Our Mission is to provide strategy, structure and solutions that inspire and equip leaders and their organizations for innovation and success. Our leadership development training has received rave reviews.
Are you eager to move up to a senior managerial, executive or leadership role in your profession but can’t seem to make it happen? Chances are you need to be more strategic. At this stage in your career, getting to the next level requires a focused, even analytical approach. Here’s a 10-step roadmap that will help.
Step 1. Identify your overarching career goal. For example: “I want to advance from my current role as an independent sales or IT professional to one where I manage a team and eventually move into an executive position.”
Step 2. Reflect on why you want to reach this career goal. How will achieving your goal energize your work life? How will it fulfill you personally? Does it align with your core values and vision of who you want to be? Getting clear on these types of questions will energize you for the work ahead.
Step 3. Gather information. What skills do you need to develop? What experience or professional training will help you advance?Where do your strengths and weaknesses lie? Start by asking a mentor or coach. Ask others whom you trust, such as your boss, teammates, colleagues, direct reports and even friends. Tell them you’re on a personal fact-finding mission.
Step 4. Make a list. Based on your research and self-reflection, organize what you’ve learned into categories such as:
skills to develop
training or education to pursue
relationships to cultivate
goals or thresholds to reach in my current job
deficits or weaknesses to overcome.
Step 5. Prioritize. Narrow down your list so you can focus your energies on those areas that will be of most value and where you feel most motivated to act. This is also a good time to do an authenticity check: Are your goals in sync with your values? Are they aligned with your strengths?
Step 6. Develop smart goals for the items on your list. Smart goals arespecific, measurable and realistic. This means that rather than setting a general goal like, “I will improve my management skills,” you identify the specific areas of management you need or want to improve, such as coaching direct reports, giving timely feedback, delegating, fostering teamwork. Then you set specific goals for each area.
Here are a few tips for setting powerful goals:
Write down your goals.
Use positive language.
Define how you will measure success.
Set a timeline.
Make sure your goals reflect your own desires, not someone else’s idea of what you should do or be.
Set goals with the appropriate degree of challenge – neither too easy nor too difficult. Goals should stretch you but not so much that you end up discouraged.
Step 7. Create actions plansand a timeline. Break your goals into bite-sized pieces, then outline the steps and specific tasks you will take to achieve each goal, along with a timeline for each. This step is key. It’s where you actually do the work that will move you forward.
For instance, if your goal is improving your management of direct reports, your action plan might include meeting with team members weekly, giving on-the-spot feedback to three people every day and completing a course in becoming a leader-coach by a certain date. If your goal is to expand your professional network, your action plan might be to attend three professional conferences in the next 12 months andto connect with a certain number of influential people at each conference. If your goal is to improve your presentations to C-suite leaders, you might commit to joining Toastmasters andto giving your first public speech within the next three months.
Step 10. Be accountable. Most of us can’t do this work alone. Working with an executive coach, career coach, leadership development coach or management coach will give you an accountability partner who provides objective feedback about your path and your progress, including a gentle push when you need it.
Finally, and importantly, don’t be shy about your intentions. Let your boss, colleagues, friends and acquaintances know about your career goals. Whether at your current place of employment or externally, be sure to focus on how your success will benefit an organization.
What does it mean to be a leader? How does one become a great leader? What does it really take? These are questions that the best leaders of all time ask themselves constantly, and that’s probably part of what makes them great.
But, the recipe doesn’t end there. So much that goes into being a good leader, including constantly striving, working to improve, and most of all, always learning. There has never been a better time to be a leader than today because we’ve got thousands of resources at our fingertips, hours upon hours of inspiring talks from the best of the best, right in front of us, ready be to utilized if we dare.
