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Canine Influenza FAQ

Q: What is canine influenza?
A: Canine influenza, is a very contagious respiratory infection of dogs that is caused by an influenza A virus they are identified by H3N8 and H3N2. There are two clinical syndromes in dogs – mild and severe. Mild — Dogs will have a soft, moist cough that persists for 10 to 30 days. Lethargy, reduced appetite,] fever, sneezing and discharge from the eyes and/or nose are other possible symptoms. Some dogs may have a dry cough similar to “a kennel cough” which is caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica/parainfluenza virus complex. Thick nasal discharge may appear as well; this is caused by a secondary bacterial infection

Severe —With the severe form of canine influenza develop high and show signs of pneumonia, such as increased respiratory rates and effort.

Q: Are all dogs at risk of getting canine influenza?
A: Because this a developing disease most dogs haven’t been exposed to it before. Therefore, almost all dogs lack immunity to it. Nearly all dogs exposed to the virus become infected, 80% show clinical signs. A dog’s lifestyle will determine the likelihood of being exposed. Those who are regularly around other dogs (boarding, daycare, grooming, dog park) are at a higher risk. Additional precautions need to be taken with puppies, pregnant dogs, seniors and immunocompromised dogs.

Q: Do dogs die from canine influenza?
A: Fatalities have been reported, but the fatality rate is less than 10%

Q: How widespread is the disease in Ontario?
A: The first two cluster outbreaks were in the Windsor-Essex area. They were relatively small and have been contained; the recent, ongoing central Ontario cluster is more extensive and more widespread. Cases have also been confirmed in Bracebridge, Gravenhurst and Orillia.

Q: How does a dog contract canine influenza.
A: It can be spread by direct contact with respiratory secretions from an infected dog like those that are emitted when a dog is barking, coughing, sneezing) and by contact with contaminated inanimate objects like clothing, shoes, equipment.

Q: Is there a vaccine?
A: Yes. It is considered a “lifestyle” vaccine, which means vaccinating a dog again this is based on the dog’s risk of exposure. Please consult with your veterinarian to determine whether vaccination is needed.

Q: How is a dog with canine influenza treated?
A: The dog should be isolated, and as with many other viral diseases, treatment is mostly supportive. Then the actual course of treatment depends on the pet’s condition and symptoms

Q: Is canine influenza virus transmissible from dogs to humans?
A: To date, there is no evidence of transmission of canine influenza virus from dogs to people.

Q: Is canine influenza virus transmissible from dogs to cats, horses or other animal species?
A: To date, there is no evidence of the spread of H3N8 canine influenza from dogs to other animal species. The H3N2 strain has been reported to infect cats, and there is some evidence that guinea pigs and ferrets can become infected.

Q: Do I need to be concerned about putting my dog in daycare or boarding it at a kennel?
A: If you suspect your dog is ill, immediately contact your veterinary and any playgroups or kennels they attend. Any situation that brings multiple dogs together there is an increased risk of spread of illnesses. Ensure the kennel practices proper infection control and are correctly disinfecting the environment regularly.

Q: My dog has a cough…what should I do?
A: Consult your veterinarian. Coughing can be caused an array of medical problems, and exam performed by a veterinarian can evaluate your dog and recommend appropriate testing and treatment.

Resources:

1. https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2018/03/articles/animals/dogs/canine-flu- update-ontario-canada/

2. https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/FAQs/Pages/Control-of- Canine-Influenza- in-Dogs.aspx

Written by Kaitlyn S

The post Canine Influenza appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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How does my dog acquire Lyme disease?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria resides in the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis which can be found in southern Ontario. If a dog is bitten by a deer tick larva, nymph or adult that is carrying this bacteria the dog can contract Lyme disease. The tick must remain attached for 24 hours to transmit the bacteria.

What symptoms does Lyme disease cause?

Many dogs have no symptoms at all. Some dogs experience the symptoms listed below:

  • Intermittent lameness
  • Fever
  • Anorexia
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Painful and/or swollen joints
  • Kidney failure

How is Lyme disease diagnosed?

  • One month after a tick bite, a blood test can be performed to look for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi

If the above test is positive, additional tests will be required.

To treat or not to treat?

