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Do you know how and where do students spend their money on? As a high school student spending money is definitely a hobby of mine. I could be spending money on food, clothes or anything that I want really. And now I’m about to tell you how and where I spend my money on.

Where do I spend my money on?
  1. Food
  2. Jewellery
  3. Accessories
  4. Makeup
  5. Technology
  6. Drinks
  7. Swimwear
  8. Tops/Bottoms
  9. Phone Bill

Now I am sure there are many more things that I spend money on but these are the main ones!

1. Spending money on Food:

Usually I get breakfast every now and then from McDonalds which can be anywhere from $2-$15. I also stop at the supermarket on the way to school to get snacks for the day. I also get dinner with my boyfriend once a month or so and the price can vary depending on where we go. I also spend $2-$15 at the school canteen once a week or every second week.

2. Spending money on Jewellery:

As I have joined a few affiliate programs for some brands I have been spending money on jewellery, and that can be anywhere from $5-$20. Other than doing it for the brands I don’t usually buy jewellery as my boyfriend does for our anniversary.

3. Spending money on Accessories:

Again being a brand ambassador I have to buy a few accessories like phone cases and other things like that and that can be anywhere from $5-$25. Usually every now and then when I buy a new phone I will buy a box of accessories that I just pay of in my phone bill.

4. Spending money on Makeup:

I buy a fair amount of makeup every couple of moths or so. But I do try to buy the cheapest and the most decent makeup I can. My foundation is usually around $20 or so but I wait for it to come on sale. My powder is only $4 or so and I get my mascara given to me by my nan for Christmas or something and it usually lasts.

5. Spending money on Technology:

Every year or two I upgrade my phone with the plan I’m on. Its over $100 but considering the new phones are $1000+ I think thats not a bad price to pay. In my phone plan I got a box of accessories so that saved me some money because I had to go buy some things for my car like a phone charger, aux ect. Only when my laptop breaks will I buy a new one and they are at least $1300.

6. Spending money on Drinks:

By drinks I mean coke, energy drinks, ect. Once a week or two I will go to the supermarket and buy a couple energy drinks to get me going for the day. Sometimes in the summer I will go to machos everyday after school and buy a frozen coke for $1 because it is just sooo hot! And I buy drinks from the canteen which are like $2 so not too bad of a price.

7. Spending money on Swimwear:

Depending on how much I have grown is how much I will spend on bikinis. At the moment I need to buy some new ones and they’re anywhere from $20-$70. My last pair were $70 and the bottoms didn’t even fit me!! Ive had my last pair for a few years now so they last and I’m not having to spend money on them constantly.

8. Spending money on Tops/Bottoms:

It seriously depends if I have a special occasion or not. So I’m about to get a new job in retail (Target) and they ask you to wear their clothes and represent the store. So I have just gone out and spent around $30 on new tops and pants. Usually I buy crops during the summer and long sleeves in the winter but they also last a while. I barely ever buy pants as I get all my mums clothes.

9. Spending money on Phone Bill:

Every month I send up to $150 on my phone bill. I know this seems like a lot but its really not that bad I mean I get my phone, free calls, free texts, 20 gig of data, insurance, a box of accessories, a bluetooth speaker and I get to upgrade my phone after 6 months. Its not bad considering my boyfriend spends $30 on credit each week and thats just calls, texts and data no extras like me.

So overall this is basically what most of my money gets spent on as a high school student!

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Literacy Learning in Early Childhood “I know that Miss B” said one of our students while pointing to a single letter. “It’s my name….”

It’s a sentence I have heard many times over the years as an early childhood and early year’s school teacher here in Australia. One indication that the young child is showing interest in literacy learning. However this is not the beginning because “literacy is the ability to read, view, write, design, speak and listen in a way that allows us to communicate effectively and to make sense of the world.”*

You see as adults we often think of literacy solely as learning the letters of the alphabet, learning their most common sound and then putting these together to make words. Yes, this is one component however prior to this children are learning other vital skills. Similar to most children crawling before they walk, these skills are required before writing. Speech, vocabulary, word use in role play and concepts of print are the necessary skills in the early childhood years prior to and in the first year of formal schooling.

