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As you can see yourself from the photos below, the visible transformation is massive at the PermaTree operation. It is clearly visible how the Soursop fruit trees have successfully grown. Actually we have pruned them else they would be even grown taller. And of course the Bamboo which is the fastest growing plant on the planet. However there is plenty of work left on site. As a result its a real boost to see how things grow from such a perspective.

The year 2019 started with heavy tropical rains – more than in the past years. Which is like everything, good and lets say also a additional challenge 🙂 When we started with PermaTree back in 2016 all of the farm was a cattle farm with pasture grass. Not only one pasture grass but something like 4 different types. We published a blog post not so long ago about Clearing zone-G for additional Fruit Tree PolyCultures.

Holistic Value Chain

Now that the Raw Material(s) are growing, we are starting to focus on the next steps in our holistic value chain … A holistic value chain integrates all actors into a transparent sequence from farmer to retail, consumer, balancing supply & demand and sharing profits fairly amongst all in proportion to their business risk.
Let us know if you want to be part of this!

Stay tuned 🙂

View: Bottom to Bamboo house 2017 – 2019 Comparision: 1 Apr 2017 vs 14 Feb 2019 = 22.5 month of time difference Birdview: Bamboo House 2018 – 2019 Comparision: 8 Feb 2018 vs 14 Feb 2019 =~ 360 days 1 year of time difference Additional Birdview Status
  • Top soursop plantation: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Full view soursop plantation: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Bottom soursop plantation: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Food forest and Soursop: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Side view: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Bottom view from flat part: PermaTree Status 14 Feb 2019
  • Birdview:..
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Just a few days ago (14. January 2019) we have been gifted with a box of endemic “Catana” (Scaptotrigona ederi Schwarz) also known as Meliponini or “stingless bees”. They are twice the size as the “Angelitas” (Tetragonisca angustula) Meliponini stingless bees which are all-ready on the farm since over 2 years now. When we first started the bee hives we got the classic Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) which have been introduced in Ecuador by europeans. So currently we have a total of 3 species on the farm. The Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) which have built their bee hive in two old wooden trunks. One Angelitas hive (Tetragonisca angustula) and now another Catana hive (Scaptotrigona ederi Schwarz). Our bet is on with the Meliponini as you can asume from a holistic point of view. The next years experience will teach us to see how they will impact our fruit trees and on which flowers they will thrive.

The Africanized honey bee was first introduced to Brazil in 1956 in an effort to increase honey production, but 26 swarms escaped quarantine in 1957. Since then, the species has spread throughout South America and arrived in North America in 1985.

Melipona

There are about aproximately 500 species of stingless bees belong to the Meliponini tribe, and these live in tropical and subtropical regions. These bees store honey in cerumen pots, therefore the term “pot-honey” was coined to differentiate them from honey produced in beeswax combs by Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) and other Apis spp. In Latin America stingless bee keeping is known as meliponiculture, the origin of the term is uncertain, and could be linked to the Melipona genus or to the subfamily Meliponini. The traditional stingless bee keeping or meliponiculture should be protected to prevent its extinction, and paradoxically, stingless bees should be protected from stingless bee keepers for a sustainable instead of predatory practice. Again more holistic worldview also for the Meliponini would really help. The decline of forest and plant species diversity, increase competition for food in large Melipona, and reduce pot-honey yields. Therefore, the traditional practice needs input from current knowledge on stingless bee keeping and environmental protection, to pinpoint an ultimate philosophy “caring gentle bees to protect forests”. As an indicator of the great biodiversity of stingles bees, 89 species of Meliponini are reported in the Southern region of Ecuador.

The temperature of 19 to 30 C, and altitudes between 80 and 900 m.o.s.l. are good for stingless bee life, indeed few species are currently kept. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera; Apidae; Meliponini) are a tropical group with more than 500 known species, and perhaps 100 more to be named. This great biodiversity is mostly represented by Neotropical Meliponini with almost 400 species group.

