Something I've noticed recently is that a few of my favourite EdTech bloggers have branched out into blogging about different things. For example Colin Gallagher is now writing a travel blog (Surprising Horizons) and Chris Betcher has been trying trying a different religion every month this year as part of his Beyond Belief project. I've been doing some new things too - so maybe now is a good time to write about them. On my return to the UK last year, I decided that I needed to "keep my cup full" in order to care for my mother with dementia. I therefore started a Facebook album called Finding Joy Every Day. The aim of this was to make sure I was looking after myself - so that I would have enough patience and energy to give to my mother. This is how the project has been looking so far:
The Art Pass: Before leaving Mumbai, my friends in our book club gifted me a one year Art Pass. This allows me to get into exhibitions and old houses with art in the UK either for free or for a much reduced price. So far I've used this pass to visit Ickworth House, Gainsborough's house, the Stained Glass Museum in Ely Cathedral, Audley End, Melford Hall, Kensington Palace where there was an exhibition of Princess Diana's clothes, Lavenham Guildhall, Framlingham Castle, Oxburgh Hall, Norwich Castle, the Wimpole Estate and various places in Cambridge. I've also attended the Monet and Architecture exhibition, the Frida Kahlo Making Herself Up at the V&A, the Courtauld Impressionists: From Manet to Cezanne, the Pierre Bonnard at the Tate Modern and the Edward Burne-Jones at the Tate Britain. In Bury, where my mother lives, I've used the pass to get into the Marilyn Monroe Timeless photo exhibition. All these places are a day-trip away from where I live. The Art Pass has truly been a gift that keeps giving and I'll be renewing my membership next year. Surrounding myself with beautiful things is definitely one of way of keeping my cup full.
Gardens: Coming back to the UK has renewed my interest in gardens. I've often stopped off at a garden on the way to and from Mum's just to go out and walk in nature and clear my head. I've walked the grounds at Ickworth House, Chippenham Park, Wicken Fen, Barnsdale, Lakenheath Fen, Fuller's Mill and visited the RSPB sanctuary at Welney for the winter swans feeding. As well as this I started a project in my own garden. My father used to pride himself on having a flower in his garden every day of the year. I decided I'd try to do this too and it has been an interesting journey! Having been away from the UK since 1988, and having moved to a new area of the country with a well established garden, I actually had no idea what was planted or what would grow. I was especially worried about the months between November and February as I did not know what plants would survive the winter. However this project has been a resounding success! I have had a flower in my garden every single day since last August when I moved in. Recently I was talking about this to my aunt, who told me that in fact I'm the 3rd generation of my family to do this. She told me that her father, my grandfather, also made a promise to my grandmother that she would be able to pick a flower from his garden every week. Apparently my grandmother had a photo of one of her daughters who had died young, with a green vase next to it - and every week she would go out to the garden to pick a flower to put in this vase. As well as this I've been growing vegetables! I have a fruit and vegetable patch at the end of my garden and have been exploring what I can grow here: apples, tomatoes, butternut squash, courgettes, kale, cabbages, chard and lettuce last year and I've got some plans for more vegetables this summer as well. It's really great to eat food that you have grown yourself!
My village: It has been amazing to live in a village and there is more going on than you would think! The weekend I moved in there was a "picnic in the park" with live bands and fireworks, this was followed by a flower festival, a Christmas tree festival and a beer and cider festival in the church. There is a walking group, yoga classes, a women's institute and so much more. I've been determined to join in with as much as I can, even though it has initially been hard for me to go to things by myself.
Workshops: I was prepared to be challenged by work as it's been the first time in over 35 years where I haven't had a regular salary to look forward to every month. This has been extremely hard as I had no idea how to stretch my money out (bills continue to come in with alarming regularity, yet the money doesn't!). However I have managed to get some workshops and school visits overseas (Taiwan, Poland, The Netherlands, Denmark, Qatar, UAE, Ireland, South Africa and even the UK) and many of these places have also given me the opportunity to reconnect with colleagues from the various schools I've worked at. Meeting up with friends in these far-flung places has been a bonus I did not expect going in to this year.
Family: I have seen much more of various family members than I would have done had I stayed living and working in India. In particular I've seen a lot of my mother and her sister, my brother, my children and several cousins and nieces than in previous years. The support from my family has been invaluable during this tough year.