How can parents/carers promote and work on early literacy? By engaging in some of the following with your preschool aged (approx. 4 year old) child.

Speech (by age 4 or 4.5 years of age)

– Can your child pronounce the sounds in words? Do they have trouble saying some letters? (Children acquire the ability to pronounce different sounds at varying ages. For example ‘th’ is usually mastered between the ages of 6-8 and children at this younger age often substitute w for v (e.g. wabbit), b for v and f for s or d. Please see a speech pathologist for age appropriate expectations

– Is your child using sentences or key words only?

– Do you have any concerns for their speech? If so it may be worth seeing a speech pathologist.

– Are they engaging in conversation with yourself or others?

Threading and saying the letter- Great Fine Motor and Speech Activities

Vocabulary (by 4 or 4.5 y.o)

– Use large words with your child or synonyms – don’t shy away from these. E.g. chemist instead of medicine place or larger words such as ‘expectation’, ‘anticipate’, ‘forgiveness’.

– Use these words in the correct context and in sentences

– Introduce children to new concepts/ more abstract ideas and relate these to real life examples in role play. Alternatively you can discuss these together when they are seen in real life examples (kindness, perseverance etc.)

– Ask children open ended questions and questions that get them to think (e.g. why did the rock sink and not the feather?). This is a wonderful opportunity to work on comprehension and to discover their own unique thoughts and beliefs. It also provides some funny answers at times as well.

Creating a play dough drawing using new words relating to the needs of people to survive. Drawing here by a 5 year old child.

Word use in role play (all ages)

– Set up and area in your home for roll play. This often includes an area that looks like a home with the Target/Kmart bought kitchen sets. These are fantastic for young children however as your child moves into Kindergarten and prep at school, varying this up is very helpful. For example, a doctors surgery, vet, hospital, dentist, pet shop, supermarket, lolly shop, space station, mechanic etc. The website: www.sparklebox.com provides a wonderful array of free posters and pictures you can print and add to create different areas.

– Get involved in your child’s play and use large words. Introduce words relating to each area (e.g. astronaut, stethoscope, anaesthetic, hub cap, ratchet gun etc.

– Invite other friend’s children over to join in with your child

– Create the area with your child so they feel some ownership

– Role play with your child what happens when you visit the dentist (also a great way to introduce the dentist before your child’s first visit).

– Create signs with your child (e.g. when creating a doctor’s surgery ask your child to name the place and have them watch you writing the poster and then allow them to draw the picture. This shared experiences gives children an opportunity to see that writing has meaning.

Concepts of print

If there is one thing I advise parents/carers in the early years it’s to read, read, read with your child. You can never read too much. This teaches your child there is value in literacy learning and that it is meaningful. To extend this further you can also introduce and work on these skills. (Approx. age 4-6)

– How to hold a book

– Correct way up of the book

– How to turn the page independently with fingers rather than the whole hand

– Knowing which part of the page we are reading (the words not pictures however pictures help)

– Learning that writing goes from left to right

– The parts of a book (front cover, back cover, spine)

– What is an author/illustrator?

– What do you think the story is about (before the story by looking at the front cover and asking why)

– What happened in the story (working on memory/recall)

Letters of the alphabet (Usually prep and older)

And lastly we come to learning the alphabet. This step I write cautiously and ONLY if your child is showing an interest in letters (sometimes this doesn’t take place until 5-6 years of age). One of the saddest things I have repeatedly seen has been children who were pushed to learn the letters of the alphabet too early; when they were not developmentally ready or had the maturity. This then led to a Storytelling with Felt Boards strong and adverse dislike of school and alphabet learning in the formal education years due to early exposure. Before letter learning please work on the following:

– Fine motor skill practice – children can begin this as early as desired. Fine motor skill practice is essential as it builds muscle, strength and coordination in your child’s hands prior to writing. It is also a wonderful way to observe your child’s choice of dominant/preferred writing hand.

