There's a new quilling book in town! Quilling, The Art of Paper Filigree by Philippa Reid, whose work I, and undoubtedly many of you, have known for years via the online paper crafting community, is a British publication from The Crowood Press. While the paperback and e-book versions are already available in the UK, both can be pre-ordered on Amazon here in the U.S. where they will be released on July 22.
When Philippa first wrote to tell me about her book, she explained that it is unlike other quilling titles in that it does not contain patterns or projects. Instead, it is a compendium of highly detailed information about traditional quilling techniques, some of which date back hundreds of years, as well as modern applications. Containing 112 pages and 173 photographs, you will find quillwork created by Philippa with only her fingers, paper strips, and glue.
She further explained:
Quilling, for me, has always been about exploring creative possibilities. The numerous different shapes that can be formed using rolled, pinched, looped and moulded paper strips all have a natural fluidity that allows them to fit readily together, and I personally think this offers almost infinite potential for the creation of designs.
When I was approached by Crowood Press to write a comprehensive practical guide to paper filigree techniques, I was very excited by the prospect of exploring and demonstrating all the processes involved in quilling in a very detailed, hands-on way. I wanted the book to reflect the approach I take with my workshops, in terms of encouraging students' own innate creativity through mastery of the skills required.
Philippa shows another way to use the same shapes that are in the previous design.
My aim was to inspire readers across a very broad potential audience, ranging from general crafters and novice/experienced quillers right through to mixed media artists who work with collage techniques. Having learned so much on my own path towards attaining Higher Level Accreditation with the UK-based Quilling Guild in 2016, I could see the writing of this book as the culmination of that journey.
I loved every minute of the writing process. It felt as though I was pouring my heart and soul out onto the pages, passing on - and in some instances reviving - information that has nourished the development of paper filigree art over the centuries. Now it is for readers of my book to take that knowledge forward.
Philippa is a dedicated finger roller who encourages this method of rolling coils without the use of a typical quilling tool. You'll also find instructions for forming vortex coils, pixie-hood loops, huskings, multi-strip open coils, fringed flowers, ring coils, and more. She shows her technique of creating a single strip outline with the aid of straight pins (image below), on-edge letters, abstract designs, and 3D models constructed from solid coils.
And now an INTERNATIONAL giveaway, courtesy of The Crowood Press. To enter to win a copy of Philippa's book, leave a comment below.
Note that Blogger does not allow me to see the email address you type in at first, so you must also include an email address within your comment so you can be contacted if you win. Concerned about spam? Type your address like this: janedoe at gmail dot com
Two chances to win! A separate, but identical giveaway is underway on Instagram. You may enter both places to double your chances.
The winner of each giveaway will be chosen separately via a random number generator on Sunday July 21, notified, and announced at the end of this post and on Instagram. Good luck!
Lest you think handmade paper produced at home must be rustic and not very useful, let me show you the pretty things that Ulrike Hagel of Münster, Germany and Etsy shop Paperuli manages to create with nothing more than discarded paper, a few supplies, time, and patience.
Her photos first caught my eye via Facebook group, Paper Threads, Yarns and Textiles (a gem of a place for meeting others who are into paper making, paper yarn, and paper sculpture). Ulrike's lovelies are a tribute to the possibilities - and dare I say even the elegance - of upcycled waste paper.
Like many paper people I've come across, her enthusiasm for all that simple paper provides is contagious. It's clear she enjoys experimenting... in the photo above, for example, twisted paper yarn created with undyed teabag paper (the kind that is filled with a tea of choice) was dip-dyed with food coloring and elderberry juice.
paper twine dyed with tea, then crocheted
Curious to learn more about Ulrike's passion, I wrote to ask about her work as a paper maker.
What initially piqued your interest in paper?
I'm a philologist [Wikipedia: the study of language in oral and written historical sources] focused on 18th century German literature. The authors of that time still had to prepare their material before writing and often reflect on these processes in their books: they had to order paper, cut the paper, prepare the quills, mix the ink, write lots of letters, seal their mail with wax seals... to write was mental work AND handwork somehow! I have always been fascinated by these almost forgotten techniques and most of all I have been fascinated by paper as a material.
Embedded hydrangea blossoms
And your interest in paper making?
