Interferon, a natural protein that is produced by a variety of cells during viral infection, activates the transcription of multiple functional genes in cells, regulates synergy among various signaling pathways, and mediates many biological functions such as antiviral activity, immune regulation, and cell growth. However, clinical research on interferon in livestock is lacking. In this study, recombinant porcine interferon (PoIFNα) was used as an adjuvant, in combination with inactivated influenza virus, to vaccinate 6-week-old pigs via nasal infusion. The transcription of target genes was then monitored and the functions of PoIFNα were determined with respect to the activation of mucosal immunity. We found that a combination of low-dose PoIFNα and inactivated influenza virus could significantly up-regulate the expression of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 by real-time PCR, suggesting the induction of a strong mucosal innate immune response after administration. In addition, low-dose PoIFNα can significant enhancing the transcription of genes encoding homing factors including CCR9 and CCR10 (P < 0.001), thereby resulting in the induction of higher levels of HA-specific antibodies (P < 0.05), which can be determined by ELISA and IFA. Post-immunization challenges with H1N1 virus demonstrated that PoIFNα, combined with inactivated influenza virus, could alleviate clinical signs in pigs during the early stages of viral infection. These studies reveal low-dose PoIFNα as a potential mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus in pigs.
Here, we report results from a comparative analysis of the detection window for YFV and RVFV in patients’ sera and urine samples. Moreover, infectious YFV and RVFV were isolated from clinical samples, verified by sequencing, and whole-genome sequences were compared.
Ed Rybicki's insight: Pretty big deal if they're right??
In 2016, two unprecedented events occurred regarding yellow fever flavivirus infection and vaccine. First, in China 11 persons were diagnosed with yellow fever virus after being infected while working in Angola and returning to China in March–April (WHO 2016a; Wang et al.2016; Chen et al.2016). No transmission within China occurred (Chen and Lu 2016). These were the first persons anywhere in Asia known to have laboratory-documented yellow fever infection. Second, a global shortage of yellow fever vaccine resulted in the first-ever use of a fractional (1/5) normal dose of yellow fever vaccine anywhere in the world when it was given to 7.5 million people in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in August (Monath et al.2016; WHO 2016b).
We advocate three steps for both the USA and China. First, to have their yellow fever vaccines prequalified by the WHO in order for their vaccines to be available for use both inside and outside their borders around the world under the authority of the multi-partnered ICG (WHO 2018a, b, c). Having six rather than four yellow fever vaccines prequalified by WHO would help alleviate the recent YF vaccine shortage in Africa (2016) and current shortage in Latin America (2018–2019) as well as the likely crisis caused by international YF vaccine shortage if yellow fever epidemics occur in Asia during or after 2019. The second step we propose, after WHO prequalification of the YF vaccine in China and USA, would be to sharply boost production of the current small number of doses of YF vaccine in China (~ 300,000 doses/year currently) and in the USA (~ 1.1 million doses/year prior to 2017) (Monath et al.2016; CDC 2017; Lucey and Donaldson 2017). The third step we advocate for by both the USA and China would be to study the effect of fractional dosing (1/5 of full dose) of these two vaccines. Taking these three steps as soon as possible by both China and the USA would augment international YF vaccine doses above the 1.38 billion doses estimated in 2016 to eliminate YF epidemics (“EYE”) worldwide by 2026, i.e., in Africa and Latin America (but not including any vaccine doses if YF epidemics occurred for the first time anywhere in Asia). We postulate that this EYE program is much more likely to succeed by 2026 if both China and the USA initiate the above three steps in 2019–2020 to boost YF vaccine production and continue until 2026, or as long as is needed by the global community.
Good news if you’re an adult who hasn’t gotten the HPV vaccine yet: A government advisory panel recently voted to recommend the vaccine for men up to age 26 (previously it was recommended for women up to 26, and men up to 21) with a “weak endorsement” for people up to age 45.
Through a QI Collaborative, a school-based health center (SBHC) program was tasked with identifying ways to decrease asthma mortality and promote national asthma guidelines with evidence-based interventions.
ABSTRACT Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 have been occurring in commercial chickens in Mexico since its first introduction in 2012. In order to determine changes in virus pathogenicity and adaptation in avian species, three H7N3 HPAI viruses from 2012, 2015, and 2016 were evaluated in chickens and mallards. All three viruses caused high mortality in chickens when given at medium to high doses and replicated similarly. No mortality or clinical signs and similar infectivity were observed in mallards inoculated with the 2012 and 2016 viruses. However, the 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus replicated well in mallards and transmitted to contacts, whereas the 2016 virus replicated poorly and did not transmit to contacts, which indicates that the 2016 virus is less adapted to mallards. In vitro, the 2016 virus grew slower and to lower titers than did the 2012 virus in duck fibroblast cells. Full-genome sequencing showed 115 amino acid differences between the 2012 and the 2016 viruses, with some of these changes previously associated with changes in replication in avian species, including hemagglutinin (HA) A125T, nucleoprotein (NP) M105V, and NP S377N. In conclusion, as the Mexican H7N3 HPAI virus has passaged through large populations of chickens in a span of several years and has retained its high pathogenicity for chickens, it has decreased in fitness in mallards, which could limit the potential spread of this HPAI virus by waterfowl. IMPORTANCE Not much is known about changes in host adaptation of avian influenza (AI) viruses in birds after long-term circulation in chickens or other terrestrial poultry. Although the origin of AI viruses affecting poultry is wild aquatic birds, the role of these birds in further dispersal of poultry-adapted AI viruses is not clear. Previously, we showed that HPAI viruses isolated early from poultry outbreaks could still infect and transmit well in mallards. In this study, we demonstrate that the Mexican H7N3 HPAI virus after four years of circulation in chickens replicates poorly and does not transmit in mallards but remains highly pathogenic in chickens. This information on changes in host adaptation is important for understanding the epidemiology of AI viruses and the role that wild waterfowl may play in disseminating viruses adapted to terrestrial poultry.