My new project: This year I decided I would do 60 nice things. This is different from "finding joy every day" because joy was something I was just looking out for, whereas my new project is all about saying "Yes" to trying new things. So far I've said yes to a photography course, learning to play African drums, a visit to the Guinness Storehouse, climbing to the top of the Octagon at Ely Cathedral, a gin and chocolate pairing experience, a safari and a visit to the Cradle of Humankind - and all that in less than 6 weeks. Saying "yes" has become an important part of keeping my cup full. It has led to me feeling more confident, patient and friendly, and in this tough year it has kept me feeling positive - and hopefully that feeling spreads to those around me. I'm mindful of the need to keep other people's cups full as well, by saying or doing something kind, even if that's just a nice smile, showing respect to others and giving sincere compliments: in other words focusing on the positives. At this time last year I was scared and full of trepidation about giving up a "safe" job and casting myself off to the winds of fortune. This year I'm starting to see how much of a joy and blessing it has been.
I haven't blogged for a while. It's not as is nothing has happened, it's simply that in the daily routine of things I haven't found sufficient time to reflect on what I've been doing. I've been visiting my mum of course - and in January and February I was doing this intensively as mum was taken into hospital following a fall. This gave me plenty of time to learn about the current state of the NHS (2 hours for an ambulance to arrive as it was dispatched from 75 kms away, 6 hours in A&E on a trolley along with 70 other people, waiting for a CT scan, no doctor available until the following day, one A&E nurse referring to herself as the "angel of death"). Mum ended up being in hospital for 5 days even though I was told there wasn't anything medically wrong with her. She was kept in because she was "confused". This is not surprising as she has dementia and didn't know where she was, why she was there, who all the people were and why people kept sticking things into and onto her. The day after she was admitted I was told she couldn't walk. This was quite surprising as she had walked into the hospital the previous day. It seems the reason she couldn't walk was because nobody had bothered to get her out of bed - not even to take her to the toilet! She didn't eat much either. The system seemed to be that someone brought food around and left it on a tray on her bed. An hour later they collected the tray. If nothing was touched, it was assumed that she wasn't hungry. In fact my mother was probably very hungry, however if nobody encouraged her to sit up in bed and eat then clearly she didn't think of doing that for herself. I think this is the crux of the matter. She was "monitored" the whole time - but nobody actually did much caring.
I managed to get mum out of hospital after 5 days but unfortunately she had picked up a terrible cough from the woman next to her in the hospital (I'd been told this wasn't contageous - which obviously wasn't true. I'd kept drawing the curtain around mum's bed, the nurses kept drawing it back). It took almost 2 months of care and 4 rounds of antibiotics to get her back to the same level she was at before going into hospital - encouraging her to get out of bed every day, walk around, eat and so on. Thankfully she's doing much better now.
I'd had some workshops planned for the first 3 months of the year for Consilience, but unfortunately none of these came to pass. Thank goodness, therefore, that I managed to get some work for the IB. In January I returned to the American School of Warsaw to support them with implementing agency. It was great to go back to a school that I'd been to several months before for a verification visit as they were becoming a PYP school. At the end of February I went to Qatar for a workshop called The Role of ICT. This was a fabulous experience. It was absolutely wonderful to collaborate on planning this workshop with Angi from Frankfurt, whom I had met in my tech coaching workshop in Amsterdam in December. She had led this workshop before and we had some great discussions about how to bring the PYP enhancements into this workshop. It made me appreciate how valuable collaboration is - together we were able to bounce ideas around and this led to the workshop being even better. The week after that I was in Dubai for Building for the Future. This was the first time this workshop had been offered so it was an honour to be invited to lead it. The workshop is aimed at PYP Coordinators and school leaders and takes them through a design thinking process to re-envision their school's action plan. Once again I was thankful to be able to plan this workshop collaboratively with Alyson, another workshop leader I'd met the week before in Doha, and who will herself be leading this workshop in Helsinki next weekend.