While engaging in fine motor activities gradually use smaller objects as their fingers gains more dexterity. See fine motor activities/finger gym etc. on Pinterest and google. There are thousands of ideas with everyday house hold items.

– Work on upper body gross motor movement- build up the strength of your child’s upper arms. E.g. lifting heavier objects, drawing on vertical surfaces rather than horizontal (remember the paining easels we used in preschool?)- At home you can buy liquid chalk pens and allow your child to draw on a window (these wash off). Alternatively with an old table you don’t mind drawing on- sticky tape some paper underneath the table and allow your child to lie down and draw on it. This greatly works the upper arm strength.

– Engage in alphabet letter learning however ALWAYS IN A FUN PLAY BASED MANNER. Forget the flash cards and writing letters! There will be enough time when your child goes to school. Young children need engaging activities and from experience they are more likely to remember content when engaged and having fun. The more hands on activities the better and while doing this it also increases your child’s ability to focus, concentrate and persevere.

So there you have it. Different components that make up learning in the early years. Above all else laugh and enjoy as your child dives into the world of literacy learning. Written by Miss B June 2018. *From ‘Literacy and Numeracy Factsheet’ by the Department of Education and Training. Working arm strength with shaving cream

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Do you want to learn to speak Mandarin? Tony Eleninovski, an western English teacher in China shares his Chinese language journey.

In China, Guangzhou, English students will often ask me in English class, “Can you speak Mandarin/ Chinese?” My response, “当然可以说中文” is usually met with awe and disbelief. I break into Chinese to explain, “我在澳大利亚一年半自学汉语,然后去中国暨南大学两个学期读汉语。 我现在流利 讲中文. In Australia I self-taught myself for a year and a half. Then I came to China and studied in Jinan University for two semesters.”

1. Learn to read Chinese Characters

When a student asks, “Was it hard to learn Chinese?” The response, “No, it is not hard at all,” shocks them. Then I take them through my method. “You just need to learn how to read the Chinese characters first, because that is the hardest to memorise.”

I wrote down “3,000” on the whiteboard and explained, “You need to memorise three thousands Chinese characters to achieve an advanced level of Chinese proficiency. If you learn ten characters every day, when broken up into three thousand characters, that is three hundred days, or just under one year. If you account for holidays, then you can probably stretch that Chinese characters learning out to one year.”

“If you aim to learn seventy characters per week, and you can keep them in your mind, you will be able to learn enough Chinese characters required for advanced Chinese proficiency. When you pick up a Chinese text book, the words that form from those learned Chinese characters will be much easier to memorise.”

2. Learn to speak Mandarin and improve your listening skills / visualise

“After you learn the characters and associated pinyin, all you need to focus on is listening. You need six months to work on your pronunciation, how to recognise the pinyin in speech, and how to speak those words in Mandarin/ Chinese. You need to visualise the Chinese characters as you speak them.”

Translate In Your Mind

“One piece of good advice I can give you is to talk in your head. Before I came to China, I would talk Chinese in my head. I would say, ‘Today what do I want to do?’ 翻译. 我今天想做什么事情?’ I always translate it in my head. So that when I come to China, I will have more confidence.”

Write Down Chinese Vocabulary

I said, “So, when you have a problem and you don’t know the words, then you can go write it down. Easy (容易). What is another word for ‘easy’? Write it down, and you can remember. Then next time you think again, you will remember ‘easy, and this synonym too’. Then you will learn more words. Your vocabulary will increase.”

Homework Exercises

We spent three hours every day with me. I teach them so many new words.