Catana (dark Scaptotrigona ederi) Meliponini

The dark Scaptotrigona ederi has variable defensive behavior, generally entangles in the hair and bites, therefore the use of the veil is advised for harvesting. But this behavior compared to the Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) is not a big deal. The Africanized bees tend to be extremely aggressive in our tropical climate and additionally tend to have issues with local natural flora food source. Most likely because they are not endemic to the continent and the flora. What bee keepers tend to do in the region of Zamora-Chinchipe is to keep them alive with a transparent plastic filled with sugar and water or sugarcane so that they can feed on that for energy. With the sugar those bees tend to be even more aggressive. Similar human-hack with the hummingbirds in touristic operations they tend to serve water with sugar to attract hummingbirds. Very few seem to think about the implications and the difference between sugar water and natural nectar… But logically the quality of the Africanized honey bees cannot be compared to the one of other colder climates where the bee can thrive on the surrounding flora. We have no own experience yet with the Catana (dark Scaptotrigona ederi) but all tends to show that the Meliponini have been around in the americas for much longer than the Africanized bees and thus the edndemic Meliponini can adapt and survive much better in our climate.

Although the oldest fossil of a bee in our planet is a stingless bee , and Precolumbian honey was produced only by stingless bees; pot-honey is not included in the national Ecuatorian honey regulations, as of 2019, because they are currently devoted to Apis mellifera which was a species introduced after the discovery of America.

Health Benefits of Meliponini honey

Ecuadorian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) have ethnomedicinal interest because their products are used in healing. Diverse remedies consist on pot-honey alone or mixed with infusions. This set of medicinal uses were informed in El Oro province by Ecuadorian stingless bee keepers -known as meliponicultors in Latin America: Bruises, tumors, ocular cataracts, pterygium, inflammation, infections, varicose veins, cleaning blood after childbirth, kidney diseases, tumor, wound healing, and soothing balm before sleeping.

Medicinal Uses of Melipona Stingless Bees

Pot-honey is widely used alone or mixed with medicinal plants to treat tumors, eyes (ocular cataracts, pterygium), inflammation, sour throat infections, blood (bruises, varicose veins, purifying blood, cleaning blood after childbirth), kidney diseases, wound healing, and soothing balm before sleeping. The most frequent medicinal use was related to blood in 27% of the reported uses.

However, whole body extracts of bees are used as anticancer and antibacterial agents, namely for their antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (Ratcliffe et al., 2011).

Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of honey vary according to the botanical and entomological (RodrĂ­guez-Malavaer et al., 2007) origin. The bioactive properties of honey are ascribed to specific factors such as the synergistic action of sugar and hydrogen peroxide for wound healing (Kwakman et al., 2010).

Further ongoing studies are of interest to identify the megabiodiversity of stingless bees in Ecuador, the traditional meliponiculture, and medicinal uses of pothoney as ancestral knowledge. Although these pot-honeys were produced and used before Columbus, they are not yet considered in the honey regulations (Vit, 2008). This joint effort besides the characterization of pot-honeys, and its inclusion in the honey standards of the INEN 1572 regulation (Vit et al., unpublished), using the Melipona favosa pot-honey model (Vit, 2013), would increase its current value in the market up to USD 27/kg, promote the study of its medicinal properties and praise the activity of meliponicultors. The role of honey is perceived therapeutic in 90% of multispecies medicinal recipes.

The ecological contribution of stingless bees as organisms is encapsulated in their pollinating service to about 50% of flowering plant species in the Neotropics (Biesmeijer, 1997) and Australia (Heard, 1999). The role of honey is perceived as therapeutic in 90% of multispecies medicinal recipes from Misiones, Argentina (Kujawsca, 2012).

Besides the nutritional, organoleptic and sanitary values of a medicinal food like honey, an enterprising concept on the quality of the agri-food systems –as reviewed by Monastra and Crisponi (2013), considers animal welfare and defence of the ecosystem, as practiced by stingless bee keepers in modern days.

Chemical Composition of Ecuadorian Commercial Pot-Honeys

Pot-honey produced by Trigona is the most different from Apis mellifera with free acidity some 12-20 times higher than the maximum of 40 meq/kg, double water content of the maximum 20 g/100 g, and a third of the minimum 65 g/100 g of reducing sugars. Pot-honey produced by Melipona and Scaptotrigona may fulfill Apis mellifera standards, with a slightly higher moisture up to 27.88 g/100 g and free acidity up to 76.77 g/100 g, but lower contents of reducing sugars (50.75-63.38) g/100 g. Sucrose content of pot-honey produced by Trigona, Melipona and Scaptotrigona is lower than 5 g/100 g in the Apis mellifera honey standards. Smell and aroma were more “floral” for Melipona, “citrusy” for Trigona and “pollen” for Scaptotrigona pot-honey.