March has been a busy month - After Doha and Dubai Alyson and I went to Dartford in Kent to do a Leading the Learning workshop for leaders in the Leigh Academy Trust schools - all of which are applying to become PYP Candidate schools. This will effectively double the number of PYP schools in the UK. I'm loving the way that learning is changing in these schools - and can only reflect on how this is totally different from many other schools in the UK. Yes, I have actually done some teaching in UK schools now, having signed up with 3 supply teaching agencies. I've enjoyed this work a lot, but it has certainly shown me some of the real problems facing schools in the UK today. These can be summed up in several ways:
The content seems quite boring - so students are not really that engaged. There are a lot of things that 8 year olds don't really need to know. In my opinion being able to identify an adverbial phrase and write one, for example, doesn't lead to students becoming better writers. The focus is on remembering and maybe a little on understanding, but there is almost no emphasis on application or higher order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation or creativity. Because the curriculum is so content based, very little is transferable.
There doesn't seem to be a lot of differentiation, often it's a case of teaching to the middle. There are a lot of photocopied worksheets, some of which appear to be little more than "busy work". In only one school I've been in so far was there any student voice and choice about how they would show their understanding.
Many students lack ambition or aspiration (and some of the teachers lack this too).
I've thought a lot about this over the past few weeks. What has gone wrong? It was quite telling that in many schools in the staff toilets there were signs up about mental health and about counselling services. Perhaps it's because of the experiences in those schools that it was such a refreshing change to go to some UK schools that are considering a different approach.
Tomorrow I set off for Dublin. I'm a consultant to a PYP candidate school there. I'm so looking forward to this - I love seeing schools at the start of their PYP journey! I've also got some PYP workshops coming up next month in South Africa, and the following month in Spain. Looking forward to next school year I have another workshop in Doha, hopefully some more in the UK, and in Germany and Austria, and a school visit to Sweden. I'm also going to doing further training as a consultant and school visitor team leader. I'm doing my best to stay afloat!
I was prompted to write this post today after watching a video on FB this morning, I think it was called Life is Good. This was the message: "pessimism is corrosive, realism lacks imagination, but optimism is boundless". For me, in this difficult year, optimism is a choice and it takes courage, but it's the only way forward.
Photo: taken by me following a photography workshop in Haddenham last Saturday.
In the past few PYP workshops I've led, both face to face and online, I've been asked about why reflection has been removed as one of the key concepts. The reason I've given is that reflection is fully integrated within the learning process, and interwoven with other aspects of the programme such as the learner profile and approaches to learning. With the PYP Enhancements emphasising agency, it's been interesting to consider the role reflection plays in learner agency. With this in mind I'd like to share a quote from Lori Phillips, the Director of Teaching and Learning at Knowledgeworks:
We know learner agency is important for our students to develop: to learn to advocate for themselves, to make choices, to practice self-awareness and an understanding of themselves as learners. But even though we want our students to take ownership and be agents of their own learning, many of our traditional teaching structures prevent this from happening. It isn’t just about offering students choices, but being intentional about those choices, trusting our students to make the right choice – and being prepared to reflect and learn with them when they don’t.
Lori outlines how, if the choices students make don't work out as anticipated, reflection helps them consider how to make better choices next time. She also writes about developing structures with students to enable them to make good choices and most importantly of all, how when offering students choices teachers should consider the needs of the students as having a higher priority than the needs of the task.
I took a look into PYP: From principles into practice today to pull together the understandings about importance of reflection and learner agency. Students with a strong sense of self-efficacy also have a strong sense of agency. To foster self efficacy, teachers can:
build in time for reflection to enhance students’ awareness about the success of their efforts and ways to improve in the future
provide time for reflection at all stages of learning—before, during and after inquiries.
promote a range of tools for reflection and ensure that reflection activities are responsive and varied
provide the structure and language for reflection
co-construct success criteria and provide reflection opportunities that include students' self-assessment of their learning
provide effective feedback that offers opportunities for reflection and action
What do you do to promote student reflection? How does this lead to greater student agency?
Last summer I was reading an article by Daniel T. Willingham entitled Unlocking the Science of How Kids Think. The author argued that many teachers are unaware of the latest findings about how children think and learn, in particular he cited studies showing that many teachers erroneously believe that children have learning styles dominated by the senses (eg visual learners) and that motor-coordination exercises can improve the interaction of the brain's left and right hemispheres. When asked about learning, teachers frequently refer to their craft, which is not the same as referring to the up-to-date principles of psychology - despite the fact that many teacher training programmes require some courses to be taken in educational psychology, where trainee teachers learn such things as how knowledge is constucted as well as the work of theorists such as Piaget, Vyotsky and Bruner. In fact, many educators complain that their training is overly theoretical and not of much practical use.
