptoms include:
Changes to bowel or bladder function
Changes on consciousness, ranging from a brief loss to a coma state
Impaired movement, balance, and coordination
Motor speed deficits
Reduced muscle strength
Sensory and perceptual symptoms include:
Auditory dysfunction resulting in difficulty hearing speech, vertigo, hypersensitivity to sound, loss of postural stability or control.
Visual changes, including the perception of color, size, depth, and distance; changes to visual acuity; double vision; issues with visual convergence or accommodation; sensitivity to light.
Feed and swallowing difficulties may include:
Oral or pharyngeal dysphagia.
Risk of aspiration due to cognitive impairment while eating.
Lastly, behavioral and emotional symptoms in infants include:
Agitation, aggression, and combativeness.
Changes in sleep patterns.
A disorientated or foggy feeling.
As you can see, the range of symptoms in infants is extremely varied and far-reaching.
In most cases, a traumatic brain injury is an emergency. The consequences of such an accident can worsen without proper treatment. But first, the doctors must assess the situation and diagnose the brain injury. Currently, the “Glasgow Coma Scale” is used to assess the severity of a brain injury. The test involves your ability to follow directions, move the eyes and limbs, and coherently form speech. These abilities are then scored from three to 15. A high score means a less severe brain injury, and a low score means a more severe injury. But, that’s not the end of the diagnosis. The doctors require imagery of the brain and the damage. Most often, a CAT scan, MRU, SPECT, or PET are scheduled for a better evaluation.
Methods to Diagnose a TBI
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With a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, such as a blow directly to the head, diagnosis is relatively straightforward. It is when you mix in other life-threatening injuries, such as those caused by a car accident, that a head injury can be overlooked. The focus of all medical professionals is on treating the life-threatening injuries before them, such as extreme blood loss.
In such a case, the patient may wind up on a ventilator and sedated for the time being. This temporary vegetative state makes evaluating a brain injury difficult, if not impossible, until the patient can re-emerge from the state. Even then, a mild traumatic brain injury cannot be fully diagnosed until the individual is capable of speaking, moving their eyes or limbs, and performing simple tasks.
With all of that being said, when diagnosing a severe traumatic brain injury – an incident focused directly on the head or brain – certain symptoms will arise. For instance, an injury to the frontal lobe leads to a loss of high cognitive function, meaning inappropriate behavior or outbursts. An injury to the brainstem, on the other hand, may inhibit breathing, heart rate, and arousal. These symptoms are immediately noticeable to the medical team, as is a loss of consciousness, memory loss, or difficulty speaking.
Information About the TBI
Many medical professionals will have a series of questions to ask the patient or those who witnessed the accident/incident in question. These questions vary, but most include:
How did the injury occur?
Did the patient lose consciousness?
How long were they unconscious for?
Were there any noticeable changes in alertness, speaking, coordination, etc.?
Was the patient’s body whipped or jarred?
These questions, and more like them, provide a better idea of the accident and the injury.
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death and lifelong disability here in the United States. According to Brainline, traumatic brain injuries account for around 30% of all injury-related deaths annually in the country. Each day, around 153 people pass away because of their TBI injuries and symptoms. But, not everyone dies from their injuries. Some endure a lifetime of disabilities, pain, and discomfort. The long-term effects of traumatic brain injuries may include memory, movement, and sensation impairment, though every case is unique.
The Severity of a TBI
A traumatic brain injury is a significant bump, blow, or jolt directly to the head that may disrupt everyday functions. Not every injury to the head results in a TBI, though. Some bumps are minor and result in nothing more than a headache. But, with a TBI, the severity ranges from “mild” to “severe.” Most are mild, such as a concussion. Then, you have the more severe cases, in which memory loss or extended unconsciousness are more common.
According to research, around 2.8 million TBI-related emergency room visits occur each year. These visits result in long-term hospitalization and death. Thankfully, despite the increased number of TBI-related visits to hospitals across the country, the death rates have decreased. The decrease is just 5%, but that is significant enough to warrant notice. With all of the recent advancements in medical equipment and treatment procedures, doctors are now able to better help TBI injuries and patients through better care.
