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PMID:  Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Jan 8 ;34(1):35-38. PMID: 29926656 Abstract Title:  [cts of prenatal exposure of 850-1900MHz mobile phone on the expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of offspring rats]. Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of prenatal mobile phone exposure on the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) in dentate gyrus of offspring rats.METHODS: The rat model of prenatal mobile phone exposure was established and there were three groups including control group, short term maternal exposure group and long term maternal exposure group(=6). From pregnant day 1 to day 17, pregnant rats in long term and short term maternal exposure group were exposed to an mobile phone in talking mode for 6 h/d and 24 h/d, respectively. Length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight were observed. The cell morphology in dentate gyrus of offspring rats at the age of 1 month was studied by cresyl violet staining. The immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and DCX in dentate gyrus of rat offspring were detected, and the expression of DCX and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus of rat offspring were evaluated by Western blot.RESULTS: There was no difference in length of pregnancy, maternal body weight gain, litter size and pup's body weight among three groups. The morphological changes of pyramidal cells in the polymorphic layer and DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were obvious in rat offspring of long term maternal exposure group. There were less PCNA-positive cells in dentate gyrus and decreased expression of DCX and BDNF in hippocampus by Western blot in long term maternal exposure group compared with control and short term maternal exposure group (all

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PMID:  Toxicol Ind Health. 2018 Oct ;34(10):693-702. Epub 2018 Jul 15. PMID: 30009691 Abstract Title:  Effects of 900-MHz electromagnetic fields exposure throughout middle/late adolescence on the kidney morphology and biochemistry of the female rat. Abstract:  The effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) established when cell phones are in use on human health, and particularly the head, has been the subject of major scientific research. Phones are usually carried near the lumbar region when not in use, and the kidneys will also inevitably be affected by such fields. We investigated the effects on the kidneys of female rats exposed to a continuous 900-megahertz (MHz) EMF for 1 h daily in mid-late adolescence. Control, sham, and EMF groups were established. The EMF was applied to the application group rats daily on postnatal days 35-59. A pseudo-megahertz effect was applied to sham group rats. All animals were euthanized on postnatal day 60. Right kidney tissues were subjected to routine procedures. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, and total oxidant status (TOS) were investigated in left kidneys, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was also calculated from these. Histopathological analysis revealed no pathology in either the control or sham groups. However, findings including hemorrhage in glomerulus, vacuolization and irregularity in the proximal and distal tubular epithelium, diffuse glomerular degeneration and edema, occasional degeneration in Bowman capsules, hemorrhage in the medullary region, disturbed nucleus location and morphology, and tubular edema in the cortex were observed in the EMF groups. TOS and OSI values were lower in the EMF group (9.4316± 1.0211 and 0.8461 ± 0.0826, respectively) and the sham group (8.2171 ± 0.6437 and 0.7358 ± 0.0545, respectively) than in the control group (11.1522 ± 1.3389 and 1.0085 ± 0.1174, respectively) ( p

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PMID:  Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Nov 13 ;12(11):14519-28. Epub 2015 Nov 13. PMID: 26580639 Abstract Title:  Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Abstract:  Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students andHbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels ofHbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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PMID:  Cad Saude Publica. 2015 Oct ;31(10):2110-26. PMID: 26735379 Abstract Title:  Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms. Abstract:  The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

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PMID:  Electromagn Biol Med. 2019 ;38(1):96-101. Epub 2018 Dec 14. PMID: 30547710 Abstract Title:  The effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression  and anxiety. Abstract:  Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) is inevitable in some industries. There are concerns about the possible effects of this exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety among power plant workers. In this cross-sectional study, 132 power plant workers were included as the exposed group and 143 other workers were included as the unexposed group. The intensity of ELF-EMF at work stations was measured by using the IEEE Std C95.3.1 standard and then the time weighted average was calculated. Sleep quality, stress, depression and anxiety were measured by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire; and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The workers in the exposed group experienced significantly poorer sleep quality than the unexposed group. Depression was also more severe in the exposed group than the unexposed group (P = 0.039). Increased exposure to ELF-EMF had a direct and significant relation with increased stress, depression, and anxiety. Sleep quality in technicians with the highest exposure was significantly lower than the other groups. This study suggests that long-term occupational exposure to ELF-EMF maylead to depression, stress, anxiety and poor sleep quality.

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PMID:  Neurochem Int. 2019 Sep ;128:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 4. PMID: 30954502 Abstract Title:  Long-term exposure of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation induces stress and anxiety like behavior in rats. Abstract:  Long term exposure of electromagnetic radiations (EMR) from cell phones and Wi-Fi hold greater propensity to cause anxiety disorders. However, the studies investigating the effects of repeated exposure of EMR are limited. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated exposure of discrete frequencies of EMR in experimental animals. Male rats were exposed to EMR (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz) for 28 (1 h/day) days. Long term exposure of EMR (2450 MHz) induced anxiety like behavior. It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. Further, it impaired mitochondrial function and integrity. The expression of Bclshowed significant decrease while Bax and ratio of Bax: Bclwere increased in the mitochondria and vice versa in cytoplasm indicating altered regulation of apoptosis. EMR exposure caused release of cytochrome-c and expression of caspase-9 ensuing activation of apoptotic cell death. Additional set of experiments performed to estimate the pattern of cell death showed necrotic and apoptotic amygdalar cell death after EMR exposure. Histopathological studies also revealed a significant decrease in neuronal cells in amygdala. The above findings indicate that long-term exposure of EMR radiation (2450 MHz) acts as a stressor and induces anxiety-like behaviors with concomitant pathophysiological changes in EMR subjected rats.

