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Space exploration is the exploration and discovery of outer space by use of space technology and is conducted by both robotic spacecraft and humans. Astronomy, which is the viewing of objects in space from Earth, is thought to predate recorded history, but it was the inspiration to modern space exploration. Humans explore space for many reasons including the survival of humankind if Earth cannot sustain life, uniting nations, and scientific research.

Physical space exploration began in Germany, where scientists developed and tested a V-2 rocket during World War II. This rocket became the first man-made object to enter space, alongside the launch of the A-4 in October of 1942. After the war ended, the United States used rockets captured from the Germans and their scientists to research and study rockets for military and civilian purposes. Although the Germans launched the first man-made object into space, the first exploration of space occurred in May of 1946, when the United States launched a V-2 for an experiment to analyze cosmic radiation.

In 1947, fruit flies became the first animals in space and the first pictures of Earth were taken. Both of these experiments were conducted using American V-2s. The Soviets also launched animal and radiation experiments in 1947, with the help of German scientists. These experiments were conducted using a variant of the V-2 known as the R-1. All of these early space exploration experiments were limited to short flights in sub-orbital space.

The Soviets conducted the first successful orbital mission in October of 1957 after launching the unmanned space vehicle Sputnik 1. This satellite weighed around 184 pounds and transmitted beeps down to radios across the earth, which scientists analyzed to measure the electron density in the ionosphere. The beeps also contained encoded information about the temperature and pressure of Sputnik, which helped researchers know its safety status. Sputnik eventually burned up upon re-entering the atmosphere, but its launch and success paved the way for other missions, including the successful launch of Explorer 1 by America in 1958. The first human flight was launched by Russia in 1961, successfully sending cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space for one Earth orbit aboard Vostok 1. America launched Mercury-Redstone 3 about a month later with Alan Shepard on board, but this flight was suborbital.

The next step in space exploration was successfully landing an object on a planetary body. This was accomplished in 1959 when Russia’s Luna 2 landed on the moon. America’s Apollo 11 was the first manned spacecraft to reach the moon. Venera 7 was the first spacecraft to land on another planet, landing in 1970, but this mission lasted less than thirty minutes. Important figures in space exploration include Kerim Kerimov, who was one of the leaders in the Vostok 1 mission, and Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., who was NASA’s first flight director.

Through the 1970s NASA ramped up its space exploration with the launches of several space orbiters, including one would much later make history. NASA launched Voyager 1 on September 5, 1977, an orbiter that was expected to last several years, exploring the outer planets. It visited Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980. The spacecraft’s primary mission ended on November 20, 1980, however, Voyager 1 is still going strong today, 36 years later.

Space Exploration got a huge lift when NASA launched the first Space Shuttle mission on April 12, 1981. That launch touched off a 30-year manned space program that saw 135 crewed missions into space. In 2000, the International Space Station paved a way for a continuing human presence in space. The Space Shuttle then became utilized as a vehicle to transport humans to and from the orbiting lab. After 11 years of supplying humans and cargo to the ISS, the Shuttle program was retired, leaving Russia as the only space agency capable of launching humans to and from the ISS — aboard its Soyuz spacecraft.

During the 2000s, many plans were announced for space exploration, including China’s plan to build and launch a 60-ton multi-module space station by 2020. NASA announced in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 that it would build the Space Launch System (SLS), which would carry important equipment for experiments, the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and other needed cargo. This station would also provide international and commercial transportation services to the International Space Station.

The focus of space exploration has shifted to using automated vehicles because these make missions less expensive to operate and allows researchers to gather information from areas where humans cannot reach. Optimal automated vehicles should be able to operate if something fails, should be able to attain a goal with a given set of actions, and should be able to sense its environment and make choices based on its findings. These types of vehicles would provide space programs throughout the world the ability to explore deep space with great efficiency.

After the retiring of the Space Shuttle program in 2011, NASA began looking for large corporations to fund the future of space travel. Several companies had already been working on space vehicles and were looking to secure contracts with NASA and other agencies to launch vehicles into space.

SpaceX was the first company to move in this direction when it successfully launched its Dragon capsule in 2012 and successfully docked with the ISS. Orbital Sciences has also shown commercial success after launching its Cygnus resupply ship to the orbiting lab in 2013.