I then explained, “You can learn seventy words per week, but sometimes the study results go in one ear and out the other, because there is no homework. You always not only have to listen, but write it down, and go home to make some exercises for yourself.”

“One day, for example, I will learn the Chinese word for ‘opportunity’ (机会). I will go home and wonder how I can use the word ‘opportunity’. For example, ‘Today I don’t have an opportunity to eat dinner. Today I have a good opportunity to sleep early.’ My advice is to use the new words wherever you can in day-to-day language. If you consciously use that word five or ten times, you will remember it.”

Travel – a great challenge

I reflected, “In Australia I learnt by myself. I studied every single day for ten hours a day. Not everyone can do that. But I would go to work for 8 hours a day, and before I leave for work, I would write down a few Chinese words on a notepad, and I will practice those words in breaks at work. Or, I will practice drawing characters when I can’t practice words. I will practice something in my spare time and my lunch time, and between work. That would be my whole time.”

(@) I was giving them all this good stuff (鸡汤) that they can listen to and apply themselves. I said, “That way, when I came to another county, I was prepared for that. It was no longer a challenge. It was something that would be more fun. I came to China because it was both a challenge for me, and because I did not get enough opportunity to speak Chinese in Australia. Even though my Chinese was bad (差), I still came to China and challenged myself.”


Those were my four pieces of advice. Learn to read Chinese characters, visualize the characters in your mind to remember the word, translate from English to Chinese in your mind, if you don’t know those words, write down synonyms, practice those words in as many scenarios as possible, and try to get into another country if possible. That is the best way you will learn Chinese. That is what I passed onto the kids in my class.

Tony Eleninovski – Western English Teacher in China

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Looking for easy things to draw? These drawing ideas for beginners will help you build confidence in drawing while creating an amazing but simple artwork.

Picasso is quoted as saying “Every child is an artist, the problem is how to remain one once we grow up.”

Ask a classroom of kindergarten children if they can draw and nearly all of them will raise their hands. Fast forward ten years and walk into a high school classroom asking the same question, only a handful will raise their hands.

From the age of 5, we begin to learn self-criticism, a trait we will carry with us for the rest of our lives. This trait carries through to the artistic side of our brain, impeding on our creative abilities.

As an artist and art tutor “I can’t draw to save myself” is something I hear every day. Teaching drawing skills is an art form in itself. Art and travel are my two great passions in life and for the past three years they have allowed me to travel the world as an art tutor for Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines teaching watercolour to passengers on sea days.

If you want to draw, then you can learn to do so, one step at a time. We aren’t born with talent but we can all develop skills.

My drawing ideas for beginners:

Without reading further take a pen and…

Draw a circle and colour it in
Now draw an oval and colour it in
Now draw a capital “L”
Now draw a comma  
Just look at what can be done with these 4 simple elements and a little imagination.

Now you can draw!


Don’t stop! He needs a friend or more!

Remember, ants don’t come in small, medium and large, so this is an excellent opportunity to practice “perspective” as well as drawing skills.

Why not turn your drawing into a complete artwork by adding a touch of gold leaf here and there for an ants picnic?

And from these 4 small elements, the circle, the oval, the Capital L and a Comma – a truly Australian Landscape painting can be achieved, simply by adding brushstrokes in the colours of the Outback.

And now, you are an artist!

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How to make friends in university: It’s not as scary as it seems – by Tessa Power

You’ve accepted an offer, bought textbooks, signed on for classes and maybe even postponed those travel dreams for another year.  You’re ready to start university…right? So where are all these nerves coming from?

Starting university can be daunting and most people experience a little nervousness or anxiety.  It’s like starting all over again at the bottom of the food chain and you’re probably feeling like an anxious year 7 kid on their first day of high school.  

Not knowing anyone in your course can definitely be discouraging and chances are you’re feeling a little bit out of your comfort zone.  As a proud survivor of my first half a semester of university, I’m here to tell you it gets better, and quickly. You won’t spend the next four years wandering campus alone, I promise!