I started papermaking, first as a hobby, now it's my little job: I offer my handmade papers, my seed papers, and my paper yarns on Etsy, at local markets, and in my store Handwerkstatt Münster, where you can also attend my papermaking classes (one store, one community of three creative ladies, selling their handmade products and offering workshops and creative events).
crocheted newspaper yarn
What is a typical day like in the life of a paper maker?
The whole process of papermaking takes about three days and each day includes three stages: making today's paper, preparing for the next day of papermaking, and working with the dry sheets from the previous day. In the evenings maybe I'll relax and make some newspaper yarn.
The day before actually making the paper, I create recycled pulp using discarded office papers and junk mail in all colors that I store in boxes. I tear the used papers, put the strips in a bucket, and soak them overnight.
On this day I also prepare the motifs... the ones you see on many of my handmade paper products are neither printed nor stamped, but cut by hand from finest paper and embedded during the papermaking process. Each handmade paper card or gift tag is unique.
The next day I beat the pulp with a kitchen blender and start making paper. I have many different moulds and deckles: small and big ones, round and rectangular. I don't use additives, just recycled paper and water. I begin by filling a vat with warm water and pour in some paper pulp. Then I start pulling and couching the sheets, about 20-30 in a batch. After pressing the whole stock, the sheets have to dry: I hang them together with the felts they have been couched on.
This is paper twine purchased by Ulrike for crocheting; it is remarkably strong despite its fine texture.
The next day the paper sheets are dry and can be taken off the felts, then I iron them to get a smooth surface and turn them into products: cards with paper inserts and cords, gift tags attached with baker's twine, stationery with decorative elements, and so on.
Visit Paperuli to see the current items Ulrike has on offer. Her store, Handwerkstatt Münster, is located at Zumsandestr. 32, 48145 in Münster, Germany. You'll find a listing of workshops for adults and children listed on the site (in German)along with paper craft tutorials. Market days begin in October. She posts updates on Facebook and is also on Pinterest
An Associate Professor at Stephen F. Austin State University in Texas, Candace's artist statement indicates she creates interactive installations and artist’s books that examine gender, voice, and parallel universes through the analysis of fictional literature. Paper is a frequent material of choice, as you can see in this example of a diorama in her recent series Many Mini Murder Scenes that allowed viewers the opportunity to play detective while searching for clues.
There is nothing traditional about the quilling style or subject matter that Candace employs in the creation of these finely fringed oriental carpets. She cuts narrow strips of Canson sheet paper, fringes each one by hand, then firmly rolls it into a shape that plays a tiny part in filling a drawn outline. Not all of her rugs are miniature... some are as large as 24 x 30 inches!
Curious about Candace's work, I wrote to ask a few questions regarding her process in creating the designs and their meaning.
The first paper rugs I made were for the Many Mini Murders Scenes exhibition at Women and Their Work in Austin, Texas. At that time I was using paper to make low-relief works depicting fictional crime victims. The latest rug patterns are derived from pulp novel covers. A surprising variety of dead woman illustrate crime fiction covers, and I started employing the figures of the women as part of the floral motif of the rugs. I find it both disturbing and baffling that dead women are used as decorative elements as easily as cut flowers.
The modified quilling technique I developed is a testament to the versatility of paper. Paper can stand in for so many surfaces and textures. The limited color palette of a rug pattern offers a stimulating design challenge, and I enjoy studying antique rug designs. With a background in printmaking and book arts, I enthusiastically reach for paper as a material even when I’m making a painting or a sculpture. In several of the rug designs I include a blood stain on the rug as a reference to violence in the domestic sphere.
I also asked Candace about her introduction to quilling and due to the intensive nature of fringing and immense number of paper strips she cuts, how she is managing hand stress.
My mother taught me quilling as a kid. She’s an artist and loves all kinds of craft. I fringe the strips by hand with scissors, and I haven’t developed an injury. I do try to change things up, so I have several bodies of work going at the same time.
Candace's work has been displayed in many solo and group exhibitions worldwide. Represented by RO2 Gallery in Dallas, upcoming exhibitions will take place at Antenna in New Orleans and Blue Star Contemporary in San Antonio. She creates a wide variety of objects from paper and I encourage you to visit candacehicks.com to see more examples. Stay updated with her latest work via Instagram, @candacehicksart.
