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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Will the Machine Like Your Image?Automatic Assessment of Beauty in Images with Machine Learning Techniques †

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4030034

Authors: Matteo Bodini

Although the concept of image quality has been a subject of study for the image processing community for more than forty years (where, with the term “quality”, we are referring to the accuracy with which an image processing system captures, processes, stores, compresses, transmits, and displays the signals that compose an image), notions related to aesthetics of photographs and images have only appeared for about ten years within the community. Studies devoted to aesthetics of images are multiplying today, taking advantage of the latest machine learning techniques and mostly due to the proliferation of huge communities and websites, specialized in digital photography sharing and archiving, such as Flickr, Imgur, DeviantArt, and Instagram. In this review, we examine the latest advances of computer methods that aim at computationally distinguishing high-quality from low-quality photos and images, relying on machine learning techniques. The paper is organized as follows: First, we introduce many approaches to aesthetics, studied in philosophy, neurobiology, experimental psychology, and sociology, to see what lighting they propose to researchers. Such points of view let us explain the weakness of the current consensus on the difficult aesthetics problem and the importance of the ongoing debates on it. Then, we analyze the work done in the community of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence on the task of automatic aesthetic assessment, and we both compare and critically examine the presented results. Finally, we describe many issues that have not been addressed, and starting from these, we outline some possible future directions.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 33: Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic System by Using Fuzzy Neural Network

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4030033

Authors: Waleed I. Hameed Ameer L. Saleh Baha A. Sawadi Yasir I. A. Al-Yasir Raed A. Abd-Alhameed

The electrical energy from the sun can be extracted using solar photovoltaic (PV) modules. This energy can be maximized if the connected load resistance matches that of the PV panel. In search of the optimum matching between the PV and the load resistance, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique offers considerable potential. This paper aims to show how the modelling process of an efficient PV system with a DC load can be achieved using a fuzzy neural network (FNN) controller. This is applied via an innovative methodology, which senses the irradiance and temperature of the PV panel and produces an optimal value of duty ration for the boost converter to obtain the MPPT. The coefficients of this controller have been refined based upon previous data sets using the irradiance and temperature. A gradient descent algorithm is employed to improve the parameters of the FNN controller to achieve an optimal response. The validity of the PV system using the MPPT technique based on the FNN controller is further demonstrated via a series of experimental tests at different ambient conditions. The simulation results show how the MPPT technique based on the FNN controller is more effective in maintaining the optimal power values compared with conventional techniques.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 32: Statistical Analysis of the Mathematical Model of Entropy Generation of Magnetized Nanofluid

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020032

Authors: Munawwar Ali Abbas Ibrahim Hussain

This investigation introduces a mathematical model of entropy generation for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic wave of nanofluid. The governing equations have been created by the supposition of low Reynolds number and long wavelength estimation. The scientific arrangement has been procured with the help of perturbation technique. The concentration profile, temperature profile, pressure distribution and friction forces are shown graphically for some important parameters. Further, the eventual outcomes of connection between the entropy generation and some various parameters have been plotted by means of correlation and regression. It is fundamental to find the affectability of each parameter on entropy generation.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 31: Prediction of Heat Transfer during Condensation in Non-Circular Channels

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020031

Authors: Mirza M. Shah

It is desirable to know whether correlations for condensation in round tubes can be used for non-circular channels. To investigate this matter, a number of well-known correlations for mini and macro channels as well as some for flattened channels were compared to a database for condensation in non-circular channels. Data included square, rectangular, triangular, semi-circular, drum, N, and W shaped channels as well as flattened tubes. The data included 15 fluids, hydraulic diameter 0.067 to 1.46 mm, aspect ratio 0.14 to 7, reduced pressure 0.045 to 0.77, and mass flux from 48 to 1000 kgm−2s−1. None of the correlations worked well for flattened tubes. Data for all other shapes were best predicted by the Shah correlation with mean absolute deviation of 20.1% with 1120 data points from 22 sources. None of the other correlations was found satisfactory over the entire range.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Adaptive Control Synchronization of a Novel Memristive Chaotic System for Secure Communication Applications

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020030

Authors: Zain-Aldeen S. A. Rahman Hayder A. A. Al-Kashoash Saif Muneam Ramadhan Yasir I. A. Al-Yasir

In this paper, a new memristive chaotic system is designed, analyzed, tested, and proposed. An adaptive control synchronization mechanism for both master and slave chaotic systems is also designed. The adaptive control law of this mechanism is derived based on the Lyapunov theory. A single parameter in the slave system has been assumed to be unknown. As the parameters of the master and slave are asymptotically matched, the unknown slave parameters will be identified according to the master’s parameters. The proposed system is used in a secure communication system. The achieved results prove a simple system implementation with a high security of data transmission.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Therapeutic Potential of Iridoid Derivatives: Patent Review