Due to many dogs having positive antibody tests but having no symptoms the topic of treatment is controversial.

Treatment is recommended if your dog has any of the following:

  • history of symptoms signs of illness
  • evidence of kidney damage

The recommended treatment is with an antibiotic called doxycycline. This is given for one month or longer if kidney damage is confirmed.

Can I catch Lyme disease from my dog?

No, but pets may bring infected ticks into the household which can attach to a human causing them to become infected. Humans often develop a rash, flu-like symptoms and later develop joint pains. In a small percentage of people neurological and heart-related symptoms occur.

How can I prevent Lyme disease?

  • Reduce your families risk of picking up a tick by avoiding leaf litter, staying on trails, wearing protective clothing, wearing deet and keeping dogs on leash. Always check your dog for ticks after you have been for a walk and remove any that are found.
  • Put your pet on an oral or topical tick preventive during the year when the temperature is above 4 degrees Celsius.
  • 3. +/- Lyme vaccination depending on your dog’s risk level

Written by Dr. Cara Page, DVM

The post All About Lyme Disease appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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How does my dog acquire Lyme disease?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria resides in the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis which can be found in southern Ontario. If a dog is bitten by a deer tick larva, nymph or adult that is carrying this bacteria the dog can contract Lyme disease. The tick must remain attached for 24 hours to transmit the bacteria.

What symptoms does Lyme disease cause?

Many dogs have no symptoms at all. Some dogs experience the symptoms listed below:

  • Intermittent lameness
  • Fever
  • Anorexia
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Painful and/or swollen joints
  • Kidney failure

How is Lyme disease diagnosed?

  • One month after a tick bite, a blood test can be performed to look for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi

If the above test is positive, additional tests will be required.

To treat or not to treat?

Due to many dogs having positive antibody tests but having no symptoms the topic of treatment is controversial.

Treatment is recommended if your dog has any of the following:

  • history of symptoms signs of illness
  • evidence of kidney damage

The recommended treatment is with an antibiotic called doxycycline. This is given for one month or longer if kidney damage is confirmed.

Can I catch Lyme disease from my dog?

No, but pets may bring infected ticks into the household which can attach to a human causing them to become infected. Humans often develop a rash, flu-like symptoms and later develop joint pains. In a small percentage of people neurological and heart-related symptoms occur.

How can I prevent Lyme disease?

  • Reduce your families risk of picking up a tick by avoiding leaf litter, staying on trails, wearing
    protective clothing, wearing deet and keeping dogs on
    leash. Always check your dog for ticks after you have
    been for a walk and remove any that are found.
  • Put your pet on an oral or topical tick preventive during
    the year when the temperature is above 4 degrees
    Celsius.
  • 3. +/- Lyme vaccination depending on your dog’s risk level

Written by: Dr. Cara Page, DVM

The post All About Lyme Disease appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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Spring is HERE! With sunshine, flowers and warm weather comes a lurking danger in the grass and woods. Ticks are everywhere now and your pet is an easy target for these little critters.

Ticks are out on days where the temperature is 4 degrees and warmer. Knowing that ticks are out and about; it is always a good idea to prepare your self for if and when your pet gets bitten.

Unfortunately, there are many sources online that will tell you how to remove a tick but these are not always trustworthy.

Here are some things you should avoid doing:

  • Burning the tick with a match
  • This will not help your situation, and you could injure your pet.
  • Trying to smother the tick with petroleum jelly or nail polish.
  • The goal is to get the tick off as soon as possible. The longer the tick is feeding, the higher chance your pet has of contracting Lyme Disease.
  • Using petroleum jelly and nail polish could make the tick stay attached longer. This is a myth that it will suffocate the tick.
  • Pouring rubbing alcohol on the tick.
  • Again, this will not kill the tick.
  • Do not twist the tick as you could pop their little heads off and the head in your pet.

There is only one right way to remove a tick. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention says:

  1. Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin’s surface as possible.
  2. Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Don’t twist or jerk the tick; this can cause the mouth- parts to break off and remain in the skin. If this happens, remove the mouth-parts with tweezers. If you are unable to remove the mouth easily with clean tweezers, leave it alone and let the skin heal.