Although friendships should be organic, and any “get to know each other” games in your tutorials will likely fall flat, there are several tried and true ways of making friends at university.

How to make friends in university 1 – Join a club

I’m sure you’ve heard it before, but joining a club or society really is one of the best ways to meet new people and make friends at university.  Most universities offer a variety of clubs, from sports to Pokémon and everything in between. Try joining one relevant to your degree and you’ll be sure to meet other first years who will be in many of the same classes as you.  Many clubs also organise social activities for their members.

How to make friends in university 2 – Go to your tutes!

Believe it or not, there are more than just academic reasons for attending your tutorials.  The smaller class sizes make it way easier to meet new people than in massive lecture theatres so don’t waste this opportunity by staring at the clock and waiting for the class to finish.  Engage with the people around you, even if it’s just to comment on the tutor’s bad history puns.

How to make friends in university 3 – Colleges

For students from out of town and even locals, colleges can provide almost instant friendships, invitations to social events and support throughout your degree.  Many universities have colleges with the option of either living on campus in a dormitory or becoming a non-residential member.

How to make friends in university 4 – Work on campus

Want to kill two birds with one stone and make some money while making friends?  Working on campus is a great solution. Most universities have a variety of eateries, bars, and shops that hire students on a casual basis.

Smile and be friendly to everyone you meet and you’ll have no trouble making new friends. Once you’ve met a few people (and maybe added a few friends on Facebook) they’ll introduce you to more people, who’ll introduce you to more people and you’ll be a social butterfly before you know it.  

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7 money saving tips for students – by Claire W.

As a University Graduate, I understand what it’s like being a student and having little to no money!

Even when your student loan drops and you feel like a lottery winner, the money seems to go pretty quickly, right?

All those academic books to buy, takeaways every weekend, crazy night outs every week. Everything seems to scream “I want your money!” Well, I have a few money saving tips to share with you…and if you’ve landed on this blog post, then you probably need them.

Here we go!

Money saving tips for students 1 – Never go food shopping when you’re hungry!

This will just result in a disaster. Go food shopping right after you’ve eaten, and it will stop you from impulse buying all of the food you don’t need! Take a list with you and only buy the essentials.

Money saving tips for students 2 – Have a “No spend day” every week!

Every week, set aside a day where you don’t spend any money at all! Stay in and catch up on work, binge watch your favourite Netflix series, visit a free museum. There’s so many things to do for free; you might actually enjoy yourself!

Money saving tips for students 3 – Have a coins money box.

Have a money box that you can’t get into, and every time you get some cash, whack it in the money box! You’ll be surprised at how much money you can save over time.

Money saving tips for students 4 – Only take cash on nights out.

Taking your credit card out on a night out is a big no no! ​Do I even need to explain this one?…

Money saving tips for students 5 – Set aside your weekly budget.

Decide how much money you can spend in the week. Every Monday, take out the cash you budgeted for and ONLY spend that amount! Weekly budgeting really is your best friend. You’ll thank me for this one.

Money saving tips for students 6 – Make the most of your student discount!

Find out all of the places that offer student discount, and use it! Make a list of all of the special student nights, and go! Student cinema night, student restaurant deals…there’s so much to make the most of that will save you heaps of money. If you’re unsure, ask! You’re only a student once…

Money saving tips for students 7 – Join a free Club.

University’s offer so many free sports teams, societies, fun clubs…most of them for free! This is a great way to spend your free time, make new friends, and try something new. You might surprise yourself with how talented you are at a sport you never even dreamed of playing. Go for it!

I hope my money saving tips will help you in some way. Think of saving money as a game or a challenge…it can actually be quite fun! Good luck, and enjoy yourself.

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Major problems faced by students in school today – by Annie N.

In 2017, University student completion data, conducted by government, has revealed the university dropout rate is around one in three students failing to complete their studies within six years of enrolment.

