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European Journal of Surgical Oncology 2019 March 23 [Link]

Lurvink RJ, Villeneuve L, Govaerts K, de Hingh IHJT, Moran BJ, Deraco M, Van der Speeten K, Glehen O, Kepenekian V, Kusamura S

Abstract

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei (PMP) and Peritoneal Mesothelioma (PM) are both rare peritoneal malignancies. Currently, affected patients may be treated with Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy offering long-term survival or even cure in selected patients. However, many issues regarding the optimal treatment strategy are currently under debate. To aid physicians involved in the treatment of these patients in clinical decision making, the PSOGI executive committee proposed to create a consensus statement on PMP and PM. This manuscript describes the methodology of the consensus process. The Delphi technique is a reliable method for attaining consensus on a topic that lacks scientific evidence through multiple voting rounds which feeds back responses to the participants in between rounds. The GRADE system provides a structured framework for presenting and grading the available evidence. Separate questionnaires were created for PMP and PM and sent during two voting rounds to 80 and 38 experts, respectively. A consensus threshold of 51.0% was chosen. After the second round, consensus was reached on 92.9%-100.0% of the questions. The results were presented and discussed in the plenary session at the PSOGI 2018 international meeting in Paris. A third round for the remaining issues is currently in progress. In conclusion, using the Delphi technique and GRADE methodology, consensus was reached in many issues regarding the treatment of PM and PMP amongst an international panel of experts. 

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Journal of B.U.O.N 2019 January-February [Link]

Kyziridis D, Hristakis C, Kalakonas A, Vaikos D, Pallas N, Karamveri C, Kyriakopoulos V, Tentes AA

Abstract PURPOSE:

Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease that remains confined to the peritoneal surfaces for long. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the most effective treatment and complete cytoreduction is the most significant prognostic indicator of long-term survival. This study attempted to present the results of CRS in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma and identify the prognostic indicators of survival.

METHODS:

The files of patients with peritoneal mesothelioma were retrospectively reviewed. Morbidity, hospital mortality, recurrences, and the sites of recurrence were recorded. Survival and recurrence were correlated to performance status, age, extent of peritoneal dissemination, tumor grade, tumor volume, and completeness of cytoreduction.

RESULTS:

From 2005-2017, 29 patients underwent 33 cytoreductions for peritoneal mesothelioma. Hospital mortality and morbidity were 3% and 27.3% respectively. The median and 8-year survival were 66 and 62% months, respectively. The completeness of cytoreduction was the single prognostic indicator of survival, and the tumor grade the single prognostic indicator of recurrence.

CONCLUSION:

CRS combined with HIPEC is the therapeutic strategy that may provide long-term survival.

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Pathology Oncology Research 2019 April 2 [Link]

Oguh-Olayinka L, Agarwal V, Ranatunge D, Campbell A, Laufer S, Cawkwell L, Lind MJ

Abstract

Advanced malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has an extremely poor prognosis with limited chemotherapy options, therefore the identification of new therapeutic targets would aid in disease management. Arachidonic acid is metabolised by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. The lipoxygenase isoenzymes 5-LOX and 12-LOX have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine 5-LOX and 12-LOX protein expression in a large retrospective series of mesothelioma samples. Further to this, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of lipoxygenase pathway inhibitors were investigated in mesothelioma cells. Archival samples from 83 patients with MPM were examined by immunohistochemistry for expression of the 5-LOX and 12-LOX proteins. The MTS assay was used to assess cell viability following 72 h treatment with the lipoxygenase pathway inhibitors baicalein, licofelone, MK-886 and zileuton in the MPM cell lines NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452 and MSTO-211H. Positive 12-LOX protein expression was recorded in 69/83 (83%) and positive 5-LOX expression was observed in 56/77 (73%) of MPM tissue samples. Co-expression of 5-LOX with 12-LOX was seen in 46/78 (58%) of MPM samples. Positive expression of 5-LOX, 12-LOX and COX-2 proteins was identified in the NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452 and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines. Baicalein (12-LOX and 15-LOX inhibitor) was effective in 3/3 MPM cell lines at low concentrations with an IC50 range of 9.6 μM to 20.7 μM. We have demonstrated that the 5-LOX and 12-LOX proteins are expressed in a significant proportion of MPM samples (73% and 83% respectively) and may represent novel therapeutic targets in this disease. We have demonstrated that the inhibition of the LOX pathway using baicalein may be effective as a novel treatment for MPM, however further human pharmacokinetic studies are required in order to establish whether the concentration used in vitro is clinically achievable.