Conclusion

Pot-honeys produced by Ecuadorian Trigona fuscipennis “abeja de tierra”, Melipona mimetica “bermejo” and Scaptotrigona ederi “catiana” where characterized, and suggested chemical quality standards were compared with those of Apis mellifera honey. Sensory analysis was useful to describe the diversity of entomological origin and also to assess the acceptance of pot-honey. Further data is needed to reduce the HMF standard, as is the case for the Melipona honey standard of the State of Bahia, Brazil, with a lower HMF limit, up to 10 mg/kg.

Bee fauna of some tropical and exotic fruits: potential pollinators and their conservation. Read full publication here

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So from a holistic perspective it makes sense to have flowers. The question is then obviously which flowers are endemic to our tropical climate (Excessive rain and sun) and which flowers have which uses. The more uses-cases a flower has, the better. Thats core permaculture philosophy.

One uses-case was, is the flower edible – can humans eat it? Is it medicinal? Does it attract special insects or birds? If yes how does this fauna interact with its environment? Depending on the flower color it will attract different fauna. Also depending on the scent of each flower this will also be attracting different fauna.

According to literature white flowers which have no scent are less attractive to overall fauna. We know in the case of the soursop tropical fruit flower that because of the flower being white and having no scent we would get only about 10% pollination naturally if we do not pollinate the flower manually or research for fauna which may help such as the endemic Melipona (stingless honey bees endemic to South America)…

Is it medicinal? Does it attract special insects or birds? If yes how does this fauna interact with its environment? Depending on the flower color it will attract different fauna. Also depending on the scent of each flower this will also be attracting different fauna. According to literature white flowers which have no scent are less attractive to overall fauna. We know in the case of the soursop tropical fruit flower that because of the flower being white and having no scent we would get only about 10% pollination naturally if we do not pollinate the flower manually or research for fauna which may help such as the endemic melipona (stingless honey bees endemic to South America)…

Interestingly many flowers or shrubs we knew from Europe in dwarf size grow really tall in the tropical region of Ecuador. Makes sense, being endemic to the tropical climate 🙂 Logically any life will thrive in its natural habitat.

So a general recommendation before choosing flowers you may want to have or plant in your garden is to research about the endemic flowers in your environment (Your region, your surroundings). (1) Research about your climate or in the USA your USDA Hardiness Zones (11 separate planting zones exist). (2) Plant seeds or divide existing plants and replanting the cutting. (3) Take care of your flowering plants.

Speaking of our biggest challenge at the PermaTree farm here in Ecuador was to get the seeds… Mission Impossible. Lots of local people like to focus on exotic flowers and trees here. Exotic in this case meaning non-tropical like for example Rose flowers and pine trees… Or the Eucaliptus tree which was introduced to Ecuador in the late 1800’s from the swamp regions of Australia. Nowadays its the dominant tree in the Loja and Sierra region of Ecuador and it can be invasive, taking over large tracts of land. It grows back like a weed from the same stump and seeds itself very easily. Eucalyptus leaves are highly acidic; damaging soils around their base for years after the tree is gone. They also have long shallow roots that suck up all the water surrounding the tree. So back to the seeds, we where able to find a few heliconias within the farm and a few neighboring farms but comparing to the Orchids very little people care about the Heliconias.

Now the below list is according to our own priorities and likings but from a holistic approach:

Heliconia (Heliconia spp.)
Heliconia

Heliconias are attractive tropical plants with banana-like leaves and beautiful, long lasting inflorescences composed of showy bracts which contain the true flowers. There is only one genus in this family (Heliconia), and between 200 and 250 species, native mostly to the Americas, but a few species are found in the South Pacific. They range from 0.5 to nearly 4.5 meters tall depending on the species. They also come in brilliant colors that last all year long; pink, red, yellow, green, white and orange. Now it is quite a popular trend among people that grow Heliconias to cut them and use them in a vase as decoration. If you choose to do this, remember to check their water level daily. Also you may need to cut their stems every two or three days, just to ensure effective water uptake.  Heliconias are an important food source for forest hummingbirds, especially the hermits (Phathornithinae), some of which – such as the rufous-breasted hermit (Glaucis hirsuta) – also use the plant for nesting. Although Heliconia are almost exclusively pollinated by hummingbirds, some bat pollination has been found to occur. Hummingbirds are the main pollinators of heliconia flowers in many locations. The concurrent diversification of hummingbird-pollinated taxa in the order Zingiberales and the hummingbird family (Trochilidae: Phaethorninae) starting 18 million years ago supports the idea that these radiations have influenced one another through evolutionary time. Specific species of Heliconia were found to have specific hummingbird pollinators. These hummingbirds can be organized into two different groups: hermits and non-hermits. Hermits are the subfamily Phaethornithinae, consisting of the genera Anopetia, Eutoxeres, Glaucis, Phaethornis, Ramphodon, and Threnetes. Non-hermits are a catch-all group of other hummingbirds that often visit heliconias, comprising several clades (McGuire 2008). Hermits are generally traplining foragers; that is, individuals visit a repeated circuit of high-reward flowers instead of holding fixed territories Non-hermits are territorial over their Heliconia clumps, causing greater self-pollination. Hermits tend to have long curved bills while non-hermits tend to possess short straight bills, a morphological difference that likely spurred the divergence of these groups in the Miocene era. Characteristics of Heliconia flowers that select for either hermit or non-hermit pollinator specificity are degree of self-compatibility, flowering phenology, nectar production, color, and shape of flower. The hummingbird itself will choose the plants its feeds from on the basis of its beak shape, its perch on the plant, and its territory choice. Hummingbird visits to the Heliconia flower do not affect its production of nectar. This may account for the flowers not having a consistent amount of nectar produced from flower to flower. Different Heliconia species have different flowering seasons. This suggests that the species compete for pollinators. Many species of Heliconia, even the newly colonized species, are visited by many different pollinators.

Bird of paradise flower (Strelitzia)
Bird of paradise flower (Strelitzia)

This flower is called bird of paradise flower, because of a resemblance of its flowers to birds-of-paradise. Propagation: They are pollinated by sunbirds, which use the spathe as a perch when visiting the flowers. The weight of the bird when standing on the spathe opens it to release the pollen onto the bird’s feet, which is then deposited on the next flower it visits. Strelitzia lack natural insect pollinators; in areas without sunbirds, plants in this genus generally need hand pollination in order to successfully set seed. By using birds rather than smaller insects to do the pollinating it means as the plant ages and gets bigger rather than the plant producing ever increasing numbers of the same sized flowers, as you find in many other houseplants, what you’ll notice is the blooms themselves tend to also get larger and larger. The flowers attract bees, which are important members of any garden. Sunbirds are known to drink the nectar out of the flowers. Propagation Very mature Bird of Paradise plants will produce offsets which can be cut free and potted up, although this can be difficult. Bird of Paradise seeds with a tuff of orange hair. A more convenient method is to try and grow new plants from seeds. Like the flowers in which they are created, they are quite something with their largish seeds that have a tuff of orange hair. Pull off the hair, pot up in soil and place in a warm place. Germination is often erratic and unreliable but you can increase your chances by nicking the outer seed coat a tiny bit. This will allow water to move deep into the seed to trigger the germination.

Hibiscus
Red Hibiscus

The name of this flower is derived from the Greek name (hibiskos). A tea made from hibiscus flowers is known by many names around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is known for its red color, tart flavor, and vitamin C content. Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish, usually for desserts. Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth. Although some types of hibiscus are hardy in northern climates, the most commonly grown are natives of tropical Asia (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis). Glossy, dark green leaves shine behind 6-inch flowers in shades of red, orange, yellow, coral, pink, blue-purple, and white. To keep hibiscus blooming, provide high light. Several hours of direct sun per day is best. Keep the soil evenly moist but not wet. Hibiscus flowers on new wood, so don’t prune or you will lose flower buds. To keep the plant more compact and attractive, prune it back in late winter. At the same time, root-prune and repot it in fresh soil. Hibiscus will shed its leaves when conditions change, but will quickly regenerate leaves on old stems. Plumeria species may be propagated easily by cutting leafless stem tips.