So why study?

Most students do it for that dream job and ultimately success.  We all will have a unique experience, but I guarantee it will not be easy! Graduates and university students will agree with me in feeling overwhelmed and distressed when they reminisce about their university life.

But its not all bad, my advice is that its essential that whatever you decide to study has to be something that interests you and that you are genuinely passionate about.  Secondly, make friends!

University will be difficult without having a close friendship group for moral and emotional support as well as networking and to bounce ideas from.

Major problems faced by students today?

Major student problems include the pressure, and too much of it and that uncertainty at the finish line, because what is the point if its not guaranteed that there will be jobs available?

Completing a university degree will take blood, sweat and tears. Most university students will be experiencing anxiety/ panic attacks and be sleep deprived from all-nighters cramming. Students discover a lot about themselves, they gain skills such as professional procrastination and resilience they continue living off coffee and energy drinks while during SWOTVAC.

Studying will take up majority of a student’s life, the other remaining portion of it will consist of a job and if you’re lucky you even might have personal/ social life. Try to find that balance, students will naturally fall into a routine that works for them.

For me, I worked by the reward system, I went out on every occasion I was able to or felt like I deserved it, i.e. after handing in assignments, completing tests and exams.  Be ready to experience fomo at its finest as sacrifices will have to be made.

My personal experience in school

From personal experience and enduring thirteen years of primary and secondary school, four and a half years studying a Bachelor of Laws full time and half a year of Advanced Graduate Diploma in legal practice.

I honestly had little to no personal or social life, but that didn’t bother me so much because I was able jusfitify that I would rather miss and event than have to restudy and redo an exam.  That said, on every chance I was able to go out – I always did. Thereby, balance must be found amongst all the mess. Don’t drive yourself mad, everything in moderation.

As a student, I honestly disliked school, but I knew it was necessary – or better said I was raised to believe that it was necessary to be successful and have an easy life.  My parents are both Vietnamese refugees so you can only imagine that they had ‘high’ expectations of what I would make of myself. I have a vivid memory that has been etched into my mind and I can remember it as if it happened yesterday…

I was probably in grade prep at the time and was at a family gathering with my all my cousins. Parents being typical parents and comparing their kids, my uncle interrogated me and asked me in front of all my relatives, “So what are you going to be when your older?”. I confidently answered, model or designer. My dad gave me a serious look from across the room and stated, “Wrong, doctor or nothing”.

In saying this I advise that you decide to study, do it for yourself and not to satisfy expectations because you will not get far and you will end up wasting your time.

I am now in the process of getting admitted as a lawyer in Victoria. I can confidently say I am glad that I endured all those years and I feel accomplished. However, studying isn’t for everyone, stay true to yourself and know where you want to be in 20 years’ time. Envision it, if studying is necessary; good luck and god speed. It will be worth it in the end, just don’t give up.

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Literary Techniques List: Techniques for Analysing a Written Text

When it comes to writing English essays, there is one thing that teachers scan for like a hawk over the page- techniques!

Literary techniques are devices and stylistic features used by authors and composers to convey meaning and underlying messages through their texts. They are specific strategies that enable relay of information in a way that has been largely predetermined by the writer

As you proceeded through high school, you would have been introduced to new techniques every year which seem to get progressively complicated. But they’re all great to implement in your critical analysis of texts.

Depending on the text type you are analysing, it is possible to know which techniques you should scan for. The tables below illustrate most of the literary devices that are embedded in popular media of text.