If you’re ready to be the best leader you can be, check out 10 of the most inspiring and motivational TED talks on leadership today.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #1 Listen and learn from everyone around you
Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other. – John F. Kennedy
General Stanley McChrystal is a decorated four-star general in the United States armed forces, and in my book, those are pretty good credentials for leadership training. He gave an incredible TED talk (Stanley McChrystal: Listen, Learn Then Lead) that’s just around 15 minutes long. Yet in the video McChrystal gives over an essential value of leadership: don’t be too proud or full of yourself to learn from others because, at the end of the day, we all need one another to get through life. Short, poignant, and incredibly relevant to anyone in a leadership position. Salute.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #2 Self-leadership comes first
One of the most important things that a leader can do is to lead by example. If you want everyone else to be passionate, committed, dedicated, and motivated, you go first! – Marshall Goldsmith
Lars Sudmann gives a quick TED talk about the number one rule in leadership: self-leadership. He quickly goes through some important exercises you need to be doing constantly as a leader to ensure that you are being the best leader and that includes periodic self-character trait checks, asking self-reflecting questions, and continuous self-regulation. In short, Sudmann shows that if you really want to lead others, you have to start by leading yourself.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #3 Value each employee for what they have to contribute
The role of a creative leader is not to have all the ideas; it’s to create a culture where everyone can have ideas and feel that they’re valued. – Ken Robinson
The good leader is the one that appreciates and understands the value of each employee. The obvious truth is that no great empire was built single-handedly. Instead, it’s the combined efforts of several individuals. And the great leader understands this principle, cultivates a culture in which each individual knows they have what to contribute, is given the tools and the space to make those contributions, and is appreciated for their contributions towards the finished product.
In her talk, Forgetting the Pecking Order, Margaret Heffernan contests the usual business model of competition, dog eat dog, you’ve got to step on each other to climb to the top ideology, and suggests a different type of mentality. My favorite line from the talk is this: “If the only way the most productive can be successful is by suppressing the productivity of the rest, then we badly need to find a better way to work.”. So well put, Margaret.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #4 The definition of leadership is making someone’s life better
A leader is someone who helps improve the lives of other people or improve the system they live under. – Sam Houston
This is one of the best TED talks about leadership out there because it totally turns the entire definition we’re accustomed to on its head. Drew Dudley shows us in just six minutes how each one of us can be and is a leader without even knowing it. By doing the smallest thing, we can change someone’s life, thereby becoming a leader of people.
Dudley contests the superhero image of a leader who changes the world through massive feats of strength and superhuman powers. Instead, Dudley says we change the world, we lead the world, by the small things that make an impact on a single person at a time. Watch it, you’ll be amazed.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #5 Motivate properly
Everything is hard before it is easy. – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Part of the job of a leader is to motivate their people to succeed. One of the most common methods society generally uses to get people moving is incentive, whether it’s positive or negative, internal or external. But motivational speaker Dan Pink is teaching us some fascinating findings about motivation. Turns out most of the time when we use rewards to motivate people, they actually end up doing more damage than good! Listen to Dan Pink’s The Puzzle of Motivation, and learn that at the end of the day the greatest motivation is feeling like we’re doing something that matters.
There are lots of other studies and speeches on the subject including two of the best from Dan Ariely and Tony Robbins. These two really go deep explaining the motivation of people and how to work with our internal mechanisms for greater productivity and greater workplace happiness.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #6 A little encouragement goes a long way
If you are a leader, you should never forget that everyone needs encouragement. And everyone who receives it – young or old, successful or less-than-successful, unknown or famous – is changed by it. John C. Maxwell
Simon Sinek has got a ton of great inspiration and advice for anyone who wants to be a great leader (and I highly recommend you check them all out). One of my favorite TED talks Sinek gives is the one about how leaders inspire action. In this talk, Sinek shows that your mission statement motivates, and that your “why” is more important than your “what” or “how.” Learn from the master.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #7 Lead fearlessly, love hard
A true leader not only cares about their success, but the success and empowerment of others. – Warren G. Bennis
Linda Cliatt-Wayman might be the most motivational speaker on this entire list. She is a powerful, driven, and successful leader, and she is a school principal. That’s right, she is a school principal, but not just any school principal. Cliatt-Wayman goes into seriously troubled school districts and turns their situations around in incredible ways.
In her TED talk, Linda tells people that if you want to be a leader, you have to do three things: really lead, i.e., get up off your butt and do things. That includes, of course, the big jobs that nobody else can do, but even the little, menial jobs that nobody else is interested in doing. Second, don’t focus on excuses or problems, focus on solutions. And thirdly, do it with love. No matter what kind of organization you’re leading, a little concern and respect go a long way.