Among the most historic feats accomplished in the space exploration field is the deep space exploration that has occurred with NASA’s Voyager 1, which has traveled more than 11 billion miles since its launch in 1977. NASA reported in September 2013 that the orbiter has made history when it left the heliopause, moving out of the Solar System and into interstellar space.


Image Caption: Artistic illustration of Cassini orbiter in Saturnian system. Credit: NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The post History Of Space Exploration appeared first on Redorbit.

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Redorbit by Ahmed - 2d ago

Once wrinkles and fine lines start appearing, it is an indication your skin is not holding up well anymore. However, it is almost inevitable that your skin will develop fine lines and wrinkles at some point in your life. The good thing is that there are unlimited products in the market and procedures to help in reducing the effects of wrinkles if not to get rid of them entirely. Among the available solutions to skin wrinkles, Botox is by far the most sought-after cosmetic procedure today.

What is Botox?

Botox is a type of toxin derived from the bacterium, Clostridium Botulinum naturally found in the soil, forests, lakes, inside the intestinal tracts of mammals and organs of crabs and the shellfish. The truth is that higher amounts of this toxin can be highly poisonous and dangerous. However, application of small and weaker doses of the toxin is effective in reducing facial fine lines and wrinkles. You will be shocked by the soaring number of celebs undergoing Botox as a way of maintaining their youthful-looking skin.

What is Botox used for?

Apart from the aesthetic use, Botox is also used in the treatment of other conditions affecting normal body functioning. Among the conditions include;

  • Cervical dystonia- this is a condition where the neck muscles contract involuntarily resulting in uncomfortable head-twisting. In many clinical trials to correct the abnormal posture and movement of the neck, Botox has been shown to help in reducing the effects of cervical dystonia effectively.
  • Chronic migraines– migraines are severe neurological conditions characterized by headaches of varying intensity. If you are suffering chronic migraine for at least 15 months a month, then Botox injections may come in handy to help in reducing the frequency of headaches. In 2010, the United States Food Administration approved Botox for treatment of chronic migraines since it proved effective in reducing frequency and severity of headaches suffered.
  • Lazy eye- this condition is usually caused by an imbalance in muscles liable for positioning the eye. A study evaluating the role of botulinum toxin in treating strabismic amblyopia concluded that the treatment is safe and effective in treating deep amblyopia in children. Botox injections were also proved to be beneficial and effective in correcting strabismus, a condition that sometimes causes amblyopia.
  • Hyperhidrosis- this is excessive sweating, even at low temperatures. Research to determine the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin in the treatment of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis found Botox to be safe and more effective compared to sympathectomy which is the typical treatment option many people opt for.
  • Muscle contractures– cerebral palsy among other neurological conditions may significantly affect your body’s normal functioning. Muscle contractions, for instance, may result in pulling of limbs towards the center. Botox injections are used in such a case to help relax the muscles and aid in the treatment of flexion contractures.
  • Eye twitching/ blepharospasm- this is an involuntary or abnormal twitching or blinking of the eyelids. There is a close association of this condition with basal gangling which is the part of the brain that controls muscles. Botulinum toxin A treatment will help you to get relieved from the contractures.
  • Bladder dysfunction– an overactive bladder may result in urinary incontinence, and Botox injections may come in handy to stop the condition.
How Botox works

The secret behind how Botox works is by paralyzing muscle activity around the injected area. For instance, injecting the contacted facial muscles, which result in wrinkles, helps to weaken the muscles and in turn reducing the wrinkles. According to a report by Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Botulinum toxin A prevents acetylcholine from being released by cholinergic nerve end plate resulting in paralysis of muscle activity. This, therefore, prevents the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract from the nerves.

How the procedure is done

A Botox procedure will take just a few minutes. In most cases, anesthesia is not required. Only fine needles used to inject Botox into the needed muscles. Minor discomfort is also likely but not something to worry about.

After getting Botox treatment, it may take roughly between seven and fourteen days for full effects to be realized. It is recommendable that you quit alcohol consumption at least a week before the procedure.  On the other hand, taking anti-inflammatory medications and aspirin is discouraged at least two weeks to the procedure. This is so to prevent and reduces cases of bruising.

How long a Botox injection lasts

Botox is not a one-time treatment since it lasts roughly 3-6 months before the muscles regain their contraction and wrinkles begin to reappear. After this period, you need to redo the process. The good thing, however, is that wrinkles become less and less severe with subsequent treatments because of muscle shrinkage over time.

