Close-up of Dwarf Red Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium). This variety grows to only 3 ft. tall.
Not a Weed: The Beauty and Pollinator Value of Eupatorium (Joe Pye Weed or Bonesets)
Gardeners value growing Joe Pye Weed for their big, mounding flower heads that are typically white, shades of pink and occasionally violet-purple. The flowers are loaded with nectar and pollen that attract native bees, honeybees and butterflies. In the fall, many species set copious seeds that are both ornamental as well as useful for attracting and feeding small seed-eating songbirds. The plants are highly resistant to browsing deer and rabbits.
The genus Eupatorium*, commonly known as Bonesets or Joe Pye Weed, are a large group of wildflowers valued in the garden for their large size, robust growth, attractive foliage and large, showy displays of summer through fall flowers. Widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, they can be found in Europe, Asia and North America. However, the Bonesets most commonly in cultivation in the US are native species.
Growing Joe Pye Weed
Most species of Eupatorium can grow to large size and are best used at the back of the perennial border, or in meadows and other wildland plantings where they form an impressive backdrop for other summer and fall blooming perennials and ornamental grasses. In general, these large growing plants prefer fertile soils and sun, although some species are fine in partial shade. Our native species are herbaceous (die back to the ground in winter) and should be pruned back hard in mid-spring to give the new stems room to push out from the crown. Flowers can be deadheaded to reduce re-seeding should it become an issue, although this is usually not required.
Because of these are typically large growing plants, they were used mainly in large gardens. In recent years, however, plant breeders in both North America and Europe have been selecting for more compact growing selections of Eupatorium to make them more useful in smaller gardens. Here are a couple of our High Country Garden favorites.
Little Joe Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium asteraceae Little Joe) grows to only 24-30" tall.
Red Dwarf Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium) is shown with Gros Bleu Lavender
Eupatorium maculatum 'Red Dwarf' - A European introduction of this native species, 'Red Dwarf' is a vigorous, yet compact grower. Topping out at about 36 inches in height and 24 to 36 in. in width, it's still a medium-large plant, but decidedly smaller than the species which can reach 6 ft. in height. The late summer flowers are mauve-pink and are held by burgundy-red flower stems which make a nice combination with the flowers. 'Red Dwarf' is a more tightly growing, more rounded form than 'Little Joe'.
Eupatorium dubium 'Little Joe' PP# 16,122 - This cultivar of coastal Joe Pye weed was selected for its light purple flowers, stiff upright growth habit and compact size. Topping out at between 3 to 4 ft. and forming a 2 - 3 ft. wide clump, the plant is suitable for both large and small yards. Top rated in the Chicago Botanic Garden Eurpatorium trials, it is recommended for its superior flower production, non-floppy habit and overall vigor.
Planting Joe Pye Weed
Eupatorium plants enjoy fertile soil and moderate to moist soil conditions; thus are referred to as "mesic" (not xeric) plants. They should be planted with other mesic garden perennials. Joe Pye weed is also a good choice for planting in rain gardens.
In more arid Western climates, be sure to give them some afternoon shade, plant them in compost-enriched soil and give them regular irrigation during dry weather. Supplement their water needs by planting in a low spot that collects extra water or near a roof downspout. Mulch generously to maintain even soil moisture.
Joe Pye Weed Companion Plants
Use other late summer/fall bloomers, especially larger growing ones to match Eupatorium in size. Recommended companion plants for Joe Pye Weed include:
*Note on botanic nomenclature: Recently botanists have broken up the genus Eupatorium into three new genera. Many of our most familiar Joe Pye weeds are now in the genus Eutrochium. But for the sake of familiarity and to avoid confusion, I have used Eupatorium in this blog. Most commercial growers are continuing to use the old genus as well.
High Mountain Native Grass Seed Mix is a cool-season grass that is well-suited for growing in high elevations. Shown in late summer.
Sowing A Meadow With Western Trails Native Grass Seed Mix & High Mountain Native Grass Seed Mix
You don't need an expert to plant grass meadows. Native grass species mixtures like our Western Trails Native Grass Seed Mix and the High Mountain Native Grass Seed Mix provide property owners with a resilient multi-species mix of small to medium height grasses that withstand drought, provide natural beauty with their ornamental seed heads in late summer/fall and provide habitat for numerous beneficial insects, songbirds and small animals.
