Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a prevalence of 1% among the general population (Nygren et al., 2012; Simonoff, 2012). A higher (2.41%) prevalence of ASD among US children and adolescents was recently reported (Xu et al., 2018). ASD, a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by social, communication, and behavioral deficits, has attracted copious research in the past few decades. This research has led to an understanding that the epidemiology of ASD varies with different and changing diagnostic criteria.
It is estimated that about one-third of all people have suicidal ideation at some time during their lifetime. The prevalence of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation in the general population is quite substantial, and it has been associated with impairment in psychosocial functioning at school, with friends and family, often with potentially dangerous long term consequences (Bansal et al., 2009; Rao et al., 2009). There are many types of treatment for depressed, high on suicidal risk adolescents including psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychotherapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, family therapy, group therapy, and pharmacotherapy (Reinecke et al., 2005).
Depression is one of the leading psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 16% whereas eating disorders are less common with an overall prevalence of 3 % (Kessler et al.,2005; Smink et al., 2012). However, individuals with eating disorders are subjected to a higher risk of depression, raising the lifetime odds to 50-75%. More precisely, the comorbidity with depression has been revealed in 30 to 50% of patients suffering from BN (Hudson et al., 2007; Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders, 2000; Swanson et al., 2011).
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with chronic and relapsing course with usually incomplete remissions, significant functional decline, frequent psychiatric and medical co morbidities and increased mortality (Tandon et al., 2009). Depression, anxiety and substance abuse are common comorbidities in schizophrenia and they influence the clinical picture(Green et al., 2003).
This summary provides details of a one-day symposium, titled ‘Community Psychiatry and District Mental Health Program (DMHP)- An update’ that was organized jointly by the Departments of Psychiatry and Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru in collaboration with the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Karnataka on September 3rd 2018. This symposium was supported by Dr. Ramachandra N Moorthy, foundation for Mental Health and Neurological Sciences, NIMHANS, Bengaluru.
The last decade has seen a tremendous growth and development in the mobile and telecom technology along with seamless and fast connectivity through Internet to the virtual and online world. Though this progress is remarkable and has helped a lot in the economic growth of countries all over the World, but it has also led to development of an new problematic entity which is commonly called as the Internet Addiction (IA)(Mihajlov and Vejmelka, 2017; Young, 1998a, 1998b). However, more recently many group of authors/researchers have questioned the term ‘Internet Addiction’ because of lack of scientific proof of true addiction and the term “problematic internet use” has been more favored for use (Aboujaoude, 2010; Shapira et al., 2003) and is being used more frequently across the World.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, intrusive, anxiety-provoking thoughts called the obsessions and compulsive behaviors which are aimed at decreasing the distress or anxiety (APA, 2000). According to the cognitive models of OCD, the distress which emanates from the intrusive thoughts is due to the personal significance one attributes to them (Berman et al., 2011; Rachman, 1997). This model provides clues to the strong cognition-emotion link in the origin and maintenance of OCD symptoms suggesting that a negative feedback loop develops as one’s attention focuses on the intrusive thoughts (Calkins et al., 2013).
Comorbidity across psychiatric illnesses is a norm. Comorbidities among persons with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities (MR/ID) is the most commonly studied topic in the field of comorbidity (Matson and Cervantes, 2013). While a systematic review reported that the rates of psychiatric comorbidity for children and adolescents with MR/ID to range between 30 and 50% (Einfeld et al., 2011), a very large population-based cross-sectional analysis among adults with MR/ID report about 35% prevalence of mental health comorbidity (Cooper et al., 2015).
The perinatal period refers to the time from conception to the end of the first year after delivery and therefore encompasses the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and the first post-partum year. While women of childbearing age are inherently at higher risk of depression, the profound physiological and emotional changes that occur during pregnancy and the post-partum period further increases the risk of a depressive episode. Depression during the perinatal period can have devastating effects on both the mother and the fetus/infant and the damaging consequences on the child can be long-lasting (often lifelong!).
Delirium is common syndrome among elderly people with physical comorbidities, and it is associated with greater mortality risk and major burden to health care cost (Inouye 2006, Witlox et al., 2010). The care of the patients with delirium is often difficult, owing to their multiple predisposing and precipitating factors (Inouye 2006, Martins and Fernandes, 2012, Witlox et al., 2010). Prescription of antipsychotic drugs is occasionally required for acute severe agitation (Inouye 2006, Oh et al., 2017), and some patients showed complex medical conditions for overlapping symptoms of physical disorders and side effects of antipsychotic drugs.