Possible side effects of Botox treatments

In most cases, bruising is common after undergoing Botox treatment. There are, however, many other side effects associated with Botox treatment, especially when not performed correctly. Among them are;

  • Pain, redness, bruising, and swelling around the injected area
  • Flu-like symptoms and headaches
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Muscle stiffness, neck, and back pains
  • Increased sweating in other areas other than the armpits
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain
  • Tearing that results in eye dryness
  • Drooling or crooked smile

In the worst scenario where the effects of botulinum toxin A have to spread to other parts of the body the following side effects may be experienced;

  • Eyesight and vision problems
  • Muscle weakness across the entire body
  • Breathing problems
  • Problems when swallowing or speaking
  • Inability to have bladder control
  • Drainage or crusting from the eyes
  • Faster, slow and uneven heart rate

These effects are highly unlikely, but you must always be prepared for any eventuality before contacting your doctor who will then perform the procedure. This way, you will be in a position to know what you need to do in case of such symptoms.

Going about selecting the right doctor to perform Botox procedure

Choosing a wrong doctor can be disastrous to your overall health. Botox injections need to be carefully and precisely placed to avoid the possibility of the mentioned side effects. An excellent way to go about this is by getting referrals from your primary care doctor or finding one that is specialized and has experience administering Botox procedures.

When you are sure you are in the right hands, the skilled and experienced doctors will explain to you everything entailed in Botox treatments, possible side effects and advise if you are an ideal candidate for the procedure.

Preparing for the Botox procedure

Once you are done choosing the right doctor to undertake the process, it is essential to prepare to ensure the procedure is a success. First and foremost discuss everything concerning Botox procedure including opening up about the kind of medications you are currently taking such as allergy medications sleeping aids and muscle relaxants. This is important for the doctor to book you the right day to perform the procedure. For instance, if you are taking blood thinners, you will need to forgo them for several days before the day to prevent bruising and bleeding risks.

What to expect before, during and after the Botox procedure Before

Depending on your ability to tolerate the discomfort from the injection, talk to your doctor about skin numbing, especially if you are undergoing treatment for excessive sweating. In such cases, the doctor will use one or a combination of the available methods to numb the specific area before injections. Use of vibration anesthesia, topical anesthesia and ice are good options that help reduce the discomfort associated with Botox treatments.

During

Botox is all about injecting a minimal amount of botulinum toxin A into muscle or skin areas. Your doctor will determine how many injections are necessarily based on the size of the area to be treated among other factors. You will always have to visit your doctor’s office for this procedure.

After

The procedure has typically no apparent side effects that may hinder your daily activities. However, you should remain vigilant to ensure the treated area is not rubbed or massaged as this can result in a spread of the toxin to other areas around the treated area.

When should you expect results?

Botox treatment starts working a few days after the procedure is carried out. The effect of the treatment may then vary between three and six months depending on the particular problem being treated. Once the effect of Botox subsides, you will need to go for another procedure

Conclusion

Botox is undoubtedly one of the most common non-surgical cosmetic treatment attracting millions of people across the world. This is despite the fact that botulinum toxin is considered to be deadly. The procedure helps reduce wrinkles and facial lines by paralyzing muscles from contracting using a minimal amount of the toxin. Besides, this procedure may be used in treating migraines, overactive bladder, muscular disorders, Hemifacial spasms, crow’s feet, hyperhidrosis, and blepharospasm among other conditions.

Before going for the procedure, first, understand if you are an ideal candidate. Pregnant and breastfeeding women and individuals with neurological disorders are advised not to use Botox treatments. This brings you back to consulting with your doctor before making any decision.

The post How Does Botox Work? appeared first on Redorbit.

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As you may or may not have heard, Amazon Prime Day starts Monday, July 16, 2018, at 3:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time. What this means is that if you’re an Amazon Prime Member, you’re going to be treated to a barrage of deal offers for roughly 36 hours beginning Monday night, July 16, at 3:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time.

Think of it as Black Friday (or, Cyber Monday?) in July for Amazon Prime Members.

What is Amazon Prime Day?

Amazon started Prime Day in 2015 as a way to both reward members for being loyal and as a way to induce new members to sign up. As a Prime Member, you’ll get free 2-day shipping on every order, and access to Amazon’s shows like Bosch and Transparent. And if you’re worried about paying the $10.99/per month, you can sign up for the free 30-day trial and still take advantage of the Amazon Prime Day deals.