I was interested to read the argument by Willingham against the current mode of teacher training: he claims that teachers without this prepraration are indistinguishable from those who get it. I've thought about this argument this week, as my mother has been in hospital. I've observed nurses come around and check her constantly - scanning ID codes on her wrists and ankles before taking various measurements such as temperature, blood pressure and so on. Time was also taken up in entering all this data onto a computer that was pushed on a cart from bed to bed. Incredibly, in the days my mother was in hospital she got worse and worse, picking up an infection from another person in the ward, and losing the use of her legs and eventually needing to be spoon-fed because she wouldn't pick up her cutlery. What my mother needed was human care - she went in for a CT scan because she had had 3 falls in 6 days and doctors were worried she had banged her head (there was actually nothing medically wrong with her). What she did not need was to be admitted to the hospital and put into a bed and left there being monitored day after day. Eventually the hospital gave me a carers badge - allowing me to visit the whole day, outside of the 3 hours of visiting times - which meant I could encourage her to get out of bed, sit in a chair, walk to the toilet and feed herself - things the nurses didn't have time to do. My sister-in-law who had trained as a nurse put this down to the way nursing training has changed - nowadays you need a degree to be a nurse, whereas previously you needed more hands-on experience. I started to think about the parallels that could be drawn with teaching as well, where teacher training emphasises theory more than practical knowledge. This argument points out that teaching is a skill - one that requires doing to gain proficieny. From my own experience, I know that my "teaching practice" school placements were more valuable to my growth as a teacher than the lectures in the unversity - however research does not show that these apprenticeships lead to better student outcomes.
Willingham suggests that the best way to improve student outcomes is to focus on how students learn - accurate beliefs about learning will influence the decisions teachers make. Such accurate beliefs, drawn from observation, can have direct classroom application. Here's one for example: memory is more enduring if practice is distributed in time, not massed. What this means in practical terms is that the same amount of time devoted to a lesson will be more efficient if it is distributed across many days. This is something that can be observed. In addition some theories later turn out to be wrong - only by conducting observations of students in the classroom can a teacher fully appreciate how students learn. A good example is given of wildly different theoretical approaches to student motivation: the behaiourist one of rewards -v- punishment and the humanist theory focused on agency and autonomy. Teacher training may introduce both of these theories, even though they are incompatible. Classroom observations, however, will show students respond to both rewards and choice.
A further argument in this article is that teachers do not get enough practice with the principles they learn in order to make them useful. Teachers need to see these principles in context and they need to be able to discuss their ideas with mentors and coaches. Willingham is not advocating getting rid of the child psychology courses that pre-service teachers have to take, but he does suggest more data is needed: are these psychological principles retained by teachers, do teachers know how to use them, and are they using them? Only then will be be able to gauge the educational impact of these principles by comparing student outcomes of those teachers who use them and those who do not.
I'm preparing for a workshop about technology in the PYP that will take place in Doha next month, and so I'm digging deep into the new digital resource recently published by the IB PYP: From principles into practice. The technology section of this resource begins with describing the difference between technology integration and implementation. I've written a blog post about the difference between the two just over four years ago, so will simply outline the thinking from the new resource here:
Integration is about pedagogy and ways of thinking ... implementation is about the tools, infrastructure and other resources used to support learning and teaching.
Technology in the PYP is seen in broad terms: it includes tools such as pencils, books, laptops, iPads and online resources. Students can develop critical and creative thinking through technology, and alongside these, technology can include coding, information and communication, design and innovation.
All members of the learning community are technology teachers: it's everyone's responsibility to support students in developing technology literacy, competence and confidence through the integration of technology. It's not just a case of developing knowledge and skills, using technology to extend learning and encouraging students to use technology to create new solutions to challenges, it's also everyone's responsibility to support students in making ethical choices when using technology and to help students understand and become responsible digital citizens. As the IB's mission is to create a better and more peaceful world, it's also important to consider how technology can both enrich and harm, to discuss rights and responsibilities and to work with parents to help students make informed and appropriate decisions when using technology.