And one day she discovered that she was fierce and strong, and full of fire and that not even she could hold herself back because her passion burned brighter than her fears. – Mark Anthony
In her incredibly inspiring TED talk, Sheryl Sandberg explains why there are too few women taking leadership roles. I think this is an invaluable talk that every girl needs to hear. Sandberg talks about the right self-messaging, that the workforce isn’t the right place for every woman, and that if it is, make sure to always “be at the table.” Look at and treat yourself as an equal, and others will too. Try it!
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #9 Learn how to make waves
This is a three-minute video that shows some key points about being a good leader. In How to Start a Movement, Derek Sivers shows the importance of nurturing your supporters and also of not being afraid to be a follower sometimes too. Seth Godin goes further into this concept with his talk about How to Get Your Ideas to Spread. In a word, it’s about being remarkable. Check it out.
Leadership TED Talk Lesson #10 Difference between success and winning
Winning is fun…sure. But winning is not the point. Wanting to win is the point. Not giving up is the point. Never letting up is the point. – Pat Summitt
I’ll end off this inspirational roundup with one of the most important lessons anyone (but especially a leader) needs to understand. In a terrific talk, John Wooden explains that there is a world of difference between success and winning. Almost every time, the biggest success is putting in your effort and doing the best you can. Whether or not you win, i.e., accomplish the goal that you set out to do, is less important than what effort you put forth.
The task of the leader is to get his people from where they are to where they have not been. – Henry Kissinger
Leaders have untold potential to make significant changes, touch people, and really shape the world, but they have to be good leaders to accomplish those goals. Luckily, we have some of the most successful, powerful, and influential leaders in the world as our teachers. With technology today, we have nothing stopping us from learning these priceless leadership lessons. As Muhammad Ali said, “the only limitations we have are the ones we place on ourselves.”
Research shows that working with an executive coach yields powerful results, including heightened confidence and performance. But it only works if you choose the right coach for you!
So, you’ve decided to hire an executive coach? Congratulations! You or your organization have taken a big step to greater success. Your next move is critical. To ensure ROI, you’ve got to find the right executive coach for you, and this is definitely not a one-size-fits-all proposition.
Here’s what to look for in an executive coach, plus 5 steps to Choosing the Right Executive Coach for You.
Credentials & Training
This one is nonnegotiable: Only hire a coach who is credentialed by at least one of the following organizations – International Coach Federation(ICF); the Center for Crendentialing and Education (CCE), and Worldwide Association of Business Coaches (WABC).
Most leading executive coaches have more than basic coach training. At The Workplace Coach, all of our coaches hold advanced degrees and have completed hundreds of hours of coach-specific training, in addition to being credentialed by the profession’s most-respected organizations.
Experience (But Not Just Any Experience)
Look for someone whose executive coaching experience is related to your specific needs, goals and interests. At The Workplace Coach we have a long track record of successful coaching engagements in the areas of leadership development, management coaching, building high-performance teams, career coaching, work-life balance and coach supervision.
A Clear Coaching Philosophy, Style & Method
Professional coaches will clearly articulate their coaching philosophy and method. At The Workplace Coach our work is grounded in the principles of I/O and Positive Psychology Coaching. Our method includes asking powerful open-ended questions to help clients gain insights that move them toward their goals.
Consider the coach’s workstyle too. Will they meet with you by phone, video conference call or in person? What type of support do they provide between sessions? Are there limits on between-session support?
Professional Tools & Resources
Many executive coaches give their clients access to assessment tools such as DISC, 360 feedback, Myers-Briggs and the Highlands Ability Battery. Professional coaches are also skilled at guiding clients in maximizing their use of the tools.
Professional Ethics and Coaching Agreement
We strongly recommend working with an executive coach who adheres to ICF’s Code of Ethics. In addition, the coach should be willing to draft an agreement defining the terms and scope of the engagement, including fees, scheduling, logistics, and roles and responsibilities of coach and client. Pay attention to whether the coach clearly distinguishes between coaching, consulting and counseling.
5 Steps to Choosing the Right Executive Coach for You
Gather names. Ask friends and colleagues to recommend coaches they’ve worked with successfully. Consult online resources of coaching credentialing organizations.
Do your due diligence. Ask potential coaches to provide references, including current and past clients. Contact each reference and ask about his/her experience with the coach; be sure to ask about pros and cons.