Silina Pandelidou of Silinarte in Paros, Greece is an artist I've admired since spotting her elegant work via a paper jewelry search. Her work features colorful minimal designs and organic shapes, not to mention gorgeous photography. Have a look... is it any wonder I was captivated at first glance?
Paros is an island in the Aegean Sea, noteworthy for its beautiful beaches. Each sleek Silinarte piece brings to mind warm days, refreshing water, and cloudless skies... you get the picture. It's difficult to choose a favorite!
Born and raised in Athens, Silina has been creating since childhood. She says, "I studied graphic design, fell in love with the book arts, lived in Seville for a while making books, lived in Florence for a while learning to work with metal, travelled to far away places and chose a special place to set up my home and my workshop."
"In my jewellery I try to convey fragments of the nature that I observe and admire. My main materials are silver and paper. At times I transform the silver until it follows my sketch, or at other times I let it show me the way through its own pathways."
"For the purpose of antithesis but also for balance I use paper, my favourite material which feels as if it holds me by the hand. The paper fibers create for me the environment where I can play with the colours of nature and form the canvas on which I narrate my stories."
Each design begins with a sketch, often a silver base is created and textured watercolor paper is cut to fit the shape. She then applies paint and sometimes adds a golden accent with a stroke of her brush. Lastly, the paper is sealed.
Silina's jewelry is sold in galleries and shops in Greece and Europe - here are the stockists - but you can also see her collections via the Silinarte website.... it is lovely and well-worth a browse!
Contact Silina via email at silinarte at gmail dot com if you wish to make a purchase.
And now a WORLDWIDE giveaway! To enter to win a pair of custom made Nebulae stud earrings (as shown in the next two photos) in the winner's choice of colors, leave a comment below.
Note that Blogger does not allow me to see the email address you type in first, so you must also include an email address within your comment so I can contact you if you win. Concerned about spam? Type your address this way: janedoe at gmail dot com
Two chances to win: the same giveaway is underway on Instagram. Yes, you may enter both places to double your chances!
The lucky winner will be chosen at random on Sunday June 30, notified, and announced at the end of this post and on Instagram.
The first quilling tutorial I ever wrote was for a paper crafting site called Folding Trees... it no longer exists and I still miss it. My how-to featured two patterns - a quilled starfish and a scallop shell - both designed to be worn as necklace pendants. I've since reposted the quilled starfish tutorial on this blog, and today I'm happy to (finally!) share the quilled shell design, two actually, as I've tweaked the original and will show both in this post.
Tools and Supplies:
Quilling strips - your choice of color.
I used black with a metallic gold edge for the original scallop shell and pearlized gold with a metallic gold edge for the revised version, 1/8 inch (3mm) width, from JJ Quilling Design.
Tip: JJ Quilling metallic edge strips have a bright shine along one edge and are available in many color combinations. One package contains enough strips to make several pendants. U.S. online quilling suppliers, such as Custom Quilling, Quilling Supply, and Whimsiquills, carry the JJ brand, but not necessarily all colors.
Optional: I don't find it necessary to use a protective coating on paper pendants since they are generally out of harm's way when worn, but in a humid climate you may wish to apply a brush-on or spray matte fixative. Liquitex Matte Varnish is a good one.
1. Make 9 quilled wheat ears:
2 with 3 loops
2 with 4 loops
2 with 5 loops
3 with 6 loops
To make a wheat ear:
a. Begin by making a ¼ inch fold at one end of a 10 inch (approximate) strip.
b. Loop the strip completely around the fold. Apply a dot of glue at the bottom to anchor the strip in place.
Gluing tip: Use the smallest possible amount; no glue should show on your finished project. I like to put a small dollop on a plastic lid and dip from it with the tip of a paper piercing tool, cocktail pick, or pin as this helps to control the amount. A fine-tip plastic glue bottle is popular with many quillers too.
c. Continue to loop the paper, spacing the loops evenly. It isn't necessary to glue each one. Each loop should be slightly taller than the previous loop. Gently shape them as you go to form a column.
d. Glue the strip at the bottom of the column and trim any excess.
2. Glue the wheat ears side by side with the tallest three in the center. Arrange the remaining wheat ears by descending height on each side of the center wheat ears.