After the tick has been removed:

  • After removing the tick, thoroughly clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water.
  • Dispose of a live tick by submerging it in alcohol, placing it in a sealed bag/container, wrapping it tightly in tape, or flushing it down the toilet. Never crush a tick with your fingers.
  • If you are having problems removing a tick on your own you can always see us, and we will assist you in removing the tick for a small fee. We also have tick twisters available to help you in eliminating ticks at home.

Written by Sam Miller

The post Safely Removing Ticks from Your Pet appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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How does my dog acquire Lyme disease?

Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacteria resides in the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis which can be found in southern Ontario. If a dog is bitten by a deer tick larva, nymph or adult that is carrying this bacteria the dog can contract Lyme disease. The tick must remain attached for 24 hours to transmit the bacteria.

What symptoms does Lyme disease cause?

Many dogs have no symptoms at all. Some dogs experience the symptoms listed below:

  • Intermittent lameness
  • Fever
  • Anorexia
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Painful and/or swollen joints
  • Kidney failure

How is Lyme disease diagnosed?

  • One month after a tick bite, a blood test can be performed to look for antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi

If the above test is positive, additional tests will be required.

To treat or not to treat?

Due to many dogs having positive antibody tests but having no symptoms the topic of treatment is controversial.

Treatment is recommended if your dog has any of the following:

  • history of symptoms signs of illness
  • evidence of kidney damage

The recommended treatment is with an antibiotic called doxycycline. This is given for one month or longer if kidney damage is confirmed.

Can I catch Lyme disease from my dog?

No, but pets may bring infected ticks into the household which can attach to a human causing them to become infected. Humans often develop a rash, flu-like symptoms and later develop joint pains. In a small percentage of people neurological and heart-related symptoms occur.

How can I prevent Lyme disease?

  • Reduce your families risk of picking up a tick by avoiding leaf litter, staying on trails, wearing
    protective clothing, wearing deet and keeping dogs on
    leash. Always check your dog for ticks after you have
    been for a walk and remove any that are found.
  • Put your pet on an oral or topical tick preventive during
    the year when the temperature is above 4 degrees
    Celsius.
  • 3. +/- Lyme vaccination depending on your dog’s risk level

Written by: Dr. Cara Page, DVM

The post All About Lyme Disease appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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Canine Influenza FAQ

Q: What is canine influenza?
A: Canine influenza, is a very contagious respiratory infection of dogs that is caused by an influenza A virus they are identified by H3N8 and H3N2. There are two clinical syndromes in dogs – mild and severe. Mild — Dogs will have a soft, moist cough that persists for 10 to 30 days. Lethargy, reduced appetite,] fever, sneezing and discharge from the eyes and/or nose are other possible symptoms. Some dogs may have a dry cough similar to “a kennel cough” which is caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica/parainfluenza virus complex. A thick nasal discharge may appear as well, this is caused by a secondary bacterial infection

Severe —With the severe form of canine influenza develop high and show signs of pneumonia, such as increased respiratory rates and effort.

Q: Are all dogs at risk of getting canine influenza?
A: Because this a developing disease most dogs haven’t been exposed to it before. Therefore, almost all dogs lack immunity to it. Almost all dogs exposed to the
virus become infected, 80% show clinical signs. A dog’s lifestyle will determine the likelihood of being exposed. Those who are regularly around other dogs (boarding, daycare, grooming, dog park) are at a greater risk. Additional precautions need to be taken with puppies, pregnant dogs, seniors and immunocompromised dogs.

Q: Do dogs die from canine influenza?
A: Fatalities have been reported, but the fatality rate is less than 10%

Q: How widespread is the disease in Ontario?
A: The first two cluster outbreaks were in the Windsor-Essex area, were relatively small and have been contained, the recent, ongoing central Ontario cluster is larger and more widespread. Cases have also been confirmed in Bracebridge, Gravenhurst and Orillia.

Q: How does a dog contract canine influenza.
A: It can be spread by direct contact with respiratory secretions from an infected dog like those that are emitted when a dog is barking, coughing, sneezing) and by contact with contaminated inanimate objects like clothing, shoes, equipment.