Interview top prospects. In addition to the basics (training, credentials, experience, methodology, costs), ask the coach to discuss:
their strengths and weaknesses;
specific experiences with clients whose situations or goals were similar to yours, including their process and outcomes;
their professional experience outside coaching;
numbers of clients coached.
Take a test drive. Schedule a complimentary introduction session.
Consider personality and chemistry. Do you feel comfortable and at ease with the coach? Just as importantly, will the coach challenge you to grow?
Year after year, fully 85% to 87% of The Workplace Coach clients succeed in meeting their coaching and training goals. But we’ve been wondering how to break the 90% mark. After beta testing several learning analytics tools, we think Sprezie may be the answer.
Sprezie is a semi-automated learning analytics system that uses short phone calls, texts, flash mentoring and mini-surveys to support and encourage trainees and coaching clients as they put new skills to use in between sessions, while also tracking their progress.
How The Tool Works
With Sprezie, trainees and coaching clients target specific goals from their coaching and/or training programs, identify potential mentors and set a call and/or text schedule with Sprezie. Sprezie then reaches out to potential mentors and helps them record messages to the participant.
Participants then receive calls and texts that:
Ask about their focus, effort and progress towards stated goals,
Deliver recorded messages from coworkers, friends, family and other mentors.
The calls and texts help participants stay focused on goals such as delegating more or ramping up strategic planning, while messages from mentors add motivation. These are supplemented by quick two-question mini-surveys that allow others to provide additional feedback.
Ongoing data collection is effortless, giving both client and coach evidence of progress and goal attainment.
Fully 97% of senior leader and executive clients of The Workplace Coach who have used Sprezie report that the system keeps them focused on their goals between sessions, while helping them to feel more supported. Initial numbers also show improved results, affirming the adage that “what gets measured, gets done!”
In 2019, The Workplace Coach will offer this smartphone-based learning aid to all of our corporate coaching and training clients as we continue to support our partners and clients in achieving leadership and organizational excellence. Contact us for more information about this exciting technology and all of our coaching, training and assessment programs.
Transparency is a crucial asset in business today, both internally with employees, team members and colleagues and externally with customers and suppliers. If you’re wondering how to establish a culture of transparency in your organization, look first to yourself. Quite simply, transparent leaders create transparent businesses. Yet, while there is much discussion of the skills and traits necessary for great leadership, transparency is often overlooked.
So, what do we mean by transparent leadership? Here are a few important ingredients. Transparent leaders:
Express their thoughts and opinions openly and comfortably;
Are consistent in their interactions with others and in their expectations of others;
Can be relied on to honor commitments;
Solicit and give honest feedback – the kind that corrects, guides and inspires.
If these practices and qualities are not yet standard for you, the good news is you can cultivate them (with the help of a leadership coach, if necessary). Then watch the rewards follow as your transparent leadership style builds trust, camaraderie and connection.
Research and our own experience tell us that employees and colleagues work harder when their leader makes it a priority to build rapport and trust. They also work smarter, while being more loyal and less prone to conflict.
Without question, transparent leadership is the single most important ingredient in business transparency and organizational success. By making transparency the bedrock of your leadership style, you set an example that will naturally extend outward in your organization, generating systemwide transparency. It may not happen overnight, but it will happen.
You can begin building trust and transparency right now by adopting the excellent practices outlined in the infographic below. If you need or want support along the way, give The Workplace Coach a call today.
Over the past 6 months, The Workplace Coach collected data from 109 business leaders about their leadership issues and concerns. To keep you on track for a successful 2018, we’ve put the survey results together with our targeted coaching advice in each area. In the first of four posts, we look at the areas leaders feel they most need to improve.
FOSTERING A SENSE OF SHARED RESPONSIBILITY
What leadership competencies do business leaders most want to improve? The largest share of our survey respondents (26.7%) said that promoting a sense of responsibility and ownership across the organization was the skill they most needed to improve.
As leaders, we love it when an employee goes above and beyond the call of duty. That kind of initiative and sense of responsibility show that someone truly owns his or her work. Ultimately, it comes down to accountability, and research tells us that when the work environment is designed for accountability, it flourishes.