Leading Causes of TBIs
We can sit here and discuss statistics all day, but a better use of recent research is learning what the leading causes of traumatic brain injuries are and how to prevent one.
Here in the United States, the leading causes of TBIs include:
Falling – Slip and fall accidents accounted for nearly 50% of all TBI-related injuries and hospital visits. With a falling incident, both the youngest (0-14 years) and oldest (>65) age groups are affected more than anyone else.
Blunt Force – A blunt force hit to the head when being struck by an object is the second leading cause of TBI injuries. These incidents account for around 15% of all TBI-related hospital visits and deaths in the country
Accidents – A car accident is the third leading cause of TBI-related injuries in the United States. Around 14% of all TBI injuries are due to car accidents.
Regarding deaths associated with TBI injuries, intentional self-harm ranked as the second most common, with 33% of the total deaths, according to reports.
If you or someone you love suffers from a traumatic brain injury that makes everyday activities troubling, find solace in the TryMunity support community. We have a wealth of knowledge on living with TBI injuries, caring for TBI patients, and emotional support for all! Visit community.trymunity.com to learn more.
There are numerous symptoms associated with traumatic brain injuries. Although research on the topic is improving every day, there are still some mysteries surrounding the injuries. For instance, will a patient ever be symptom-free after their injury?
It’s a tough question to answer because the injury varies from person to person. Some traumatic brain injury symptoms are relatively minor and short-lived. Others may be more traumatic and long-lasting.
In some cases, symptoms of a TBI do not appear right away. They can take days or weeks after an injury to present themselves. In those cases, people around the affected individual may start to notice subtle signs first. If symptoms do appear immediately (within the first 24 hours), emergency medical assistance is needed.
Common Signs and Symptoms of TBIs
Before we dive into the lifespan of TBI symptoms, let’s explore the most common signs and symptoms associated with traumatic brain injuries. Knowing these signs can help save lives.
A complete loss or change in consciousness lasting from a few seconds to a few hours.
Difficulty awakening the individual.
Convulsions or seizures.
One dilated pupil or double vision.
Nausea and vomiting.
Fluid draining from the ears or nose.
Slurred speech, weakness of arms or legs, loss of balance, etc.
After an injury of any degree, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and fatigue are the most common symptoms that appear immediately. These tend to resolve themselves over time, fortunately.
You may also experience emotional symptoms, such as frustration and irritability, that develop over time during the recovery period. These symptoms tend to last longer.
Becoming Symptom-Free After a TBI
The effects of a moderate to severe TBI can be long-lasting or permanent. It is entirely possible to undergo rehabilitation and recovery after an accident. Still, most severe TBI survivors face permanent challenges that require them to adapt to a new way of living.
A moderate to severe TBI can lead to long-lasting physical or mental disabilities. These challenges mean adapting with various work tasks, social obligations, and other routine tasks that were once easy to accomplish. Some patients find their skills and abilities are not as sharp as they once were.
Unfortunately, these lifelong challenges can have mental repercussions, too. The individual may feel inadequate or helpless in their current situation. It is common for TBI patients to suffer from depressive and anxiety disorders due to their injuries. These psychological struggles stem from the injury and the stress of facing life-long symptoms.
It’s crucial to provide TBI patients with as much love and support as possible. There are resources available online, such as TryMunity, and locally, including support groups and networks, that help patients overcome their challenges.
At TryMunity, we have developed a support community for both patients and their loved ones working to overcome traumatic brain injuries and disorders. We have a wealth of knowledge available and a helpful community you can lean on in your time of need.
Your cerebral cortex is a thin layer of brain matter covering the outer portion of the cerebrum. The cerebral cortex typically ranges from 1.5mm to 5mm, so it’s quite small. As a result, it is easily damaged by trauma.
Despite its thin nature, the cerebral cortex is also the most developed portion of the brain. It’s directly responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language, as well as processing information around you. When damaged, these functions can be hindered. The extent of that damage, however, is based on the type of trauma and how severe it is.