Plumeria (Plumeria sp.)
Plumeria rubra White

This flower is named after French botanist Charles Plumier, who explored New World tropics. The Plumeria is a flowering plant, most species are shrubs or small trees. The species variously are indigenous to Mexico, Central America, Hawaii and the Caribbean, and as far south as Brazil. Plumeria flowers are most fragrant at night in order to lure sphinx moths to pollinate them. The flowers yield no nectar, however, and simply trick their pollinators. The moths inadvertently pollinate them by transferring pollen from flower to flower in their fruitless search for nectar. Insects or human pollination can help create new varieties of plumeria. Plumeria trees from cross pollinated seeds may show characteristics of the mother tree or their flowers might just have a totally new look. Plumeria do best in full sun with at least a half day’s sun exposure to bloom properly.

Bromelia
Bromelia in tree branch

Some Bromelia grow on the ground, but most species are epiphytes living in trees. As often the leaves of Bromeliads wrap around their stems they may form small pools of rainwater. Some species can hold several gallons of water inaccessible to fishes. These tiny little pools provide safe conditions for aquatic fauna such as tadpoles of frogs and larvae of insects. Other critters include snails, beetles, mosquito larvae, etc. When they die, their bodies decay and function as fertilizers to the host plants. As Bromeliads are often colorful, they’re becoming more and more popular as ornamental plants. The most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae is the pineapple. The Ananas comosus is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapple.

Angel’s trumpet (Brugmansia and Datura selections)
Angel’s trumpet

Brugmansia selections offer trumpet-shape white, pink, peach, or yellow blooms that dangle downward. In a warm climate, angel’s trumpet can quickly grow several feet in just one season. Every part of the angel trumpet is highly poisonous, including the leaves, flowers, seeds and roots. All contain the toxic alkaloids scopolamine, atropine and hyoscyamine, which are widely synthesized into modern medicinal compounds but are deadly poisonous if used outside a doctor’s supervision. And if the plant has a fair amount of sun, it will produce blooms all summer long. Blooms are fragrant at night when its pollinators are active. Many Datura selections offer trumpet-shape, upward-facing flowers. Outdoors, grow both types in moist, well-drained soil in bright, indirect light. The plants are heavy feeders, so fertilize them regularly in spring and summer with a general-purpose fertilizer. Reduce water and fertilizer during fall and winter months. Beware: All parts are poisonous. The Angels trumpet is a plant we do see a lot in all of South America. During our exploration we have seen it in Samaipata, Bolivia as well as in Medellin, Colombia and its all over Ecuador. Angel trumpets attract many skipper moths, bees, and the scent even draws in..

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Since we work with volunteers all over the world at PermaTree we have learned that its key to be as clear as possible with everything. Starting from the volunteer information pack to how to co-exist. And to not expect anything from anybody. In the best case we will be positively surprised else no big deal either. Expect from some basic social norms which we want to share with you here and now. Those social norms seem obsolete nowadays but believe me when I tell you that its not clear to every PermaTree visitor / volunteer …

Once all the participants are aware of the basic social norms – communication is a level simpler. Its really a great tool within any organization IMHO.

The rules of coexistence are a set of social norms that are as important to follow for everyone, as teaching a child the alphabet or eating with cutlery … They are the norms that assure us to live in peace and harmony, avoiding discord. Good coexistence is based on teaching to understand and respect the rights of others and accept that there are obligations to fulfill, because without them, each would do what seemed most appropriate and we would fall into disharmony and respect for others.

  • If you arrive – Greet
  • If you are leaving – Say goodbye
  • If you don’t understand? – Ask
  • If someone speaks to you – Answer
  • If you get a favor – Thank for it
  • If you made a promise – Comply
  • If you offend – Apologize
  • If you have – Share
  • If you don’t have – Do not envy
  • If you make a mess – Clean
  • If you think different – Respect
  • If you love – Show it
  • If you don’t want to help – Don’t hinder
  • If you break something – Repair it
  • If you borrow – Give it back
  • If you turn something on – Turn it off
  • If you open – Close
Core Philosophy