Amazon has made some items available in advance, so we know what they are. To get you started, we’ve pulled in a couple of things that we know will be available and that will interest our readers.

How can I know what is available?

Click here.

So how can I take advantage of all of this?

It’s easy. All you have to do is make sure you’re an Amazon Prime member and then log into Amazon.

Here are a few things that you might enjoy.

TP-Link Deco M9 Plus (2-pack) Home Tri-Band Mesh Wi-Fi System


Get true Whole Home Coverage with this mesh wi-fi system. It covers up to 4,500 sq. ft. with seamless, high-performance Wi-Fi and eliminate dead zones and buffering.

Seagate STGX1000400 Portable 1TB External Hard Drive USB 3.0


Never, ever run out of storage with this 1TB external hard drive. Backward compatible USB 2.o.

Squish Wireless Charger 7.5W for iPhone X/8/8 Plus and 10W for Samsung Galaxy S9/S9 Plus/Note 8/S8/S8 Plus



This wireless phone charger works on both iPhone 8 and above and Samsung Galaxy S9/S9 Plus/Note 8/S8/S8 Plus. If you’re a divided household this is perfect.

Detachable Sound Bar, TEWELL 37-in Wired and Wireless Bluetooth Soundbar for TV, PC, Smartphone


Kick out the jams with this Bluetooth soundbar from Tewell.

TicWatch Pro Bluetooth Smart Watch, Layered Display, NFC Payments, Google Assistant, Android Wear, Compatible with iOS and Android


This elegant smartwatch works with both iOS and Android. Stay healthy with these features: GPS tracker, heart-rate monitor, step counter, calories burned counter, speed & cadence monitor, sleep monitoring.

This is just a small taste of what will be available starting Monday, July 16, at 3:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time. Good luck shopping and thanks for being a loyal reader.

In the interest of full disclosure, redorbit.com gets a small percentage of each sale via the Amazon Affiliate Program. All revenue received through these affiliate deals is then reinvested into the site to create the content you know and love. 

The post Monday, July 16: Amazon Prime Day Kicks Off at 3:00 PM EDT appeared first on Redorbit.

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The Body Positive Movement arose out of a push-back against our society’s incredibly narrow view of beauty and health.

People are worthy of respect, period. Regardless of body size or weight, ability or disability, everyone’s body and being are worthwhile, deserving of love and respect. Love and respect doesn’t negate the dangers of being morbidly obese. Saying that losing weight is a sign of

doesn’t promote obesity as a healthy lifestyle, but for some people, taking on a positive self-image as a plus-sized person leads to a lowered sense of obesity’s health risks. The idea that a person can be healthy at any weight simply isn’t true. Obesity is time and again associated with coronary artery disease. It’s the number one factor associated with Type I diabetes and high blood pressure, and worsens arthritis and a host of other illnesses. It can also harm fertility. In some cases, it makes pre-existing conditions like these worse; other times, obesity causes the disorder. Obesity is a major health risk in the developed world and particularly in the United States.

Fat-shaming became a real problem in the US, leading to a massive push-back that involved an attempt at normalization of obesity. The idea that a person can be healthy at any weight gained credence in the Body Positive Movement, to the point that losing weight or adopting a different lifestyle came to be seen by some as a lack of positive body image or even self-loathing. An emphasis on accepting one’s body exactly like it was overtook the reality of obesity’s dangers for many.

The problem is, obesity is so highly correlated with disease and disorders, it’s causal in most cases. It’s just not possible to be obese and healthy. If a person is obese, any health condition they have will be worse. People can have good health indicators for a while

The post Is the Body Positive Movement (BPM) Contributing to Obesity? appeared first on Redorbit.

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Living with mental illness challenges people who have the strongest support systems and easy access to mental health professionals. Consider then the effects of living where there’s little to no professional mental healthcare. Rural areas throughout the nation lack psychiatrists, psychologists and therapists. Even though about a third of Americans suffers from psychological disorders, there’s still considerable stigma about it, and that stigma is much greater in rural America. Rural areas are accustomed to making due with what they have. It’s a set of social mores built on independence, yet independence in the face of crippling psychological problems morphs into isolation, which in turn cuts sufferers off from the very few social resources they might otherwise call on.