Western Trails Native Grass Seed Mix shown in fall.
Here are easy step-by-step instructions for preparing and sowing your native prairie/meadow mixes.
Make Sure to Match The Native Grass Seed Mix with Your Region's Rainfall and Climate
This mix is best used in regions where the average annual precipitation doesn't exceed 25" annually, making it a good choice for the western half of the US. (Western half of OK, KS, NE, SD. All of ND and all states west to the Pacific ocean.
Not generally recommended for the western side of OR and WA (the coastal side of the Cascades) where the rainfall amounts increase dramatically from the much drier eastern parts of those two states.
These grass species grow well in a wide range of soil types; from sandy to loam to heavy clay.
They are well suited to a wide range of elevations up to about 7,500 ft. in the southern parts of the West to about 6,000 ft. in the northern tier Western states.
The High Mountain Native Grass Seed Mix is an expertly formulated blend of cool-season native grasses that re-create high elevation meadows for states in the Intermountain West. These grasses thrive in cool mountain areas with late frosts in spring and early frosts in fall.
This mix is best used at higher elevations from 7,500 to around 9,000 ft. in the southern parts of the Intermountain states and above approximately 6,000 to around 8,000 ft. in the northern part of the Intermountain area.
These species grow well in a wide range of soil types; from sandy to loam to heavy clay.
High Mountain Native Grass Seed Mix in summer in Sante Fe, NM.
Here are a Few Tips for Planting Native Grass Seeds
Timing is the key to success.
The 'Western Trails' mix is a blend of warm-season grasses which means that you need to wait until mid- to late spring for the day and night temperatures to warm up.
In spring, wait until the night temperatures are consistently 50° F or warmer and the day temperatures are reaching even higher.
The season for sowing the Western Trails mix extends through summer into late summer/early fall (August/September) depending on your elevation. At higher, cooler elevations, the sowing date moves back earlier into August. As a general rule of thumb, The species of grasses in the 'Western Trails' mix need to be established 6 to 8 weeks before the start of freezing night temperatures.
The season for sowing the High Mountain mix begins after snow melts and extends into late July/early August. The higher the elevation, the sooner in summer the mix should be sown.
Preparing the Soil
Clear the area of weeds and any remnants of former lawns.
Most native grasses adapt well to poor soils making soil enrichment unnecessary.
Loosen soil to a depth of 3-4 inches using a rototiller. Rake the area with a bow rack to break up dirt clods and create a good seedbed.
For areas that have been overgrown with weeds for a long period of time, it's highly beneficial to make the extra effort to kill the weeds before you sown the grama seed. Rototill to a depth of 3-4 inches. Then water the site to encourage weeds to germinate. Rototill again to kill the young weeds. Re-water the site to get a second germination flush. Rototill one last time and rake the area with a bow rake to break up dirt clods and create a good seedbed. Then you're ready to sow.
Preparing the Seed and Sowing
Use at recommended rates on the seed package and adjust the amount needed to cover larger or smaller areas.
Mix weighed seed with slightly moist sand in a ratio of 2 parts sand to 1part seed so sowing is even.
Add Plant Success Granular mycorrhizal root inoculant to mix into the sand/seed mixture. This will improve seed germination and get young seedlings off to a faster, more vigorous start.
Gently rake the soil surface with the back of the bow rake to create a smooth, even seedbed.
Broadcast the seed/sand mixture by hand.
Use a lawn roller or small piece of plywood to press the seed firmly into the soil.
Mulch with a thin 1/4" layer of clean wheat or barley straw to retain moisture. NEVER use field hay as this will contaminate the area with many noxious weed seeds.
Watering and Germination
Set up a sprinkler(s) that provides coverage of the area, so that you can turn on the water without having to drag a hose and walk across the soggy soil of the newly seeded patch. After sowing, water the area thoroughly such that the soil is wet to a depth of 4-6 inches.
For the first week to 10 days, be prepared to water twice daily for 10 to 15 minutes, morning and evening to keep the top 1 inch of the soil damp.