Additionally to the above mentioned Basic Rules of Coexistence we have the PermaTree Core Philosophy – about the Holistic Eco-Centric approach which is based upon healthiness on the micro level, empathy and tolerance on the cultural level, and holistic cultivation and interconnectedness on the macro level. On the contrary a person who is not yet on a eco centric approach is much more focused on itself. It has the self for its center, the individual. And therefore is not yet having the mindset which enables think holistically. The ego-centric perspective is immature and adolescent, suffering from a plethora of insecurities, anxieties, and neurosis. Unfortunately, our society is grossly egocentric. Read more about Ego-centric VS Eco-centric

Last but not least we have defined the Three Key Pillars of PermaTree

  • 1. Appreciation (It means showing respect and understanding as well as gratitude. Organizations thrive on appreciation.)
  • 2. Commitment (Is the feeling of responsibility that a person has towards the mission and goals of an organization)
  • 3. Sociable (Willing to interact by exchanging experiences, ideas, brainstorming, asking questions, voicing your issues clearly)

The post Basic rules of coexistence appeared first on PermaTree.

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As of the 25th of December 2018 we have had the first 60 Soursop fruits which are growing and starting to ripe now. When we first planted 100 different fruit trees, back in 2016, the soursop stood out because of its rocket like growth. Compared to the citrus fruit trees all of the Annona (Soursop, Rollina) and Artocarpus (Jackfruit, Breadfruit) fruit trees have grown extremely faster within our tropical climate. Later on we learned from a CEDAMAZ study that the Annona Muricata fruit is endemic to our Valley of the Fireflies (Valle de las Luciérnagas) here in the Zamora-Chinchipe region of Ecuador.

Did you know that the English name, “soursop” is derived from the Dutch “zuurzak”? Which means “sour sack”. In the German language the Soursop is known as “Stachel-Annone”. “Guanábana” is the local name in Ecuador.

The Soursop is a extremely tasty tropical fruit. With an average Brix value of unconcentrated natural fruit juice of 17.2° (degrees) it is sweet. It has flavors that are a combination of: Strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavor notes that contrast with its creamy texture, which is similar to the flavors of coconut and banana.

Image: One of the very first Soursop (Annona muricata) fruit juice from the PermaTree Farm in Ecuador

Although the Soursop rind is quite bitter, the fruit’s flesh is soft, smooth and sweet. It provides healthy carbohydrates as its major nutrient. The soursop also contains a significant amount of vitamin C and several B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. Along with a high amount of alkaline forming calcium, an important mineral for bone health.

The white pulp segments of the soursop fruit (75.6%) are primarily seedless, although it has an average of 171 seeds (5%) per fruit. Bark and seeds are toxic and contain poisonous alkaloids such as anonaine, muricine, and hydrocyanic acid. The seeds are also used for medicinal purpose of killing certain parasites.

The edible white pulp can be eaten raw. But it is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings.

Mid December 2018 – one of the very first Giant Soursop tropical fruit ripening at the PermaTree Farm in Ecuador.
Not only the fruit is very healthy but also the Soursop Leafs are often used as medicinal herbs. Research program on Amazonian Fruit from CEDAMAZ
Image: From CEDAMAZ – The Spanish name of the Annona muricata is Guanábana. In our region of Zamora-Chinchipe it grows within the 800 to 1000 m.o.s.l. It can’t grow lower than 800 m.o.s.l because its the lowest part of the valley base where the river Zamora flows. You can read

Not so long ago found some interesting data from the Nacional University of Loja in Ecuador (Universidad Nacional de Loja). It stated that a few years ago the CEDAMAZ started a research program about Amazonian Fruit (FRUTAMAZ). To identify, characterize and propagate the most promising native fruit species. With a focus on high nutritional importance as an agricultural crop alternative for the region.

Within this research program, at the end of 2010, the CEDAMAZ had identified, 31 promising fruit species originating from different corners of the province of Zamora-Chinchipe. The main species are: Moriche/Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa), Sacha Cherimoya (Rollinia Mucosa), Breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis), Borojo (Borojoa Patinoi), Cacao Theobroma, Wild Cacao (Herrenia sp.), Camimito (Pouteria caimito), Peach Palm (Bactris Gasipaes), Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), Guaba (Inga sp.) and last Soursop (Annona Muricata).
Source: CEDAMAZ vol 2 (2012) PDF

Image: The soursop interior pulp as a base for smoothies, milkshakes, and other chilled drinks. You can also roast large sections of the pulp or eat it raw in cubes. Health Benefits of the Soursop (Annona Muricata)

Practitioners of herbal medicine in Asian, African and South American countries have used the bark, leaves, root, and fruits of the soursop tree. To treat infections with viruses or parasites, arthritis, depression, stomach ailments, fever, parasitic infections, hypertension and rheumatism. The Annona Muricata fruit is also used as a sedative. Read more about all the additional Healing Benefits of the Soursop.