Yet depression and other psychological disorders remain at an all time high. Suicide rates are high in the USA, especially when compared to other industrialized nations. Stigma about mental illness continues to be problematic in rural areas, even though the need for help keeps rising. A study from 2014 found that there is fractionally more mental illness in rural areas than urban locations. The study had been instigated to see whether or not there was more mental illness in urban areas, which was the expected outcome. Instead, it found a small but significant increase in mental illness in rural areas.  People in rural areas are more vulnerable to the ravages of mental illness for a couple of significant reasons: a culture of independence, internalized to the point where people feel they should be able to handle their problems completely on their own, and lack of resources to help. Rural Americans labor under a powerful local social injunction against discussing one’s personal troubles with a stranger. There’s also a mistrust of therapists and psychiatrists.  As a result, people end up isolated with their problems, which makes mental illness far worse. Even if the societal taboo over opening up one’s personal afwasn’t there, around 65% of rural counties in the entire USA lack a psychiatrist.

Older Americans tend to suffer more from mental illness in non-urban areas. The self-imposed injunction against sharing very personal feelings with strangers is more powerful. Far fewer mental healthcare professionals are trained in the particulars of geriatric mental health. Fewer people coming to healthcare professionals ends up with fewer professionals moving into the area. The problems compound and are passed along.

Fixing these problems won’t be easy. Government cutbacks in public services have gutted community mental healthcare facilities across the country, and while more medical students are specializing in geriatric medicine, there’s been no appreciable rise in geropsychology practitioners.

The post Shortages of Mental Health Professionals in Rural Areas Make Mental Illness Worse appeared first on Redorbit.

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CBD oil (cannabidiol) is regularly touted as a panacea for all sorts of maladies, illness and disorders, but does it work and is it legal? The short answers are: for some disorders, it works to treat symptoms, and it’s legal—mostly. First, note that CBD oil isn’t part of medical marijuana. Medical marijuana relies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being present in medication. Put simply, THC isn’t CBD. CBD also isn’t cannabis oil. The names are similar and can lend to confusion, but the chemicals are different.

CBD oil is entirely non-intoxicating. Derived from parts of the hemp plant which contain no THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana, cannabidiol works to relieve inflammation and calm nerves that are over-reactive to pain signals. Within the brain and spine, CBD helps regulate complex chemical messengers that regulate the body’s pain-control system. THC, on the other hand, stimulates the release of the body’s own natural pain relievers. CBD oil has also been linked to lowered levels of anxiety.

Is It Legal?

The legality of CBD is a bit murky. It’s on Schedule I of the FDA’s Controlled Substance Act, but there have been few cases of prosecution of CBD oil use, although there have been a few (very few) raids on stores selling CBD oil in the past. However, just this month, the FDA approved Epidiolex, an anti-seizure medication, for the treatment of Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, rare and devastating forms of childhood epilepsy. CBD makes up the bulk of Epidiolex, in a highly refined and measured form, so the FDA will have no choice but to re-schedule CBD. Which tier of schedules CBD ends up on will determine its general legality. At the moment, CBD derived from hemp is legal in 50 states. There is, however, a caveat in 33 states: CBD oil must be derived from sources with less than .03 percent THC.

This month, the Senate passed its version of a farm bill through that legalizes products from hemp. Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell (R-KY) has championed the project, and although the emphasis has been on a multiplicity of products, the most likely outcome is the full legalization of CBD oil. Kentucky, home state of McConnell, is the second largest US producer of hemp, so the future of CBD availability looks bright.

Over a few more years, we can expect to see the best uses for CBD oil emerge from more studies. It’s likely that those areas already identified will top out the lists.

The post CBD Oil: Effectiveness and Legality appeared first on Redorbit.

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The eyes are some of the most delicate parts of the human body and are also considered an essential part of a healthy functioning life. Without optimal vision, it can be challenging to go about your daily activities, since we continuously depend on our vision to help us do our job, take care of our families, watch the road while driving and even for many entertaining activities, such as watching a movie.

Many conditions can affect the eyes and cause vision problems and other potential complications, especially when treatment is not administered quickly. In this post, we want to take a look at a stye, a particularly irritating condition that affects the edge of your eyelid. We will take a look at what causes a stye to develop, what symptoms may accompany a stye, and also provide a complete overview of how you can get rid of a stye quickly.

Is It A Stye Or Chalazion?