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n/a PMID:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2017 09 ;27(5):497-504. Epub 2016 Oct 19. PMID: 27759027 Abstract Title:  Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures in kindergarten children. Abstract:  The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m).Similarly, the three highest personal exposure sources were: GSM 900 MHz downlink (50 mV/m); UMTS 2100 MHz downlink, GSM 900 MHz uplink and GSM 1800 MHz downlink (20 mV/m); and Frequency Modulation radio, Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (10 mV/m). The medianenvironmental exposures were: 179 mV/m (total all bands), 123 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 46 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 16 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). Similarly, the median personal exposures were: 81 mV/m (total all bands), 62 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 21 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 9 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). The measurements showed that environmental RF-EMF exposure levels exceeded the personal RF-EMF exposure levels at kindergartens.
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PMID:  Am J Mens Health. 2019 Jan-Feb;13(1):1557988318816914. Epub 2018 Dec 7. PMID: 30526242 Abstract Title:  Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students' Cognitive Health. Abstract:  The use of mobile phones has remarkably increased and become a basic need of daily life. Increasing subscriptions of mobile phones boost the installation of mobile phone base station towers (MPBSTs) in crowded commercial and residential areas including near school buildings. This study investigated the impact of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation generated by MPBSTs on cognitive functions. Two hundred and seventeen volunteer male students aged between 13 and 16 registered from two different intermediate schools: 124 students were from School 1 and 93 students were from School 2. The MPBSTs were located within 200 m from the school buildings. In School 1, RF-EMF was 2.010µW/cmwith a frequency of 925 MHz and in School 2, RF-EMF was 10.021µW/cmwith a frequency of 925 MHz. Students were exposed to EMFR for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week for a total period of 2 years. The Narda Safety Test Solution device SRM-3006 was used to measure RF-EMF in both schools, and cognitive functions tasks were measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Significant impairment in Motor Screening Task (MOT; p = .03) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task ( p = .04) was identified among the group of students who were exposed to high RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs. High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF.

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PMID:  Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2005 Dec ;23(6):424-7. PMID: 16405774 Abstract Title:  [Relationship between millimeter wave irradiation in pregnant mice and c-Fos protein expression in hippocampus and learning and memory functions in their offsprings]. Abstract:  OBJECTIVE: To determine the threshold of millimeter wave irradiation for fetal injury in mice and the mechanism of decrease of learning and memory function in their offsprings and to verify whether the millimeter wave has the non-thermal effect.METHODS: Pregnant mice were irradiated by millimeter wave with frequencies of 37.4, 42.2, 53.0 and 60.0 GHz at power densities of 1, 3, 5, 8 mW/cm(2) for two hours daily from the 6th to 15th day of their gestation. Learning and memory functions of their offsprings were tested by a Y-type electric maze. c-Fos protein expression level in hippocampus of their offsprings was determined with immunohistochemistry 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the offsprings were trained respectively.RESULTS: The minimal power density of millimeter wave for the decrease in learning and memory function and decrease of c-Fos protein expression level in hippocampus of their offsprings caused by 37.4, 42.2 GHz and 53.0, 60.0 GHz was 5 and 3 mW/cm(2). Severity of injury for learning and memory in offsprings caused by irradiation increased with the power density of millimeter wave. The millimeter wave did not cause increase of the body temperature of the pregnant mice.CONCLUSION: The threshold of millimeter wave with 37.4, 42.2 GHz, and 53.0, 60.0 GHz causing fetal injury in mice is 5 and 3 mW/cm(2) respectively. The decrease in learning and memory functions in offspring mice is related with decrease of c-Fos protein expression level in hippocampus. Millimeter wave has the non-thermal effects.

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PMID:  Radiat Res. 2009 Dec ;172(6):725-36. PMID: 19929419 Abstract Title:  Altered calcium dynamics mediates P19-derived neuron-like cell responses to millimeter-wave radiation. Abstract:  Intracellular calcium oscillations have long been recognized as a principal mediator of many vital cellular activities. Furthermore, Ca(2+) dynamics can be modulated by external physical cues, including electromagnetic fields. While cellular responses to low-frequency electric fields have been established, the possible non-thermal effects of millimeter-wave (MMW) radiation are still a subject of discussion and debate. We used mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells and a custom-built 94 GHz applicator to examine in real time the altered Ca(2+) oscillations associated with MMW stimulation. MMW irradiation at 18.6 kW/m(2) nominal power density significantly increased the Ca(2+) spiking frequency in the cells exhibiting Ca(2+) activity. The N-type calcium channels, phospholipase C enzyme, and actin cytoskeleton appear to be involved in mediating increased Ca(2+) spiking. Reorganization of the actin microfilaments by a 94 GHz field seems to play a crucial role in modulating not only Ca(2+) activity but also cell biomechanics. Many but not all observed cellular responses to MMW were similar to thermally induced effects. For example, cell exposure to a 94 GHz field induced nitric oxide production in some morphologically distinct neuronal cells that could not be reproduced by thermal heating of the cells up to 42 degrees C. The highest observed average temperature rise in the MMW exposure chamber was approximately 8 degrees C above the room temperature, with possible complex non-uniform microscopic distribution of heating rates at the cell level. Our findings may be useful to establish quantitative molecular benchmarks for elucidation of nociception mechanisms and evaluation of potential adverse bioeffects associated with MMW exposure. Moreover, control of Ca(2+) dynamics by MMW stimulation may offer new tools for regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent cellular and molecular activities, for example, in tissue engineering applications.

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