Steep Hill Tropical Agroforestry Soursop Zones Image: Our Soursop plantation overview map. As you can see we have been organizing all the plantation in different zones. Between the soursop zones we have different food forest zones and lots Bamboo. As Ground cover we use Arachis pintoi – which is a great forage plant. Should help us in connection with the 15’000 Vetiver grasses matts we have planted within the access path to slowly improve the soil quality. Giant Soursop Fruits come in all shapes and sizes
  • Guanábana (Annona Muricata)
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In search of a sustainable way of life in harmony with nature, the two Swiss Citizens were interviewed by PonderingTime about their new life and their project PermaTree. PonderingTime Magazine Published on 12. January 2019 By Thomas Matterne – read the full article here

PonderingTime Trilingual International Online Magazine with stories beyond mainstream
PonderingTime.net (English), DenkZeit.net (German), PensaTiempo.net (Spanish)

Thank you PonderingTime Magazine for spreading the word about the ambitious PermaTree project in Ecuador and asking us questions to better understand our motivation and our goals with it. 

Holistic Collaborative Entrepreneurs

We are seeking to attract other pioneering individuals spirits, people who want to co-create and are able to put up with some discomfort for the joy of making pioneer transformation work in a remote but accessible organized holistic operation such as PermaTree. There so much more than only maximizing the net worth and increasing that by x annually. Holistic driven entrepreneurs can enable a huge global positive transformation shift – local and regional, economic, social, emotional, flora and fauna, etc.

Are you maybe a visionary; individual with an entrepreneurial spirit who believes, like we do, that it’s time to transition from a destructive society to a sustainable world? Be the change you want to see and join us at PermaTree!

We understand that the PonderingTime collective is such a international organization too and so if you know any great visionary individuals who are talented in writing, just drop them your idea and for sure they will be more than happy to publish your transformational beyond mainstream thoughts on their trilingual platform. Or if you believe who know somebody invite them to join or recommend them to take part into those exiting times we all live in, by adding their very own positive grain of change. We all need the planet to shift in a positive change and first but foremost the change has to come from within the individual, only then can he or she attempt to make a significant contribution to humanity.

Open Source Blueprint Library 

Our philosophy since the very early start at PermaTree is to first create and then make the blueprint-idea(s) freely available, so that any other organization can duplicate what we build here. Adapt it to their environment and take advantage from our learnings. We want to help to spread the holistic world view way of looking at our very own environment – meaning literally anything surrounding anything not only nature thus anything is interconnected with everything. We love the idea of Open source which is a term denoting that a “product” includes permission to use its source code, design documents, or content. Use of the term originated with software, but has expanded beyond the software sector to cover other open content and forms of open collaboration.

https://ponderingtime.net/permatree-sustainable-living-in-ecuador-with-educational-aspirations/

The post Permatree – Sustainable Living In Ecuador, With Educational Aspirations appeared first on PermaTree.

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We just finalized the clearing out or thinning of culms from our 2 years ago planted, over 400 bamboo plants. Bamboo is unconventional part of our tropical food forest at the PermaTree farm.

Pruning or trimming back bamboo can be used as a means for encouraging even more rapid growth.

The world record for the fastest growing plant belongs to certain species of the 45 genera of bamboo, which have been found to grow at up to 91 cm (35 in) per day or at a rate of 0.00003 km/h (0.00002 mph) (!)

All the bamboo plant needs to do, is fill the cell with (mostly) water, which bamboos, as members of the grass family, are very efficient at doing. The strategy of growth by elongation is common among grasses. Typically the roots don’t grow anymore than 50cm below the surface of the ground. Older, more established plants, usually at least 3 years in the ground, will grow faster than newly planted ones.