In order to integrate technology effectively, schools and teachers need to foster a shared understanding about the value of technology in teaching and learning, as well as encouraging agency of all members of the learning community, accessibility to learners, adaptability, and to consider how technology can support intercultural understanding, global engagement and multilingualism. Technology supports the development of multiliteracies, for example digital literacy (knowing and using a range of digital devices), media literacy (knowing how to access, analyse, evaluate and create media), information literacy (finding and using information and data), critical literacy and design literacy. Technology literacy encourages multimodality as both teachers and students can use any modes of expression such as print, images, animations, sounds and so on to communicate ideas and content. Design thinking can move students beyond following instructions to find creative and innovative solutions to address opportunities and challenges.
As I plan for this upcoming PYP workshop I'm considering how best technology can help transform learning and help learners and teachers to develop an understanding of the learner profile, international mindedness and their place within a technology-rich global society.
I was born in London and spent my first 18 years living in the "big city" and then, when I went off to university, chose to study at the "northern powerhouse" of Leeds. Most of my life I've lived in cities - I've enjoyed them for the culture, the busyness - the fact that there is always something going on, always life. London, Leeds, Miami, Amsterdam, Bangkok, Mumbai ... and now Sutton in the Isle. When I decided to move back to the UK to care for my mother I had no plans of living in the countryside; I started looking for places to live in nearby towns - but most were above my budget. I ended up finding a country cottage, and gradually things started to fall into place. Since August I have been forced to learn many new things - how to grow vegetables, how to cook them - and to relearn things I hadn't done for years such as driving, lighting a wood fire and cleaning the house!
It's very dark here and quiet at night. I thought I'd be uneasy with that, but actually I have found that I sleep much better - in particular not having to wake up before 6am for work. I tend to wake up when it gets light - and now that it's winter here that is actually quite late.
However I do miss work - or more to the point I miss a regular income. For 37 years I knew the date that my monthly salary would arrive in my bank. Now it's all very hit and miss. I've done some online workshops, some face-to-face ones, some school visits and so on. For each of these it seems I have to wait ages to be paid - and that's a worry, because the bills keep on coming at regular times every month. Another thing I find I'm having to do is to "drum up custom" for months in advance. I've never been good a blowing my own trumpet, at marketing myself, but I know that this is a skill I need to learn. I expected the first year of self-employment as a consultant would be tough - but I never expected it to be this tough: to be at the point where I've had to opt to have a tooth out because I cannot afford a root canal, for example. But I do try to do small things that make a difference - for example I always have fresh flowers on the table and can make the same old sweaters look a bit different with colourful scarves and cheap jewellery. My "office" is now outside in the garden and it's great to work to the sound of birdsong.
I also miss a ready-made social life. In international schools overseas you are surrounded by people in a similar situation to yourself - and even when things are tough (as they were in my first few years in India) there are people sharing that toughness with you. Now I've moved to a village where I know nobody - where friendship groups have already been established for years (decades!) and - let's be honest - my world views are completely different from the views of the 97% of local residents who were born and brought up here. It's hard to fit in. I've joined a yoga class and a walking group, but have yet to meet many people of my own age group and life experience, and people who enjoy similar (cultural) things that I do. But there is stuff going on. I've visited local artists in their homes and studios, been to a jazz evening, even been to the local church to sing some Christmas carols. In the summer there was a picnic in the park with fireworks and some heavy metal bands. You just have to work harder to find these things and you often have to go to them by yourself (which has never really been a problem for me as I've travelled a lot by myself and generally people do talk to you if you are by yourself there).
It's not all doom and gloom. It's great that I can see and support mum several days a week. London is only an hour away on the train - and both my children now live there. I see much more of family than ever before, even though I see much less of friends. And I've done a huge amount of online workshops - which has been my lifeline as I talk with educators around the world every day. In July I had the time to write a book - which has now been published. I could never have found the time for that if I'd been in full time work.
