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Kidney International by Adrian S. Woolf. - 1h ago

There are three reasons to generate a new human kidney. The first is to learn more about the biology of the developing and mature organ. The second is to generate tissues with which to model congenital and acquired kidney diseases. In particular, growing human kidneys in this manner should ultimately help to understand the mechanisms of common chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy and others featuring fibrosis, as well as nephrotoxicity. The third is to provide functional kidney tissues that can be directly used in regenerative medicine therapies.
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Renal hypoxia may play an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy.However, tools that noninvasively and quantitatively measure oxygen tension in the kidney are lacking. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of a noninvasive and quantitative imaging technique using dynamic nuclear polarization magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI) in combination with the oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic agent OX63 for measuring oxygen tension in the kidney. Our results demonstrate that the DNP-MRI technique can yield quantitative maps of oxygen tension in the mouse renal cortex.
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Terminal complement inhibition therapy with eculizumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody to C5) has revolutionized the treatment of patients with thrombotic microangiopathy. Successful responders are often placed on long-standing therapy to prevent disease recurrence in the native kidney or allograft. The tissue deposition of eculizumab in patients with C3 glomerulopathy has been described but no studies have yet investigated tissue deposition of eculizumab in cases where it was indicated for thrombotic microangiopathy which, unlike C3 glomerulopathy, does not usually show immune-type electron dense deposits.
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Emerging evidence of crosstalk between glomerular cells in pathological settings provide opportunities for novel therapeutic discovery. Here we investigated underlying mechanisms of early events leading to filtration barrier defects of podocyte and glomerular endothelial cell crosstalk in the mouse models of primary podocytopathy (podocyte specific transforming growth factor-β receptor 1 signaling activation) or Adriamycin nephropathy. We found that glomerular endothelial surface layer degradation and albuminuria preceded podocyte foot process effacement.
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Innate lymphoid cells play an important role in the early effector cytokine-mediated response. In Wistar Kyoto rats, CD8+ non-T lymphocytes (CD8+Lym) infiltrate into glomeruli during the development of anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) glomerulonephritis. Here, we examined the profiles and roles of CD8+Lym in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis. The regulation of CD8+Lym by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α in anti-GBM glomerulonephritis was also evaluated. Glomerular infiltrating CD8+Lym were lineage-negative cells that showed markedly high expression of IFN-γ and T-bet mRNAs but not Eomes, indicating these cells are group 1 innate lymphoid cells.
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In the above-stated article, on page 727 at the end of the first paragraph, the sentence “Serum hepcidin levels increase in response to iron overload and decrease in response to inflammation.” should be “Serum hepcidin levels increase in response to iron overload and inflammation.”
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Kidney International by Rafael Matesanz, Beatriz Domínguez-.. - 4d ago

It is frequently assumed that opt-out legislations set down a more favorable scenario to organ donation than do opt-in legislations. However, there are no clear examples of countries with a real sustained increase in organ donation after modifying the law. Arshad et al. performed a comparison that shows no significant differences between countries with these 2 legal systems. Health care providers must focus on actual barriers to increasing organ donation rather than on presumed consent alone.
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