There are 2 methods for trimming clumping bamboo in order to encourage growth. The first is an annual trimming of older and dead culms, which allows the plant to conserve more energy for producing new shoots. Second, many bamboos require an annual pruning in order to look its best, which also serves the purpose of diverting the plant’s energy into producing more root growth and new shoots.

1) Lifecycle of the culm: As each individual culm goes through a 5– to 7-year lifecycle, culms are ideally allowed to reach this level of maturity prior to full capacity harvesting. The clearing out or thinning of culms, particularly older decaying culms, helps to ensure adequate light and resources for new growth. Well-maintained clumps may have a productivity three to four times that of an unharvested wild clump. Consistent with the lifecycle described above, bamboo is harvested from two to three years through to five to seven years, depending on the species.

2) Annual cycle: As all growth of new bamboo occurs during the wet season, disturbing the clump during this phase will potentially damage the upcoming crop. Also during this high-rainfall period, sap levels are at their highest, and then diminish towards the dry season. Picking immediately prior to the wet/growth season may also damage new shoots. Hence, harvesting is best a few months prior to the start of the wet season.

3) Daily cycle: During the height of the day, photosynthesis is at its peak, producing the highest levels of sugar in sap, making this the least ideal time of day to harvest. Many traditional practitioners believe the best time to harvest is at dawn or dusk on a waning moon.

 

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The current state (from March 2016 to December 2018) of all the photographed bio diverse fauna at finca PermaTree. Located in the southeastern region of Ecuador, alongside the Cóndor Cordillera at the edge of the Andes mountain range and the Amazon River Basin in Ecuador. More basic farm information about PermaTree – here / GPS coordinates of Finca PermaTree. Most used device to photograph the fauna where 1. Smartphones 2. Digital bridge cameras 3. Solar Trail Cameras –  so the quality may vary a lot.

Biodiversity’s Importance

All species are interconnected. They depend on one another. Forests provide homes for animals. Animals eat plants. The plants need healthy soil to grow. Fungi help decompose organisms to fertilize the soil. Bees and other insects carry pollen from one plant to another, which enables the plants to reproduce. With less biodiversity, these connections weaken and sometimes break, harming all the species in the ecosystem.

Monitoring Fauna Biodiversity at PermaTree

It’s going to be a working progress regarding all the correct English and Scientific naming, so we can use any one who is interested in helping out / contributing with their knowledge of fauna. We believe this is a key pillar as holistic permaculture farm to be monitoring our local environment and understand the occurring changes and if needed what actions we undertake to improve the status quo.

So far we have been able to identity –  Amphibians (Frog, Crab), Reptiles (Snakes, Lizards, Geckos, Iguana), Grasshoppers, Mantises (Praying Mantis), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and lost of birds (Parrot, Tucan, Hummingbirds, Woodpecker, etc), Spiders (Araneae), Scorpion, Dragon Fly, Caterpillars, Hymenoptera (Ants), Wasps, Flies and Bees, Moskitos, Mammals (Rabbit, Armadillo, Peccary, Agouti), more Insects, Beetles and Bugs.

Birds  Dwarf Blue-Headed Parrot (Pionus Sordidus)

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus)

 

Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus)

   

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PermaTree Blog by Ya Go - 2w ago

Have you ever wondered how rice is made respectively harvested? Read more to learn about this process and our learning.

This was the first rice harvesting at the farm – entire Thursday 20 September 2018. As you can see the harvest was done manually and believe me when I say it was hard work. We where six people doing the work…

The rice field was not huge in size but in effective work it was. You can see we managed to plant the rice in lines. This made the harvest easier than planting it randomly. On the left side you can see the Ginger and Turmeric bordering the rice.

First step was to cut the rice halms. The rice is cut halm by halm with a rounded type of knife with sharp-edged mussel.

This is the tool we used to cut the rice.

So this process took a few hours and as usual before and after midday the sun and the tropical heat are even stronger so we where sweating like in a Finnish sauna. But it got more extreme in the next step.

Next step was to build a tent like structure with transparent plastic. As you can see in the picture surrounding the rice and the tent is the soursop plantation.

Next step was to get the rice stem out of the rice halm by hitting it on the floor in a plastic tent so we would not loose any rice stems…

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