3. Make the marquise base coil:
a. Roll an 18-inch strip on a quilling tool.
or slotted tool - the choice is yours
b. Allow the coil to relax.
relaxed 'loose' coil on needle tool
c. Slip this loose coil off the tool and pinch it at opposite sides to make two points. Glue the end at one of the points and trim excess. Shape the marquise to match the one in the finished pendant photo by holding both points and pressing gently toward the coil center.
4. Stack and glue two 3-inch strips, one on top of the other, to make a double-strength strip. If excess glue seeps out along the edges, wipe the strip gently with a damp cloth while the glue is still wet.
5. When the strip is completely dry (don't rush or it may buckle), run it through a crimper. Use your finger to apply a light coating of glue along the bumps on one side of the crimped strip, then press it gently in place around the wheat ears to make a shell shape. Trim excess.
6. Glue the marquise at the base of the wheat ears.
7. Reinforce joins by dotting glue on the back of the seashell. Set aside and allow the glue to dry overnight.
8. Use two pairs of jewelry pliers to open a jump ring by grasping each side close to the split and twisting gently. Slip the ring onto the center wheat ear and reverse the twisting motion to close.
9. Slide a cord or necklace chain through the jump ring. Finis - something new to wear today!
Here is a scallop shell variation that has three coils at the base rather than one marquise. These are shaped triangles that are made the same way as a marquise with the addition of pinching a third point. The largest triangle is made with a 10-inch strip and the two smaller triangles are each made with a five-inch strip.
Tip: If you don't have access to metallic-edge quilling paper, plain strips can be edged with a Krylon leafing pen. Another option is to press the completed pendant against a metallic ink pad, such as Galaxy Gold by Brilliancefor a more subtle shine.
I hope you'll enjoy quilling this simple and summery scallop shell necklace... it's easy enough to make in an evening and wear the next day!
This post contains Amazon and Etsy affiliate links. If you click through and make a purchase,
I will receive a minimal commission at no extra cost to you.
I love coming across a paper artist who is doing something completely fresh and modern. Such was the case when I spotted the lacy paper cut floral jewelry that artist Jeanie Ho creates in Sydney, Australia. After briefly featuring her Plucking Peonies shop earlier this season in a paper jewelry round up, this week I'm pleased to host a giveaway of Jeanie's hand cut earrings to draw even more attention to her fine work.
After completing art degrees in Hong Kong and Australia, Jeanie traveled to Japan where she was inspired to cut sakura (cherry) blossoms. She uses strong Yupo paper that is impervious to water and also tear resistant, and has gone on to cut interpretations of other flowers such as peonies, tulips, and chrysanthemums.
Jeanie's statement earrings might feature just one dramatic flower on a sterling silver wire or two, three or more flowers. Each creation takes hours to complete. She offers the option of a comfortable stainless steel clip for those who don't have pierced ears.
But if you aren't an earring wearer at all, Jeanie has shown designs on her Plucking Peonies Instagram feed that include a floral brooch and a necklace composed of native Australian flowers.
Note that the listings in the Plucking Peonies shop are for single earrings, not pairs. This is because Jeanie designs them to be worn asymmetrically. However, she understand that some wearers would prefer a matching pair so offers that option as well. Because of the hand cut aspect though, no two earrings will look exactly the same.
Jeanie works full-time as an artist on paper cutting, embossing, and sometimes performance art. Her next exhibition will be in October in Hong Kong. Keep a lookout on Instagram as she will be sharing more information as the opening approaches.
Dwell in Dust
And now the WORLDWIDE giveaway! To enter to win a custom-made pair of floral earrings hand cut by Jeanie that will feature the winner's flower choice, post a comment below.
Note that Blogger does not allow me to see the email address you type in first, so you must also include an email address within your comment so you can be contacted if you win. Concerned about spam? Type your address this way: janedoe at gmail dot com
Two chances to win: the same giveaway is underway on Instagram. Yes, you may enter both places to double your chances. The winner will be chosen at random, notified, and announced here and on Instagram.
Jeanie's website is JeanieHo. She is on Instagram and can be reached at dontpluckthepeony[at]gmail.com
Every now and then I enjoy browsing Amazon to see what's new in the world of paper crafting. Enticing books are often included in the Hot New Releases list, and this time I also spied a couple of beautiful paper collections.... they would be fun to try out while making projects from the books.