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International Journal of Oncology 2019 April 1 [Link]

Sato H, Soh J, Aoe K, Fujimoto N, Tanaka S, Namba K, Torigoe H, Shien K, Yamamoto H, Tomida S, Tao H, Okabe K, Kishimoto T, Toyooka S

Abstract

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy arising from the pleura that is difficult to diagnose, contributing to its dismal prognosis. Previously, we reported that the degree of microRNA (miR)‑34b/c methylation in circulating DNA is associated with the development of MPM. Herein, we present a newly developed droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)‑based assay for the detection of miR‑34b/c methylation in circulating DNA in patients with MPM. We originally prepared two probes within a short amplicon of 60 bp, designing one from the positive strand and the other from the complementary strand. The two probes functioned cooperatively, and our established assay detected DNA methylation accurately in the preliminary validation. We subsequently verified this assay using clinical samples. Serum samples from 35 cases of MPM, 29 cases of pleural plaque and 10 healthy volunteers were collected from 3 different institutions and used in this study. We divided the samples into 2 groups (group A, n=33; group B, n=41). A receiver‑operating characteristic curve analysis using the samples in group A determined the optimal cut‑off value for the diagnosis of MPM, with a sensitivity of 76.9% and a specificity of 90%. On the other hand, the use of the same criterion yielded a sensitivity of 59.1% and a specificity of 100% in group B, and corresponding values of 65.7 and 94.9% for the entire cohort, indicating a moderate sensitivity and a high specificity. In addition, when the analysis was focused on stage II or more advanced MPM, the sensitivity improved to 81.8%, suggesting the possibility that the methylated allele frequency in MPM may be associated with the stage of disease progression. On the whole, the findings of this study indicate that miR‑34b/c methylation in circulating DNA is a promising biomarker for the prediction of disease progression in patients with MPM.

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BMJ Case Reports 2019 March 31 [Link]

Muralidhar V, Raghav P, Das P, Goel A

Abstract

India is the largest consumer of asbestos in the world. There is no report from India of mesothelioma related to asbestos. The case is a 42-year-old man who died of pleural mesothelioma. He was exposed to asbestos domestically and from the environment since birth. Two of his close family members worked in a factory that used asbestos. The living quarter of the family was within the premises of the factory. Asbestos waste was strewn on the grounds surrounding the quarters. After decades of legal battles by workers and families exposed to asbestos, Indian courts have ordered remedial measures and compensation to people, who are exposed to asbestos at work and the environment. Mesothelioma, currently in epidemic proportions in the west where asbestos production was banned in the 1990s, could rise to alarming levels in the next decades in India if the legal remedial measures are not implemented soon.

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Respiratory Medicine Case Reports 2019 March 4 [Link]

Haygarth M, Zaw KK, Yachmenikova V, Pokorny AMJ, Kwong KK, Heraganahally SS

Abstract

Diffuse pulmonary metastasis secondary to primary peritoneal malignant mesothelioma is rarely reported in the literature. In this report we describe a 59-year-old Caucasian women with no known previous asbestos exposure presenting with bilateral diffuse pulmonary opacities in association with primary malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound guided abdominal and bronchoscopy, trans-bronchial lung biopsy. The biopsy demonstrated positive staining with AE1/3, CK7, CK5/6, WT1, calretinin and D2 40. The cells were negative for BerEP4, PAX8, CA125, ER, CD34, ERG, P63, P40, Melan A, Gata3 and mammaglobin. The morphology and immunohistochemical profile supported a diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma.

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Journal of Geriatric Oncology 2019 March 24 [Link]

Linton A, Blinman P, Kao S, van Zandwijk N

Abstract OBJECTIVE:

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer that primarily affects older adults. However this patient population is frequently under-represented in clinical studies. Therefore, we studied the impact of advancing age on treatment utilisation and clinical outcomes in an extensive series of minimally selected MPM patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients with MPM receiving compensation from the New South Wales (NSW) Dust Diseases Authority (2002-2009) were assessed. They were categorised by age (<70 years, 70-80 years or > 80 years) and chi-square testing was used to assess the relationship between clinical and demographic variables, age, treatment and overall survival (OS).

RESULTS:

We identified 910 patients; 41% were aged <70 years, 40% were aged 70-80 years, and 19% were aged >80 years old. Median OS decreased with increasing age: 13.5 months in <70 years, 9.5 months in 70-80 years and 7.1 months in >80 years as did chemotherapy use (66%, 35% and 8% respectively). Radical surgical intervention, adjuvant, and palliative radiotherapy were less frequently used with advanced age. A Kaplan Meier analysis revealed that there was a significant survival advantage (p < .001) for patients <70 and 70-80 years receiving chemotherapy (16.8 vs 7.0 months; 13.9 vs 5.8 months respectively), but not for patients >80 years.

CONCLUSION:

Advancing age group of NSW patients with MPM was associated with reduced treatment utilisation and a decline in OS. Prospective studies are warranted to verify if current treatment guidelines are relevant for the older adults with MPM.