When a bump develops on the eyelids or another area surrounding the eyes, it is important first to determine what condition you have developed before proceeding with a treatment protocol. When a bump forms on the eyelid, then it may be either a stye or a chalazion. Knowing the difference between these two conditions is essential – even though the treatment protocol for these two conditions is similar, they do not heal at an equal rate. A stye is usually accompanied by pain, while a chalazion will not cause pain in the majority of cases. This is the primary difference between these two conditions. If you do find that you have a chalazion, then similar treatments can be used as when treating a stye, but the healing time for a chalazion is somewhat longer.

How A Stye Develops

Small oil glands are found on the eyelids, with the majority of these oil glands situated in the area where the eyelashes are found. These oil glands are exposed to a buildup of oils, as well as dirt and dead skin cells. When excessive amounts of these materials accumulate in the area, then it may cause these small oil glands to become clogged. When an oil gland found on the eyelid is blocked, then it creates the perfect environment for bacteria to grow. The growth of bacteria then causes swelling and the development of a stye.

Symptoms That A Stye May Cause

The most obvious symptom associated with a stye is a bump that develops on the eyelid. A stye usually develops on the outside of the eyelid and most often on edge. In addition to the bump that forms when a stye is present, it should be noted that other symptoms may also become present. Inflammation around the area where the bump presents itself is relatively common, and localized pain in the area may also accompany the bump.

Other symptoms that a stye may cause include:

  • Tear production may be increased
  • Some people may find that a crust develops around the affected eyelid
  • The eyelid that is affected by the stye may become itchy
  • Tenderness may also develop in the area that is affected
How To Get Rid Of A Stye

A stye can be genuinely uncomfortable and even become very painful in some cases. Even though a stye can usually clear up on its own within a couple of days, most people desire faster relief of the symptoms they are experiencing – and obviously, want the bump that has developed to go away faster. Luckily, many home remedies can be used to help speed up the recovery from a stye, reduce the inflammation and pain caused by the bump, and help to destroy the bacteria that has manifested within the blocked oil glands.

Let’s take a look at some of the most effective home remedies you can use to help you get rid of your stye quickly and easily.

Warm Compresses

One of the most useful home remedies and also the most cost-effective approach is to apply a warm compress to the stye. Use warm water to wet a cloth – make sure the cloth is clean. The water should not be boiling or too hot as this may cause you to burn the area where you will be applying the warm compress. You should apply the damp cloth to the area that is affected by the stye for up to 10 minutes. Be gentle and avoid pressing the cloth too hard on the area. The warm cloth will help the oil that is clogging the oil gland to dissolve and drain more easily. This method can be repeated up to four times per day and should ideally be utilized until the stye goes away.

It should be noted that, while a cloth is often considered an effective way to apply a warm compress to a stye, a warm teabag can also be used. You should add a teabag to boiling water and allow the tea to steep in the water for approximately one minute. Remove the teabag from the water and let it cool down a little – you do not want to burn the skin around your eyes. If both eyes are affected by the condition, you should not use the same teabag on both eyes.

Over-The-Counter Ointments

If a warm compress does not seem to work, then you should pay a visit to your local pharmacy. Different types of stye ointments can be purchased without a prescription – these ointments usually contain antibiotic properties that help to destroy the bacteria that is present in the stye. Only a small amount of these ointments should be applied to the affected area at a time, and you should try to avoid getting the ointment directly into your eyes.

Wash Your Eyelids

Washing your eyelids can also be an excellent way to help promote the drainage of the stye and to help flush out the bacteria that is causing the stye. You can either mix warm water with baby shampoo (choose a “tear-free” option) or choose to opt for a saline solution. Both of these can help to reduce irritation and discomfort, while also promoting the drainage of the stye.

Precautions

When treating a stye yourself at home, it is essential to take some precautions to ensure you do not make the condition become worse. No matter what you do, never try to squeeze or pop the stye. If you decide to pop the stye, it may cause the infection to spread and cause complications. This can make the healing time much longer and may even lead to complications that require medical treatment. If you prefer to have the stye drained, then you should consider making an appointment as doctors are able to drain a stye without causing the infection to spread.

Another necessary precaution that you need to take into account is to avoid wearing any type of makeup while the stye is present. Makeup can cause the eye and the stye to become irritated, which may not only cause the healing time to become delayed but may also lead to possible complications. If you wear contact lenses, then you should also consider switching to glasses until the stye goes away.