Uncommon Paper Flowers from Chronicle Books looks like a beauty. Celebrated paper designer Kate Alarcón reveals the rich histories and unique characteristics behind 30 remarkable plants alongside instructions for crafting stunning paper versions of each one. These eye-catching creations make perfect wedding centerpieces, beautiful arrangements (that never wilt!) to brighten a home, and cheerful gifts for any occasion. October 15 is the release date, but it can be pre-ordered now.
Marbled papers have always appealed to me and I'd love to learn the process... thus, Making Marbled Paper by Heather Fletcher looks right up my alley. Included are more than thirty marbling patterns and an interactive step-by-step workbook. Learn marbling history along with multiple techniques. Coming October 14 from Fox Chapel Publishing.
You might think a rainbow gift wrap collection is a curious choice to include in this round up, but I've often used wrapping paper as backgrounds on handmade cards and as a substitute for origami paper. Add in the fact that I love watercolor designs as much as marbled ones... well, I was hooked the moment I saw them. Available now from Tuttle, a respected publisher of origami books and kits. (And also the publisher of my own All Things Paper book.)
If Folded Book Art by Clare Youngs sounds familiar, that's because you might recall the excitement when the hardcover version was first featured here a couple of years ago. Now it's out in paperback with a different cover image, but it is the same wonderful book filled with 35 creative projects. Available now from CICO Books.
Another lovely re-release, coming September 17 from Kodansha USA as a paperback, is Snowflakes, Sunbursts, and Stars. It features 75(!) designs from Ayako Brodek, whose specialty is origami and kirigami, and Shannon Voigt, who is a quiller. You'll find 25 step-by-step projects that utilize each technique, along with an inspiration gallery that shows how to turn the fruits of your labor into useful and even gift-worthy items.
This set of independently published scrapbook papers caught my attention because, as mentioned above, watercolors are my happy place. The double-sided Watercolor Galaxy Collection, presented in printed book style by graphic artist Leska Hamaty, is just one of many appealing designs. She suggests their weight is suitable for decoupage, scrapbooking, card making, and origami. Leska has a popular Etsy shop, LeskasDigitals, where the same designs are available if you need to print an unlimited supply. (Btw, everything is currently 40% off during a storewide Summer Sale.)
A couple of other things to bring to your attention... registration for Helen Hiebert's enjoyable Paper Weaving e-class just launched. Learn new skills while making shaped paper weavings, a window/wall hanging, a table runner, cards, a book, and a lantern. Class begins July 10, but don't wait to register, especially if you'd like to order a supply kit of specialty papers and more. Earlybird pricing ends June 17.
If you're on Instagram and would like to own a professional 'Helen-made' paper weaving, she will be sending either this lovely Japanese paper woven notebook or lantern (both projects are included in the class) to one lucky person who comments on this Instagram photo - winner's choice! The giveaway ends this Saturday, June 8, 2019.
All Things Paper is an Amazon and AWIN affiliate, and a Helen Hiebert Studio sponsor.
With a lifelong passion for creating, artist Tiffany Budzisz developed a special interest in paper sculpture while studying illlustration at Virginia Commonwealth University. She worked as an art director in Atlanta for more than a decade before she and her artist husband returned to Virginia to open an art studio, Art in the Valley, in Front Royal, an historic town in the Shenandoah Valley.
Tiffany uses an X-Acto knife and archival paper to create exceptional works, hand cutting/scoring the pieces and gently curving them on a dowel. When assembling a sculpture, she glues foam core board between each layer to lend shadows that add even more dimension.
As you can see in these examples, she is especially drawn to flora and fauna. The beauty of the natural world is often found in the details. My goal is to inspire the viewer to slow down and appreciate the intricacies found in life (and art), that are often overlooked in our busy, everyday lives.
In addition to paper sculpture wall art, Tiffany makes necklaces and rings that feature a miniature succulent, flower, or butterfly sculpture mounted inside a glass domed terrarium, as well as matted and framed ink on paper drawings... for example, this small beauty, Silver Hills.
Looking for a summer art project for yourself or an older child? Tiffany's paper sculpture dragon or koi fish kits, recommended for ages 12 and up, would be oh-so-satisfying.
Each packet includes fine art paper, a pattern, mat board, easel back, foam squares, and a step-by-step instruction booklet. You'll meet with success and can even follow along with Tiffany as she creates each design via a YouTube video.