Q: Is there a vaccine?
A: Yes. It is considered a “lifestyle” vaccine, which means vaccinating a dog again this is based on the
dog’s risk of exposure. Please consult with your veterinarian to determine whether vaccination is
needed.

Q: How is a dog with canine influenza treated?
A: The dog should be isolated and as with many other viral diseases, treatment is mostly supportive. The
the actual course of treatment depends on the pet’s condition and symptoms

Q: Is canine influenza virus transmissible from dogs to humans?
A: To date, there is no evidence of transmission of canine influenza virus from dogs to people.

Q: Is canine influenza virus transmissible from dogs to cats, horses or other animal species?
A: To date, there is no evidence of the spread of H3N8 canine influenza from dogs to other animal species. The H3N2 strain has been reported to infect cats, and there is some evidence that guinea pigs and ferrets can become infected.

Q: Do I need to be concerned about putting my dog in daycare or boarding it at a kennel?
A: If you suspect your dog is ill, immediately contact your veterinary and any playgroups or kennels they attend. Any situation that brings multiple dogs together there is an increased risk of spread of illnesses. Ensure the kennel practices good infection control and are properly disinfecting the environment regularly.

Q: My dog has a cough…what should I do?
A: Consult your veterinarian. Coughing can be caused an array of medical problems, and exam performed by a veterinarian can evaluate your dog and recommend appropriate testing and treatment.

Resources:

1. https://www.wormsandgermsblog.com/2018/03/articles/animals/dogs/canine-flu- update-ontario-canada/

2. https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/FAQs/Pages/Control-of- Canine-Influenza- in-Dogs.aspx

Written by Kaitlyn S

The post Canine Influenza appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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The BEST way you can protect your pet from being bitten by a tick (and potentially contracting Lyme disease) is to put your pet on PREVENTATIVE medication. Our best recommendations will be explained below. Avoiding walking in forests with loose leaves on the ground, and areas with bushes and long grasses can also help as this is where ticks like to hide out. Remember that ticks can be active anytime it is 4 degrees Celsius or warmer, so in our confusing Ontario climate, the safest course of action is to give preventative medication all year long.

Bravecto

Bravecto is a pork flavoured oral chew that lasts for 3 months in your dog’s system. The pork protein in the chew is hydrolyzed, which means it can safely be given to dogs with food allergies. After it’s digested in the stomach, the medication is deposited into the tissues just underneath the skin where it stays for the 3 months. During that time it will kill fleas and ticks within 12 hours should they make contact and bite your dog. It is not recommended for puppies under the age of 6 months, as their bodies are growing so rapidly it’s hard to determine which dosage to use to adequately protect them for the entire 3 month period. New this year Bravecto also comes in a liquid to be administered topically to your pet’s skin. The medication works in exactly the same way as the oral chew to kill fleas and ticks, kills them just as fast, and also lasts for 3 months. The cost for the topical and the oral chew is exactly the same. You should wait 48 hours after applying the liquid to allow it to fully dry before allowing your dog to swim or have a bath. This is a good option for dogs that refuse to eat the oral chew. It also comes in sizes for cats!

Advantix

Advantix is a liquid that is administered topically to your dog’s skin. It will kill fleas and ticks within 2-12 hours of them having contact with your dog, and will last for 1 month. This product differs from Bravecto in that it binds to the fatty layer of the skin, instead of the tissues below the skin. This is how it is able to kill fleas and ticks so quickly and without them needing to bite your dog -it actually repels them! As with Bravecto, it is suggested to wait 48 hours after application before allowing your dog to swim. Advantix is safe to use in dogs that swim daily, but the company does not recommend bathing more than once per month. If your pet requires frequent bathing an alternate product is recommended. An important thing to note is that cats cannot metabolize the ingredients in Advantix and need to be kept away from any dog that has had it applied before it fully dries. If your cat grooms the dogs in their household heavily than an alternate product is recommended.

NexGard

Nexgard is beef flavoured oral chew that lasts for 1 month in your dog’s system. There is no actual meat in this chew (it is vegetable based) which means it can safely be given to dogs with food allergies. The chew is digested and distributed into the bloodstream which means a flea or tick does need to bite your dog and ingest the medication as it is ingesting the blood before it will die. It will kill fleas within 24 hours and ticks within 48 hours. We recommend this medication for puppies as the dose can be increased monthly if needed as the puppy grows.