But as this year comes to an end I know it's time to take stock. It has been good to have so much time, but I now need to start working towards a sustainable income. Basically I need to find a job that gives me regular money each month - at least enough to pay the bills, buy food and put petrol in the car, and at the same time gives me some time to still support mum. I've thought about supply teaching - but that hasn't seemed to work out. I've thought about online teaching or online recruitment - maybe there is still something there. I've thought about trying to do more IB workshops and consultancies. I've thought about writing another book.
There are some hard lessons I've learned as well. I've learned that some people that I thought were trustworthy really are not. In fact I've been treated really disrespectfully and unprofessionally by people who should definitely have known better. I've had to learn to forgive people who don't even want to be forgiven - because I have to move on and not drag bitterness with me.
In general 2018 has been a tough year for me, and I'm glad it's coming to an end. I'm hoping that 2019 will be a better year, and that I will continue to learn and to grow and to be the best person I can be, and that I will continue to share that growth with others.
When I lived in Mumbai I was in a book club, and one of the group was our school's nurse. She recommended we read the book Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker. Even though I left the school, I decided I'd read the book anyway and I'm glad I did - it was fascinating. In particular I was interested in the research around how technology impacts sleep. All too often I've heard parents and colleagues complain that technology in the bedrooms is robbing us of our sleep - and in fact I've always told parents to keep students' devices out of their children's bedrooms at night. There's plenty of evidence about the harmful effects of LED-emitting devices - however, as Matthew Walker points out, there's no putting the technological genie back into the bottle, so what we need to do is find ways to use technology to our advantage.
One such use of technology might be to track our sleep and circadian rhythms. Walker argues that when we can do this accurately we can also use technology to monitor our networked devices such as thermostats and lighting to give us the optimal conditions for sleep. We could even programme in a natural lull and rise in temperature across the night that is in harmony with our body's rhythm.
A second interesting use of technology could be to use it with our electric lights. Many of us are overexposed to blue-dominant LED light in the evening, which suppresses melatonin and delays our feelings of sleepiness. Walker argues that we could soon be at the point where we can engineer LED bulbs with filters that can vary the wavelength of light they emit - enabling us to use warm yellow colours in the evening, which are less harmful to the body's melatonin production. These bulbs could be paired with individuals' sleep trackers so that over the course of an evening they could gradually lessen the blue light in the home as the evening progresses, or even as someone moves from room to room. In the morning the opposite can happen - with blue light being emitted to shut off the melatonin and help us to wake up faster and more alert. The idea is that this technology could also be useful in helping to overcome jetlag, for example, and even to help in cars by emitting blue light during the morning commute, since the highest drowsy-driving accidents occur in the early mornings.
Like everything, technology has its opportunities and challenges. The impact of technology on sleep has been well documented - perhaps now it's time for us to take back the control to ensure that technology can be proactively used for good.
Since moving back to the UK I've been living in a village. It's stating the obvious, I think, to say that village life is very different from living in Mumbai, a city of 22 million people. For me one of the biggest differences I've noticed is in the way I sleep. During my 6 years in India I don't think I slept very well. For the first 3 years I lived in an extremely noisy neighbourhood, and even when the people were not noisy there was always the street dogs that would fight at night and keep me awake. As well as this I found it was often quite light at night - and of course there was the very early morning alarm clock that got me up for work.
Now that I'm not working in a school my sleep is much more under my control. I go to bed when I feel tired, and I wake up without an alarm. In addition it is very dark and very quiet. My body and general feeling of wellbeing has certainly improved with better quality sleep, and it's got me thinking about how sleep, or a lack of it, impacts our students - and what we can do about it.
I was recently reading that more than 80% of high schools in the USA start before 8.15 am - and in fact almost 50% of those start before 7.20 am (which was actually my start time when I worked in Thailand). Because many students get the bus to school, pick ups from home can start as early as 5.45 am, meaning that many students are getting up at around 5.15 am, five days a week for years on end, resulting in chronic sleep deprivation for most adolescents, and associated mental health issues that include depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and suicide. Digging a little deeper into this, the real problem seems to be a lack of REM sleep (the sleep we experience in the final hours of our sleep) that is responsible for our stable or unstable mental states. While 100 years ago students woke up without an alarm clock for a school that started at 9 am, now almost no-one does.