The piece below was a commissioned first anniversary gift by a groom for his bride. They had married near the Golden Gate Bridge and the flowers were based on her wedding bouquet.
Want to feel like a kid in a candy shop?! Submit a comment on this blog post AND sign up for Tiffany's to enter an international giveaway. One winner will receive any item of choice from her online shop, excluding originals. Choose from a selection of fine art prints, paper sculpture kits, and terrarium jewelry. Enter by the end of Saturday, June 1, 2019.
Note that Blogger does not allow me to see the email address you type in first, so you must also include an email address within your comment so I can contact you if you win. Concerned about spam? Type your address this way: janedoe at gmail dot com
Two chances to win: A separate, but identical giveaway is underway on this @allthingspaper Instagram post. Yes, you may enter both places! The winners will be chosen via a random number generator, notified, and announced here and on Instagram.
Would you like to enhance your paper craft skills, not to mention spend time with like-minded folks who share your passion for paper? Experienced book artist, teacher and author Rachel Hazell is ready to introduce you to a world of creative paper projects via her e-course, PaperLove.
This five week online course begins June 17 and features more than twenty projects that include envelopes, boxes, and books. Step-by-step directions are clear and supplies are readily available. There is a new theme each week: Paper, Collage, Word, Book and Mail.
A tutorial to make a Five Minute Artist Book with hidden compartments (below) can be found on Rachel's Travelling Bookbinder site. Consider it a glimpse into the type of simple, yet ingenious DIY project that PaperLove participants will be doing.
Previous class participants mention that they couldn't wait for the next day to see what Rachel had up her sleeve. Perhaps think of the course as the best of summer camp for grown-ups... in other words, no damp cabins, mosquito bites or balloon tennis.
Book reviews like "really glad I bought this!" and "The writing is clear, complete and, often, amusing" and "Great book structures, wonderful photos, easy to understand, and Hazell is such an enthusiastic teacher", are a testament to Rachel's popularity.
PaperLove e-course dates are June 17 - July 21, 2019. Should you decide to sign up, enter the code NEWWAYS at checkout to receive a 10% discount.
All Things Paper is an Amazon and Travelling Bookbinder affiliate.
Paper artist and illustrator Laura K. Sayers creates miniature hand cut paper figures that have been delighting the masses - masses of Instagrammers, that is. I ask you... is there a cuter collection of teeny-tiny people anywhere on Earth? I don't think so! Instagram is where I first laid eyes on Laura's paper cuttings and knew they needed to be shared here on the blog.
Originally from Oxfordshire in England, she graduated with a first class degree in illustration from the College of Art at the University of Edinburgh, and worked in Edinburgh and Glasgow before moving to north London where she is a freelance illustrator.
Laura's style of creating colorful miniature figures and buildings originated about eight years ago while attending art school. She credits her childhood, faith, location, and personalities as inspiration.
Obviously Laura has no shortage of patience when it comes to scissor cutting such remarkably small pieces. Even tinier cuts are added to each layer, as seen in the detail shot above, and gouache or graphic digital elements are sometimes applied as finishing touches.
Laura K. Sayers photography: Ciara Menzies
She admits her work was 'reasonable' in size originally, but gradually became smaller and smaller. She enjoys the process and unique results, so worked to perfect her skill. The tiny buildings below were illustrations for a children's book... I can picture small ones poring over every little detail and taking them all in, as they tend to do.
To give you an even better idea of scale...
Laura created this paper cut portrait of Karl Lagerfeld for Elle magazine in 2018, just before his passing early this year. I hope he had a chance to enjoy seeing it.
An exciting event is the recent opening of Laura's first solo show, A Time for Every Purpose. Described as a celebration of the mundane, the exhibit is on display at The Jam Factory in Oxford through July 8, 2019. Artists Evening will be held this coming Sunday, May 19 from 6-8 PM.
Design created exclusively for a Not on the High Street shop Christmas card
She is a member of the Paper Artist Collective, an online group of talented artisans that hosts pop-up shops, collaborations, and exhibits (first featured in this post), and made this 3D paper craft model of Royal Albert Hall for an event... it is far larger than her usual pieces.
See more of Laura's paper art and contact her about a custom design via her website, Etsy shop, Not on the High Street shop, or Instagram. She welcomes requests for individual or family portraits, as well as characters from films and books, wedding portraits, and homes.