Continue twice-daily watering until the grass germinates.
Once the grass germinates, over a period of a couple of weeks, cut back to once daily then every other day. Watch the young seedlings carefully and don't let them wither. But don't overwater and drown them. Watch patches of seedlings in low spots and reduce watering frequency if they seem to die off.
Depending on how hot it is, watering can be tapered off to once every 3 to 7 days. Check the soil moisture after you water with a hand trowel, to see how wet it is and how deep the moisture goes.
Warm night temperatures and moist soil help germination, usually within 7 to 10 days. If the seeds have not germinated within 15 days, re-sow.
Weed control is essential to establishing your newly sown native grass mixtures. Hopefully, by pre-germinating weed seeds (see "Preparing the Soil"), the amount of weeding needed will be greatly reduced. But some weeding is always needed.
Don't weed when the soil is moist from daily or every other day irrigation. This will compact the soil and kill tender young seedlings.
Unless the area is quickly overrun with broadleaf weed seedlings, it's best to wait about 4 to 6 weeks after sowing to begin weeding. When watering has been reduced to weekly intervals and the soil is firm between waterings, it's safe to walk over your new lawn/meadow. At this point, mowing the grass to a height of about 2 to 3 inches will help it to thicken up and weaken weed competition so that the grass can crowd out the weeds. Repeat every couple of weeks or as needed.
For small patches, hand weeding can be done in place of mowing. Use a board or small piece of plywood to kneel on to avoid crushing the young grass seedlings with your knees.
Western Trails Native Grass Seed Mix with wildflowers integrated into the mix.
Integrating Wild Flowers into Native Grasses
It can be challenging to seed wildflowers at the same time your sowing your native grass mixes.
Weeding your grass planting can be very difficult unless you have an experienced eye to distinguish between weeds and desirable wildflowers.
The 'Western Trails' mixture: be sure to select wildflowers that germinate in hot weather and don't require winter cold to condition the flower seeds to germinate. Mix them into the sand/grass seed bucket at sowing time.
If a wider range of wildflower types is desired for your 'Western Trails' mixture, you can leave long rectangular bands or irregularly shaped areas in the grass unsown with grass seed. This allows you to go back in the fall to sow wildflower mixes that require winterizing ("cold stratification").
The 'High Mountain' mixture: be sure to select mountain wildflowers that can germinate the following spring after getting the winter moist cold needed to overcome seed germination inhibitors. Mix them into the sand/grass seed bucket at sowing time.
Alternately, for either grass seed mixture, you can transplant potted wildflowers into the established warm or cool season grass meadows, choosing flower species that are good re-seeders to act as mother plants that will scatter seed naturally and fill into the grass over time.
Water Established Native Meadow Grasses
Once established (4 to 5 months after sowing and beyond), native grasses are very resilient to dry conditions. To keep it green and actively growing, some extra water may be needed during the hottest part of the summer when there has been little or no rain.
When watering established native grasses during spells, irrigate long enough to put down 1/3 to 1/2" of water. Any less and the water won't penetrate deeply enough into the root zone to be of use.
Use several coffee tins or other flat-bottomed containers scattered across the area to capture sprinkler water. Time your irrigation, then measure the water in the containers with a ruler. Then you'll know how long to run the sprinklers to put down adequate amounts of water.
Un-irrigated native grasses may brown out in extended periods of hot, dry weather but quickly green up again after a few good rains.
In many ecosystems, fire is an essential element to the health and renewal of the region's flora and fauna. In North America, Western forests, chaparral (shrublands in California) and the prairies are all dependent on fire to renew the ecosystems. But fire suppression efforts, drought and the movement of residential developments into fire-prone areas have made fires especially catastrophic. The post Landscape Restoration After a Fire appeared first on The High Country Gardens Blog.
Gardening in the arid climates of western North America has always been a challenge. Of all the factors that affect plant cultivation out west, the lack of moisture and limited water resources are two of our foremost challenges. With over 35 years of experience gardening in the high desert of northern New Mexico, I've used these principles as guideposts to make myself and other gardeners more successful in our gardening and landscaping efforts.The post Water Conservation in Wetter Climates - Why Worry About Water? appeared first on The High Country Gardens Blog.