Preventing A Stye

Since a stye can be very discomforting, the good idea is to learn how you can prevent this condition from developing in the first place. We looked at the cause of a stye earlier in this post – it is the buildup of oils, dirt, dead skin cells, and other materials that cause oil glands in the eyelids to become blocked, leading to the growth of bacteria. By keeping your eyes clean, you can help to prevent these oil glands from becoming blocked. Washing your eyes out each day is one of the best ways to prevent a stye from developing – this will help to flush out any buildup of material and help to reduce the risk of your oil glands becoming clogged and bacteria growing inside of these glands.

When To See A Doctor

In some cases, it may be a better idea to see a doctor than to try home remedies when a stye seems to be persistent and more problematic than they commonly are. In particular, when pain is excessively severe, then it might be a good idea to rather make an appointment with a doctor to have a professional take a look at the stye. If a stye interferes with your vision, then it also calls for expert opinion by a doctor. Furthermore, if you treat the stye and it fails to go away after a few days, then you should also consult with your doctor.

Conclusion

A stye is a condition that can affect anyone. This condition can cause pain, inflammation and can quickly become a nuisance. Preventing a stye is the more effective approach as this will avoid the symptoms associated with the conditions in the first place. When a stye develops, knowing how to get rid of the stye quickly can help to provide fast and effective relief of symptoms such as inflammation and pain, and reduce the discomfort caused by the bump.

The post How To Get Rid Of A Stye appeared first on Redorbit.

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Home DNA testing has really hit the big time, with tests from companies like 23andme.com and ancestry.com flying off the virtual shelves. Many other brands are out there, each offering outcomes tailored to specific needs. People buy home DNA tests for two major reasons: genetic indicators of possible diseases that might strike later on in life, and genealogy, finding new relatives and geographical and national points of origin for those family connections. Genetic health is the more confusing of the two, as people often over-interpret the results and end up scared out of their wits.

What Home DNA Testing Can Tell Us

As recently as the last decade, gene sequencing was time-consuming, expensive (around $1000), and required a lab. Now, all it takes is a sample of the undifferentiated epithelial cells found in saliva and a few weeks. The need for several weeks is solely due to the time each sample has to wait in a processing queue. The tests come in kits that contain vials of reagents. People spit into the vials, then mail them to the manufacturer. After the gene tests are done, the recipient receives reports that focus on health indicators and genealogy. Some kits target health issues, while other home DNA tests are part of the trend called personal genomics. Personal genomics involves people learning as much as they can about their health as it’s “written” in their genetic codes. The goal is to identify possible disorders that might manifest themselves. Some kinds of predispositions to cancers are readily apparent in a person’s genes. A few kinds of dementia likewise can be found by gene testing. More and more disorders are discovered all the time, as over the last several decades, medical geneticists have learned a lot about what diseases are linked to genetic issues.

There’s some practical uses for DNA testing. Some disorders can be slowed down with early detection. There are several forms of dementia that respond to treatment in the early stages. Although there’s no cure, getting help early in the disease’s life cycle can give a person a better quality of life. However, a home DNA test is absolutely no substitute for a doctor’s consultation. Home DNA testing that reveals potential health issues should be taken with a grain of salt and some caution. After getting a scary result, that’s the time to contact a doctor and begin exploring the issue. The home test isn’t the end of your investigations, it’s the beginning.

DNA tests really shine when it comes to researching one’s ancestry. Everything from the origin of your ancestors to the races that have gone into making you who you are. In fact, most tests can show how much archaic DNA you have; that is, how many, if any, Neanderthal ancestors you have lurking in the distant past. Establishing kinship lines is absolutely crucial to genealogists, and the typical home DNA test kit really shines here.

The post Is Home DNA Testing Worthwhile? appeared first on Redorbit.

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Ketamine, a powerful anesthetic, holds promise for treating depression and other psychological maladies. Ketamine is also used as an illicit drug in the rave scene, known for producing euphoric, out of body experiences. Called “Special K,” it’s among the most commonly abused drugs. But it looks like it has a legitimate use as a depression-fighting medication. Ketamine works by blocking the action of the NMDA receptors, affecting the availability of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate is the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the human nervous system. Its actions affect 90% of all the connections in the brain.