Here's the interesting thing: studies have shown that no matter what age, the longer a child sleeps the more intellectual gifted they are (Genetic Studies of Genius, Terman). It seems that Terman believed that the movement towards an earlier and earlier school start is damaging the intellectual growth of students. Ironically, as the USA pushes school start times earlier and earlier, in Europe the opposite has happened.
Japanese studies have also linked sleep to memory - showing that delaying school start times can be transformative. In the USA a test was done in Edina, Minnesota when school start times were shifted an hour later (to 8.30 from 7.25). Before the shift, SAT average scores were 605. After the shift, these rose to 761. Similar results were observed for Math SAT scores: from 683 to 739. These studies indicate that allowing students more sleep is beneficial.
These results are even more extreme when considering socio-economic status. Low income families are less likely to be taken to school in a car and therefore more likely to travel on a school bus. For those children they have to wake up earlier than those driven by their parents and so disadvantaged children become more disadvantages as they routinely obtain less sleep than children from more affluent families.
Another interesting by-product of a later school start time is a later finishing time. This is also seen as beneficial as it protects teenagers from the "danger window" of 3.00 - 6.00 pm when schools have finished but parents have not yet returned home - an unsupervised and vulnerable period of time for involvement in crime and alcohol abuse. A later school start time reduces this window and therefore also reduces the potential for these outcomes.
Here's another interesting study: In Minnesota when school times were pushed from a 7.30 start to an 8.00 am start, there was a 60% reduction in traffic accidents in drivers aged 16 - 18. In Wyoming a shift in start times from 7.35 to 8.55 am resulted in a 70% reduction in traffic accidents in 16 - 18 year old drivers.
There are also links between sleep deficiency and ADHD, in fact many of the symptoms that lead to a diagnosis of ADHD are exactly those caused by a lack of sleep. Unfortunately, drugs such as Ritalin which are prescribed for ADHD are drugs that prevent sleep - which may exacerbate the issue.
Now here's my question (since this is a blog about technology and education): is technology robbing us of sleep - or can technology help us to track our sleep and then intervene so that we get more benefit from sleep, and then less of a negative impact on our brain's ability to study. Let's see if I can answer that question in my next blog post.
All studies mentioned in this post are from the book Why We Sleep by Matthew Walker.
“When I die, you need to pick up my gun and keep fighting." These were the last words spoken by Christoper Stevens, the American Ambassador to Libya who was murdered on September 11th, 2012 during a 13-hour terror attack on the US Consulate in Benghazi Libya. Christopher Stevens was known for his fascination of other cultures and his goodwill towards others. As a student he studied abroad in Spain and Italy and later joined the Peace Corps and worked in Morocco. As a diplomat he spent the majority of his career in North Africa and the Middle East dedicating himself to building understanding between people from different countries. Following his death, the Steven's Institute was set up in partnership with his family. The aim of this organisation is to give young people the international exchange experiences that Stevens had, which helped shape him into the person he became, and this is done through virtual exchanges to build global competences and mutual understandings between young people in the Middle East and North Africa and others of a similar age in the USA.
Person-to-person exchanges change lives, create opportunities and build lifelong mutual understanding and respect. But such programs, as vital and transformative as they are, reach only thousands. Less than 1% of young people ever get the opportunity to study abroad - so virtual exchanges are one way of expanding that number. Virtual exchanges can reach millions and create windows to the world for every student. Today, technology has a huge role to play in enabling virtual exchanges to take place, so that life-changing, cross-cultural experiences can be made available to a large number of young people. The Initiative has partnered with Twitter and Vidyo to facilitate these exchanges. Over the past two years, awards have been made to 22 organisations that have reached over 28,000 young people in the USA and in 16 countries in the Middle East and North Africa.
A couple of weeks ago I was contacted by Henry Shepherd, the Assistant Director, to ask if I was interested in getting involved in reading and assessing application proposals for this year's round of grants. Henry told me he'd found me on Twitter and had reached out because of my participation in online discussions about international education. After a Skype chat, and then a webinar about how to actually rank the applications, I was all set. I've been given 13 proposals to read, and to be honest it has been both a humbling and uplifting experience. The priority topics are technology and computing, world affairs and global studies, business and entrepreneurship and language learning and practice. The Stevens Initiative puts emphasis on reaching young people whose access to exchange programmes has been limited. Virtual exchanges can give young people new opportunities to gain critical skills and see the world from new perspectives even if they are not able to participate in an in-person exchange. The aim is to address the needs of women and girls, underserved youth, refugees, people with disabilities and minority groups.