Our Veterinarians and RVT’s are waiting to talk to you about the best tick prevention products for your pets,  give us a call or come on in!

Written by Stephanie Ferguson

The post What can you do to keep ticks off your pets? appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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What is a microchip and how does it work?

A microchip is a tiny chip, roughly the size of a rice grain, that is implanted into the pet. Each microchip is associated with a unique set of the identification number. This set of ID number can contain all amounts or mix of letters and numbers. The chip uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology so that when a scanner passes over it, it gets enough power from the scanner to transmit the microchip’s ID number.

Upon implanting the microchip, the chip’s ID number is registered along with the owner’s information. When a lost pet is brought into a shelter or clinic, they are scanned to see if they are microchipped. Should a chip be located, the Lost Pet Recovery Services are contacted to bring up the details of the pet and owners within the registry. With this information, we can reach the owners and reunite them.

Common misconceptions

One common misconception that people have about the microchip is that they confuse it with a GPS tracker. A microchip does not provide real-time tracking of the pet’s location in real time. The microchip is a permanent identification system and does not have any moving parts or require a power
source. If you are interested in getting a GPS tracker for your pet, which can be beneficial for high flight risk pets, you can check out Tractive.

Why should I microchip my pet?

Although your pet may be outfitted with collars and tags, these can still have the chance to break off or the pet slipping out. As a microchip does not need to be charged and stays in your pet, it is a permanent way to identify your pet during their lifespan. The procedure to implant the chip is quick and is similar to vaccinating your pet, but with a slightly bigger needle. Microchips are not only available for dogs but can also be considered for your cat, especially if they are an outdoor cat.

If you have any questions or would like to book an appointment to have your pet microchipped, give us a call at 416-752- 5114, and we would be happy to assist you.

Written by Yvonne Yu

The post All About Microchips appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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Buying the right toy for your dog can be very difficult, especially toys that won’t damage teeth. Throughout this entry, we discuss how to pick the perfect toy for your dog’s teeth.

First off, we need to determine how durable this toy should be regarding durability. Is your dog the type to shred a toy? Or is will they be a gentle player? Once, you’ve determined what kind of chewer your dog is we can move on to different types of toys.

How to pick the right toy:

1.Is the toy too hard? Will it come apart quickly and is it a safe toy.  To make sure that a toy is not too hard you can try a couple of things. You can try the thumbnail test; if the toy doesn’t give a little bit when you press your nail into it, it is likely to hard of a toy. Another thing you can do is tap the gadget on your knee if this hurts, it is too hard to give to your dog.

2. If your dog is one to shred and destroy toys you should consider getting an edible chew/treat. We carry a brand called C.E.T that come in a variety of chews and sticks.

3. They also come in different sizes to match your pet. These all give the VOHC seal which means they are proven to help reduce plaque and or tarter. You can read more about the VOHC seal in Januarys blog about the seal

4.We also carry Hills Dental Chews that also have the VOHC seal. These kinds of chews/treats help clean the teeth as your dog plays

5. Another toy that isn’t too hard on the teeth and is pretty durable is the Tuff Toys that you can find at almost any pet store. These toys are perfect for the dogs who like to destroy things. Toys like these are built to last. They are durable and still soft enough on your dog’s teeth.

There are some things that you should avoid for your dog’s teeth such as bones (as they can shatter and hurt your dog’s teeth and possibly cause a blockage), sticks, rawhide, antlers and large ice cubes are all things your dog should not be chewing on as they can damage teeth.

If you have questions about what your dog should or should not be chewing, please ask! We are always happy to answer your questions and point you in the right direction.

Written by Sam Miller, Animal Care Attendant

The post To Chew, Or Not To Chew appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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Check out our latest post about Neda’s Dental Cleaning on our YouTube channel here.

We guide you through Neda’s dental procedure from medication, cleaning, extraction and recovery period. Learn more about the process by watching the entire video.

Nail Trimming

Radiographs

Polishing

Recovery

Written by Kaitlyn, RVT

The post Neda’s Dental Cleaning appeared first on McLean Animal Hospital.

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