Cerebral Cortex Disorders
There are a number of disorders that result from direct damage or death of brain cells within the cerebral cortex. The disorders’ symptoms vary depending on which area is damaged. There are four primary areas: the frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, and occipital lobes.
Let’s begin with apraxia, which is one of the most common disorders stemming from cerebral cortex damage. Apraxia is actually a group of disorders characterized by the inability to perform specific motor functions. Individuals suffering from apraxia may have difficulty walking, dressing, and using common objects as they used to.
The next most common type of disorder caused by a damaged cerebral cortex is ataxia. Ataxia is characterized by a distinct lack of coordination and balance. Patients may suffer from involuntary muscle movements or a loss of muscle control in portions of their body.
Furthermore, injuries to the cerebral cortex are often linked to depressive disorders, poor decision making, a complete lack of impulse control, and memory or attention problems.
Cerebral Cortex Trauma Symptoms
Following severe trauma to the cerebral cortex, numerous symptoms may present themselves. These symptoms include, but not are limited to, the following:
Difficulty in planning basic tasks, such as making a cup of coffee or restocking toilet paper.
Apathy or a complete loss of interest in life.
Loss of thinking flexibility.
Difficulty focusing or a complete lack of attention.
Difficulty speaking in social settings.
Often repeating actions without any awareness of doing so.
Mood swings or complete loss of inhibition (may lead to offensive outbursts or inappropriate behavior).
Weakness along one side of the face or body.
Difficulty walking properly.
Disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder.
If you or a loved one suffer from recent trauma to the cerebral cortex, seek medical attention immediately. Any signs of common symptoms or disorders should be addressed by a medical professional promptly to begin treatment.
For support during this difficult time, turn to TryMunity’s community. We provide a forum to interact with other trauma patients and family members, as well as numerous informative resources for living with traumatic brain injuries.
Today, there is more available information about traumatic brain injuries than ever before. There are now studies relating to how contact sports (such as football) lead to traumatic brain injuries. The world is starting to recognize the issue on a broader scale.
Still, treatment is a mystery to some. A significant blow to the head or a twist of the neck is terrifying. Typically, the injury is not severe. There are cases, however, where a simple concussion is only the beginning. Some patients suffer from internal bleeding of the brain or a crack in the skull. In such cases, a CT scan is used to determine the extent of the damage.
Understanding a CT Scan
Often, a CT (computerized tomography) scan is necessary. A scan is designed to show the doctor if there is swelling or bleeding in the brain, or potentially a fracture to the skull. If there are signs of severe head trauma, a CT scan is the first test ordered to diagnose the condition. Your doctor will closely examine the scanned image for signs of a developing disorder or trauma.
First, most doctors will examine other symptoms, such as:
Weakness along one side of the face or body
Difficulty speaking, hearing, and swallowing
One dilated pupil
Fluid or blood leaking from the ear or nose
Tenderness around the skull
According to reports, if you do not display any of the above-mentioned symptoms after an injury to the head, your risk of complications is around 1 in 7000. A CT scan is unlikely to help in such a case.
Traumatic Brain Injury Diagnosis
While a CT scan is typically used to diagnose a traumatic brain injury, there are other methods often used. There is no single test that can definitively confirm a TBI. However, your doctor can assess the history of the injury, symptoms displayed, perform a physical examination, and schedule additional tests (including neuroradiology) to confirm the diagnosis.
Typically, TBI patients experience a loss of consciousness when enduring such a traumatic injury. This loss of consciousness ranges from a few seconds to a few minutes. In the most severe traumatic brain injury cases, the loss of consciousness can result in days spent in a coma. Even worse, some never leave a coma after their injury. Furthermore, most TBI patients experience some form of amnesia, whether minor or long-lasting.
So, when is the CT scan used in the diagnosis phase? A CT scan is used in conjunction with other diagnostic methods. Typically, a CT scan, which is fast and accurate, is used to diagnose acute head trauma that requires emergency treatment, such as surgery, to prevent life-threatening conditions. It starts with a visual diagnosis more than anything else, though.