Since being sent the applications last week I've managed to read through a couple each day. I've been impressed by how many of these proposals aim to give young people a better understanding of global issues and how the issues in their own communities are part of a global context, while at the same time building practical skills of the participants. Ambassador Stevens might not have meant this when he urged those in the consulate to keep fighting. However I think he would have been proud of what has happened since his death, and how the Stevens Initiative has been established to work towards a better and more peaceful world through empowering young people to participate in activities and experiences that will give them long-lasting skills and knowledge to help them understand global issues through the eyes of the participants in the other countries.
One of my biggest fears on my return to the UK this summer was that I would not "fit in". I'd become worried by conversations I'd overheard on buses, in pubs and at bus stops about immigrants in the UK. I wondered where these intolerant attitudes had come from . Therefore, in my own small way, I'm delighted to be part of the fight against bigotry, xenophobia and closed-mindedness. It has been a joy to be part of an initiative that aims to give young people the knowledge, skills and experiences they need to prosper in an interconnected world. Photo Credit: Wiertz Sébastien Flickr via Compfightcc
In January this year I wrote a post about several apps I've been trying out that are focused on health and fitness. Now as it turns out I was in the pharmacy yesterday and I came across a leaflet called 10 Steps to an Active You. This leaflet recommended an app called Active 10 which monitors you for 10 minutes of brisk walking (basically the aim is to get your blood pumping and improve your mood). Apparently just 10 minutes of brisk walking can improve your health straight away - though you need to do 15 sessions of these a week since doctors recommend you are active for 150 minutes a week to reduce your risk of long-term health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, dementia and cancer. Of course the good thing about walking is that you can do it anytime without the need for any equipment at all.
The idea behind the Active 10 app is simply to keep you motivated, with the idea of working up to 30 minutes (three Active 10s) each day. You set your own goals and you increase or decrease them when you want. The app monitors your progress over 7 days and over 30 days. Your progress shows up on various screens, and you can see both how long you have walked for in minutes and then how much of that was brisk walking.
I used this app yesterday and today and I did find it motivating. Yesterday I started out with a goal of one Active 10 in the evening, but as I was walking I increased it to two. This morning having completed two Active 10s, I then changed the goal to three.
There's an Active 10 website as well. This contains more information and also others apps that are made by the same developers, one of which I have used before as a podcast and which I know has been successful in getting millions of people running worldwide. I already monitor the number of steps I walk as well as the distance I walk and I wondered whether it was possible to use all 3 apps in combination. I therefore went and downloaded the Couch to 5K app as well.
This app is sponsored by the NHS and the BBC. It's designed for beginners to build up to running for 30 minutes without stopping. This might or might not be 5k depending on how fast you run of course. The programme is a 9-week plan aimed at running three times a week with rest day between each run, though you can repeat weeks if you don't feel you are physically fit to move onto the next one.
With this app you start off by choosing your trainer. There are five to choose from. Next you will see the wheel which shows you the day's running schedule. This wheel also displays a countdown timer so you can see how much of each section - walk or run - you still have to do. You can use this app in conjunction with your own music, and interestingly, there is a bell that rings when you are half way through your run so that if you are running in one direction rather than a circular route you will know it's time to turn round and run back.
So this morning I set off on a walk/run with all 3 apps monitoring my progress. According to the Steps app I spent 51 minutes walking and running 4.5 km - and did about 60% of my daily target of 10,000 steps. The Active 10 shows I managed to achieve today's goal of three Active 10s, and that I walked for a total of 54 minutes, of which 44 were brisk. The Couch to 5K app shows I completed Run 1 of Week 1, but no further information, though since I know the yellow sections on the app are the running sections I can work out that I ran for 8 minutes as today's schedule was "run for 60 seconds, walk for 90 seconds".
In general I feel all these apps could be very helpful in motivating someone and keeping them exercising - check back in another 9 weeks to see if I've managed to get myself to 5K and if technology really can help people to get fit and transform their health.