How can you build an environment where employees share a sense of responsibility and ownership? Begin by empowering your employees. Make it clear to them that they have both the obligation and the authority to improve work processes. Then back it up by making sure they have the resources, knowledge and help they need to be confident in their skills and their decisions.
An organization-wide commitment to improvement also is key, as are ongoing evaluations at both the team and the individual level.
Where else do leaders see room for improvement in their own leadership capabilities? In our survey, three areas emerged as the second-most pressing concerns of leaders — mentoring others, effective delegation and accurately interpreting the competitive environment. It is hardly coincidental that two of these – mentoring others and effective delegation – are both directly linked to the ability to promote shared responsibility.
Self-management is the fundamental requirement for empowering both people and organizational success in the knowledge economy. At the core of this concept, self-management means that you demonstrate self-control and an ability to manage time, priorities and decision-making capacity, thus creating a more effective leadership style. However, our self-control, productivity and authenticity can be sabotaged by our internal constant “chatter” that focus on fear, self-limiting beliefs and sense of unworthiness.
In fact, many of the most common challenges that leaders bring to coaching are results of the tyranny of their own inner critic. We all have this inner voice. It’s that stream of internal commentary, including both positive and negative thoughts. For most of us, this inner voice is a constant presence, chattering continuously throughout the day. This inner dialog is sometimes referred to as the “Gremlin,” “Saboteur,” or “Monkey Mind,” the latter being a Buddhist term used to describe the restless, agitated and easily distracted state of the mind.
Author Rick Carson calls this inner narrator a gremlin. Carson, author of the popular book Taming Your Gremlin®, A Surprisingly Simple Method for Getting Out of Your Own Way,describes this gremlin as “a vile, vicious, villainous, insufferable bully lurking in the shadows of your very own mind.” This gremlin is out to make you miserable, he says. “Left to do his thing, he’ll zap your health, foul up your relationships, ruin your disposition, dampen your creativity, hamper your productivity, drive you into low-down funks, and wind you up in to fits of anxiety.”
A leader’s inner voice may have convinced her that she is unworthy, that she’ll never reach her goals or that her dreams are ridiculous. The inner critic might be telling us, that we’ll never get the job we want or that we don’t deserve the kind of healthy relationship we long for. The inner critic can undermine our sense of accomplishment and hamper the ability to authentically lead others or move toward goals.
As a coach, our role is to challenge this inner critic and help leaders find the key to positive self-management. We do this in part by helping clients recognize when their saboteur is taking over, so they can learn to limit its grasp. You can begin this work yourself by taking a free self-assessment at https://www.positiveintelligence.com/assessments/. This simple tool will help you learn more about how you self-sabotage yourself and offers suggestions for keeping your inner critic in check.
Here are 5 additional resources that can be useful for you when monkey mind or the inner critic is playing an outsized role and needs to be tamed.
Taming Your Inner Critic: 7 Steps To Silencing The Negativity, Forbes
According to INC Magazine (Jan, 2018), a staggering 93% of managers feel they need trainingon how to coach their employees. While, giving advice, mentoring, and delivering feedback are all routine aspects to management, they need direct reports to take responsibility for solving problems, taking action, and managing their own careers. If a manager acts as a good coach, they not only take the pressure off of themselves to provide all the answers, avoid constant back and forth, they also empower their team to set and achieve their own goals – those that matter most to them.
Research also shows that coaching is one of the most effective tools available to take leadership development to a deeper and more sustainable level – whether focused on the individual, workgroups, teams, or the entire organization. In short, Coaching IS effective leadership.
At The Workplace Coach, we can help! Our Certified Leader Coach® program (CLC) is designed to equip leaders to become more effective and confident, someone that people want to follow. CLC will teach leaders valuable “leader-as-coach” skills necessary to create the kind of innovative culture that strengthens organizations and allows for effective people development, succession planning and sustainable success.
Completing our CLC program will reinforce team leadership ability and strengthen your business management toolkit, while you build confidence as a high-performing contributor to your organization. The CLC program provides participants with a unique process utilizing a combined organizational development and coaching psychology methodology. Through this leadership development program, you will be equipped to build an environment of growth and profitability. Specifically, CLC certification:
Enhances management and leadership skills and knowledge
Verifies a level of management expertise and leadership potential
Distinguishes managers by demonstrating professional initiative and achievement
Offers a competitive edge for career advancement, and
Demonstrates an organization’s commitment to quality management
What is CLC certification?