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Journal of Clinical Oncology 2019 March 28 [Link]

Bayman N, Appel W, Ashcroft L, Baldwin DR, Bates A, Darlison L, Edwards JG, Ezhil V, Gilligan D, Hatton M, Jegannathen A, Mansy T, Peake MD, Pemberton L, Rintoul RC, Snee M, Ryder WD, Taylor P, Faivre-Finn C

Abstract PURPOSE:

Prophylactic irradiation to the chest wall after diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been a widespread practice across Europe, although the efficacy of this treatment is uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of prophylactic radiotherapy in reducing the incidence of chest wall metastases (CWM) after a procedure in MPM.

METHODS:

After undergoing a chest wall procedure, patients with MPM were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic radiotherapy (within 42 days of the procedure) or no radiotherapy. Open thoracotomies, needle biopsies, and indwelling pleural catheters were excluded. Prophylactic radiotherapy was delivered at a dose of 21 Gy in three fractions over three consecutive working days, using a single electron field adapted to maximize coverage of the tract from skin surface to pleura. The primary outcome was the incidence of CWM within 6 months from random assignment, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Stratification factors included epithelioid histology and intention to give chemotherapy.

RESULTS:

Between July 30, 2012, and December 12, 2015, 375 patients were recruited from 54 centers and randomly assigned to receive prophylactic radiotherapy (n = 186) or no prophylactic radiotherapy (n = 189). Participants were well matched at baseline. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of CWM at 6 months between the prophylactic radiotherapy and no radiotherapy groups (no. [%]: 6 [3.2] v 10 [5.3], respectively; odds ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.86; P = .44). Skin toxicity was the most common radiotherapy-related adverse event in the prophylactic radiotherapy group, with 96 patients (51.6%) receiving grade 1; 19 (10.2%), grade 2; and 1 (0.5%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0).

CONCLUSION:

There is no role for the routine use of prophylactic irradiation to chest wall procedure sites in patients with MPM.

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Strahlentherapie and Onkologie 2019 March 26 [Link]

Leitzen C, Wilhelm-Buchstab T, Stumpf S, Heimann M, Koch D, Schmeel C, Simon B, Vornholt S, Garbe S, Röhner F2, Schoroth F, Schild HH, Schüller H, Müdder T Abstract PURPOSE:

A planning study was performed for helical tomotherapy treatment. We evaluated the maximum achievable protection of organs at risk (OARs) in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleurectomy with simultaneous optimal target coverage.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The datasets of 13 patients were included. The applied dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was 50.4 Gy with single doses of 1.8 Gy per fraction. Presuming optimal target coverage, we evaluated the applied dose to the OARs with special regard to the contralateral lung.

RESULTS:

For left-(lsRT)/right(rsRT)-sided radiotherapy, target coverage for the PTV showed a D98 (mean) of 49.37/49.71 Gy (98.0%/98.6%) and a D2 (mean) of 54.19/54.61 Gy (107.5%/108.3%). The beam-on time was kept below 15 min. The achieved mean dose (D50) to the contralateral lung was kept below 4 Gy for lsRT and rsRT. With regard to the other organs at risk the applied doses were as follows: mean dose (lsRT): ipsilateral kidney (Dmean) 13.03 (5.32-22.18) Gy, contralateral kidney (Dmean) <2.0 Gy, heart (Dmean) 22.23 (13.57-27.72) Gy, spinal cord D1 <Gy; mean dose (rsRT): ipsilateral kidney (Dmean) 10.22 (6.30-18.04) Gy, contralateral kidney (Dmean) <2.1 Gy, heart (Dmean) 8.02 (6.0-10.38) Gy, spinal cord D1 <35.5 Gy.

CONCLUSION:

With helical tomotherapy, postoperative treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma after pleurectomy achieves good target coverage combined with simultaneous dose sparing to the (especially contralateral) OARs.

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Tumori 2019 March 27 [Link]

Grosso F, Croce A, Libener R, Mariani N, Pastormerlo M, Maconi A, Rinaudo C Abstract PURPOSE::

To assess whether asbestos fibers may be observed in liver tissue of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC) with environmental or working asbestos exposure.

METHODS::

Detection of fibers was performed directly on histologic sections of liver from 7 patients with CC using optical microscope and variable pressure scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (VP-SEM/EDS). All patients were from Casale Monferrato, Italy, a highly asbestos-polluted town. Due to ethical constraints, observers were blinded to patients’ clinical features.

RESULTS::

Fibers/bundles of fibers of chrysotile were detected in 5 out of 7 patients (71%). The boundary between healthy and neoplastic tissue or the fibrocollagen tissue produced by the neoplasia were identified as areas of fiber incorporation.

CONCLUSIONS::

This study is the first report about the detection of chrysotile asbestos fibers in the liver of patients with CC. Further studies on larger cohorts are needed to corroborate our preliminary findings.

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