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020029

Authors: Hussain Green Saleem Raza Nazir

Iridoids belong to a family of monoterpenoids comprising the cyclopentan[c]-pyran system; this class of compounds offers a wide range of biological effects, namely antileishmanial, anticancer, antiplasmodial, and anti-inflammatory potency. To date, a large number of biologically active iridoid derivatives have been reported from various plant families, including Rubiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Verbenaceae. Furthermore, iridoids have the potential to form conjugates with other anticancer, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, and antimalarial drugs which synergistically have the potential to increase their effects. Additionally, future research should focus on the synthesis of halo analogs as well as preparing homo dimers or heterodimers of iridoids, since these might quite conceivably possess an increased bioactivity.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Thermodynamics of Manufacturing Processes—The Workpiece and the Machinery

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020028

Authors: Jude A. Osara

Considered the world’s largest industry, manufacturing transforms billions of raw materials into useful products. Like all real processes and systems, manufacturing processes and equipment are subject to the first and second laws of thermodynamics and can be modeled via thermodynamic formulations. This article presents a simple thermodynamic model of a manufacturing sub-process or task, assuming multiple tasks make up the entire process. For example, to manufacture a machined component such as an aluminum gear, tasks include cutting the original shaft into gear blanks of desired dimensions, machining the gear teeth, surfacing, etc. The formulations presented here, assessing the workpiece and the machinery via entropy generation, apply to hand-crafting. However, consistent isolation and measurement of human energy changes due to food intake and work output alone pose a significant challenge; hence, this discussion focuses on standardized product-forming processes typically via machine fabrication.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Control of Distributed Generators and Direct Harmonic Voltage Controlled Active Power Filters for Accurate Current Sharing and Power Quality Improvement in Islanded Microgrids

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020027

Authors: Hafiz Mudassir Munir Rami Ghannam Hong Li Talha Younas Noorbakhsh Amiri Golilarz Mannan Hassan Abubakar Siddique

Harmonics are regarded as one of the main challenges in a microgrid. This issue may even get worse when different distributed generators (DGs) work together to solve the load sharing problems due to mismatched feeder impedances and diversified DG ratings. Even though load sharing can be achieved, the microgrid suffers from voltage unbalance and total harmonic distortion (THD) issues at the output of DG terminals as well as at the point of common coupling (PCC). Thus, in this paper, the power quality improving method is discussed, with a target of load sharing under the hierarchical control of different DG units and an active power filter (APF) in microgrids. To achieve this objective, we propose integrating a direct harmonic voltage controlled APF with DGs to improve their harmonic compensation performance. This proposed control scheme has many advantages over conventional control using a shunt resistive active power filter (R-APF) with voltage controlled DGs. First, based on the existing THD level of the PCC voltage, the proposed scheme provides improved voltage compensation and reduction in THD in the islanded microgrid. Secondly, equal load sharing can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, the proposed scheme provides better performance and a seamless interface as the proposed study mainly contains both the voltage controlled DGs and the local based voltage detection APF.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 26: Design of a Smart Bartender with Peristaltic Pumps

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020026

Authors: Rybin Karimov Sigaeva Solomevich Kolev Kopets

In this paper, the development of a smart scalable system for liquid supply based on high-precision peristaltic pumps is described. The architecture of software and hardware for the proposed system is considered. This liquid supply system can be used for mixed and layered cocktail preparation in public catering establishments, such as bars, as well as for home use. Due to the flexibility and scalability of the system, it is possible to apply it in various branches of human activity, where fine dosing of liquids is required, e.g., for beverage mixing, cooking, health and medical applications. By using open architecture and software, this system can be built in a smart home environment. The cross-platform control software and an embedded Bluetooth module allow using the developed setup in various use case scenarios. The result of the project is a DIY-kit, capable of mixing 6 to 32 different liquids in specified proportions and the programmable sequence.

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Inventions, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Smart Integration of a DC Microgrid: Enhancing the Power Quality Management of the Neighborhood Low-Voltage Distribution Network

Inventions doi: 10.3390/inventions4020025

Authors: Ahmed F. Ebrahim Ahmed A. Saad Osama Mohammed

The fast development of the residential sector regarding the additional integration of renewable distributed energy sources and the modern expansion usage of essential DC electrical equipment may cause severe power quality problems. For example, the integration of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) may cause unbalance, and voltage fluctuation, which can add constraints for further PV integrations to the network, and the deployment of DC native loads with their nonlinear behavior adds harmonics to the network. This paper demonstrates the smart integration of a DC microgrid to the neighborhood low-voltage distribution network (NLVDN). The DC microgrid is connected to the NLVDN through a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), in which the VSI works as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). Unlike previous STATCOM work in the literature, the proposed controller of the VSI of the DC smart building allows for many functions: (a) it enables bidirectional active/reactive power flow between the DC building and the AC grid at point of common coupling (PCC); (b) it compensates for the legacy unbalance in the distribution network, providing harmonics elimination and power factor correction capability at PCC; and (c) it provides voltage support at PCC. The proposed controller was validated by Matlab/Simulink and by experimental implementation at the lab.

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