CLC is a credential for managers and organizational leaders offered by the Workplace Coach. The designation has been filed with the US Patent and Trademark Office and can only be used by individuals who complete our designation program. It is a broad-based program that addresses 5 areas of management expertise as defined by our Leader-As-Coach® Competency Model.
Who can apply for the CLC?
Professionals, managers and organizational leaders with a minimum of 3 years’ experience may apply. It is not a designation designed for professional coaches.
What is included in this program?
An initial consultation with a credentialed coach
6-Weekly 90-minute Webinars
A workbook detailing ICF core coaching competencies
A complimentary VIA assessment
Access to our Leader-As-Coach eLearning Modules
Plus, optional CLC certification written and oral exams
Our accelerated program is sponsored by First Sun EAP and costs only $1899.00. Be sure to ask about group discounts. Once you register, you will receive a confirmation email and payment link. Once payment is received, you’ll be contacted to schedule your initial coaching consultation.
Cynthia has a passion for both business and psychology and works with organizations, teams and individuals to help maximize their effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability. Cynthia’s designations include Board Certified Coach (BCC), National Certified Counselor (NCC), and Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC).
Cynthia’s organizational effectiveness experience includes leadership development, selection and hiring, high potentials development, communications, and effective team performance. She has consulted with companies such as Chase Bank, Andersen Consulting, Cisco, Centex Homes, Charles Schwab, GlaxoSmithKline, IBM, The Nature Conservancy and BellSouth. Earlier in her career Cynthia held risk management positions with Aetna and Johnson & Higgins where she designed, developed, and implemented risk management programs for a broad range of clients including many Fortune 500 companies.
Cynthia identifies and works with client strengths to benefit the organization and their employees. Enthusiastic and insightful, Cynthia is known for her warmth and energy. Clients appreciate her ability to coach them to solve problems and reach goals in a non-judgmental, supportive and approachable way.
Research has found that for business leaders, entrepreneurs and professionals in midlife, executive coaching grounded in the tenets of positive psychology yields powerful results.
Positive psychology is the study of the strengths, traits, emotions and values that foster optimal functioning and wellbeing. The field has generated many research-based tools that individuals can apply to their work and personal lives to experience greater fulfillment and success.
Here are five tips from positive psychology that you can put to use today.
Reboot your attitude. Make it a habit to look for the good in life. At bedtime write down 3-5 things that went well in your work or personal life that day. This helps interrupt negativity and fear-based thinking. At work, rather than being a critic, reinforce the positive, both in yourself and others, and be compassionate when you or someone else falls short. The message here is “choose optimism.” Actively choosing optimism builds resilience and promotes a sense of well-being.
Reframe your perspective. Imagine yourself at 90 years old. What would your older self tell your younger self about what matters most in life? Which of your present-day worries would your 90-year-old self tell you to disregard, because they simply are not worth your time and effort? Use this information and clarity to refocus your priorities at work and in other parts of your life.
Play to your strengths.Rather than habitually focusing on your weaknesses and areas that need fixing, take time to identify what you do well. Perhaps in your profession your strong analytic capabilities are a plus. Maybe you’re good at finding solutions or providing calm leadership when things get turbulent. Notice the times when your unique talents and skills make a positive impact, then begin leveraging these strengths more intentionally. This will empower you to be more confident and productive.
Savor experiences that give you joy. Become aware of the types of experiences that make you happy. Thismight be your work, spending time with your children, being in nature, walking on the beach with a friend – anything that brings a smile to your face just thinking about it. Call on these activities or the memory of them to boost positive emotions when you need them. Similarly, at work focus on past successes to help you connect to the rewards of current projects and tasks.
Combine pleasure and meaning. Pay attention to your choices and how they make you feel. Notice how some choices provide instant gratification but leave you feeling unsatisfied afterwards (much like eating a candy bar), while other choices are both immediately satisfying and give sustained pleasure (like eating a tasty snack that is also nutritious). What gives you both pleasure and a sense of purpose or meaning? At work, what types of projects leave you feeling fulfilled? Look for opportunities to do more of those things that are both pleasurable and meaningful.