SSRIs, the class of drug that includes Paxil, Prozac, Lexapro, Zoloft, and Celexa. The work well for about one-third of depression sufferers, moderately well for another third, and not at all for the final third of those diagnosed with depression. However, even when an SSRI works, it takes weeks for them to take effect. Two weeks at least, but four to six weeks is usually the time span needed for maximum benefit. That’s far, far too long for people with overwhelming suicidal thinking. For those at imminent risk of suicide, sometimes hospitalization in a behavioral health facility with round the clock supervision is the only way to stay alive. Costs for this kind of care can easily run around 1000 dollars a day, with insurance typically covering around 50% to 80% of the costs–but only up to the limit of the patient’s policy. It’s entirely possible for patients to leave a behavioral health hospital owing tens of thousands of dollars for stays over a couple of weeks. Even after such a lengthy hospitalization, there’s no guarantee that the anti-depressants won’t suddenly and catastrophically stop working.

Enter Ketamine

Johnson & Johnson is currently testing esketamine, a drug that’s highly similar to ketamine. Esketamine is in Phase III research trials, which will lead to approval or denial by the FDA. If approved, esketamine will be used to treat treatment-resistant depression. About one-third of depression suffers have hard to treat depression, depression that doesn’t respond well to medication. Allergan Pharmaceuticals is testing rapastinel, a related derivative of ketamine. Unlike SSRIs and other classes of antidepressants, ketamine starts working within hours or less. The effects of a single treatment can last up to a week, and daily dosing with lozenges and nasal spray is also in the works. Due to its swift action, ketamine would be a godsend for people at imminent risk of self-harm or suicide. It works rapidly and relieves depression so well that ideas of suicide subside and vanish for up to a week. Daily dosing ensures that the treated individual stays free of suicidal thinking.

Ketamine isn’t a miracle drug, and it’s no cure for depression. It will not eliminate suicide universally. However, it looks like it will be a lifesaver for thousands of people who every year find themselves in the deepest, darkest pits of depression. For those for whom suicide seems like a reasonable choice, prescription ketamine and its derivatives could be the difference between life and death.

The post Prescription Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression appeared first on Redorbit.

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The recent suicides of Kate Spade and Anthony Bourdain shocked the nation, but suicide is nothing new, and it’s becoming far more frequent. In the USA, suicide rates have been rising since 1999. At first, the uptick appeared to be a statistical anomaly. Now, it’s apparent that the increase is real and it’s large. The suicide rate overall has increased about one-third in the last 18 years. A 33% jump in less than 20 years is unprecedented and frightening. Suicide is up in 49 states, with the exception of Nevada, where rates have dropped 1% since 1999. Picking out a common thread in the search for relative causation isn’t easy, but some trends in demographics are clear: most suicides are white men. Around 84% of suicides are white; 77% are men. What’s particularly troublesome is that only half of all suicides come from people with known mental health issues. Half of the instances originate out of seemingly nowhere. Note also that suicide rates are underreported. Two factors drive the underreporting of suicide: the stigma of suicide, and the potential for financial loss. Suicide is the third largest killer of young people under 30, but white, middle-class males make up a large proportion of the climb in suicides. The reason for the increase is unclear.

Many Factors, Not Many Answers

Some problems recur in looking at the causes of suicide. People with severe, chronic pain have higher suicide rates, and chronic pain is on the rise. So is substance abuse, which also correlates to suicide rates above the national average. The opioid epidemic has led to a wave of suicide in people with addiction issues.  Chronic stress is a major psychological precursor to suicide. American life in the 21st century is synonymous with stress. Consider, too, military veterans. Suicide among vets has been rising for a decade, as the US has been mired in the Middle East since 2001. Suicide in veterans has outpaced even the national increase, reaching 35% over the prior high mark. In part, this is due to deaths by suicide of veterans who served post 9/11. Not all of those deaths are attributable to diagnosed PTSD. Many vets don’t carry that diagnosis, but still kill themselves.

There may be a particularly American factor that adds to suicidality: the pursuit of happiness.  Americans focus on high levels of happiness as a measure of personal worth, as strange as that may sound. Constantly judging whether or not we’re deliriously happy may lead to a sense of relentless disappointment, verging on hopelessness. There’s the idea that if we are not happy all the time, we are somehow doing something wrong, or are even failures at life. For people who are already living under a burden of high stress, feelings of worthlessness amplify misery.

The post US Suicide Rates Rocketing Up appeared first on Redorbit.

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