Narratives – Literary Techniques List
Technique Explanation Example
Allegory A narration that has double meaning- one dominant and the other recessive; add layers of depth to a text. The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis is a religious allegory with Aslan, the lion, as Christ and Edmund as Judas.
Analogy Use of a more simplistic idea to explain a more complicated phenomenon. A Short History of Nearly Everything: Analogy of a child’s paddle pool is used to explain volcanic plateaus.
Anecdotes A short, interesting story from personal experience to supplement the topic of discussion. Harry Potter: In a discussion of Hogwart’s maze-like corridors, Dumbledore says; “Only this morning I took a wrong turn…”
Antimetabole A phrase or sentence repeated in reverse order for rhetorical effect “If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.”
Antithesis Portrayal of ideas that highly contrasted the norm or accepted views; shows distance from contemporary context Brave New World: “The words mother and father have become unmentionable obscenity.”
Archetype Character conventions that are adhere to represent a persona that fits into that niche. A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson predominantly uses the scientist-superhero archetype to marvel at the narrated discoveries.
Chiasmus Similar to antimetabole where two parallel phrases are inverted for rhetorical effect. Macbeth: “Fair is foul and foul is fair.”
Cliché A common, frequently occurring saying; may relate to the reality/humaneness of the story’s context. “…they lived happily ever after.”-common fairytale ending.
Contrast Highlight differences between two people, objects or ideas to emphasise their dissimilarity. “What good is the warmth of summer, without the cold of winter to give it sweetness.”
Double Entendre A phrase that expresses double meanings, to mock or articulate an idea perfectly but indirectly. “Marriage is a fine institution, but I’m not ready for an institution.”
  1. Marriage as institutional custom in society
  2. Marriage sends one to mental institution
Epigraph Quotation of another work included by an author in their own. In The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, T.S. Eliot uses Dante’s Inferno for his epigraph to show his poem will be about confession.
Foreshadowing Hinting upcoming downfall or demise to create suspense Romeo and Juliet: “life were better ended by their hate, than death prorogued, wanting of thy love,”
Hyperbole Highly exaggerated comment/idea “frightened to death”
Icons A person, object or symbol that represents a particular concept. The Hunger Games: The golden mocking jay is an icon for rebellion.
Intertextual reference Shaping of a text’s meaning using another text to generate related understandings of both texts. Brave New World’s title is an intertextual reference to Miranda’s dialogue in Shakespeare’s The Tempest.
Irony The expression of a meaning using language that implies the opposite, for humorous or emphatic effect. Brave New World: The value of humanity degenerates the more humankind progresses with technology &commercialism.
Jargon Rhetorical device that places two elements in close relationship for comparative purposes. Hamlet employs many words related to the field of law used in Shakespeare’s time, e.g. “tenure”, “action of battery”, “statutes” and “conveyances”.
Juxtaposition Two scenes described consecutively to give a contrasting effect. In A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens portrays one city as “the best of times”, and “the worst of times” at the other.
Metaphor Using the characteristics of an object or event to describe another concept as being itself. “Words are daggers when laced with anger.”
Motif An object or idea that repeats itself throughout a literary work; it can be an image, idea, sound or words, that convey the text’s theme. In V for Vendetta, The Guy Fawkes mask is a motif, symbolising liberation, civil uprising, revolt and freedom.
Parable Usually a biblical story or reference through which a moral lesson is taught. The Boy Who Cried Wolf teaches the religious and ethical lesson to refrain from dishonesty.
Paradox A contradictory statement which, when investigated, is found to be true. “It takes darkness to be aware of the light.”- Treasure Tatum
Register/Diction The language used to address the audience: colloquial, formal, Shakespearean, poetic, slang, etc Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: “But by-and-by pap got too handy with his hick’ry, and I couldn’t stand it.”
Satire Use of humour and irony to criticise vices in context of contemporary politics and other topical issues. Aldous Huxley uses satire as the basis of Brave New World to criticise the entire fascist political system of London and American consumerism culture.
Simile A figure of speech that makes a comparison to show similarity between two things and improve understanding. Shakespeare’s Othello: “She was as false as water.”
Synecdoche Figure of speech in which a single term refers to the whole of something or vice versa. “England lost by six wickets.”−referring to English cricket team.
Syntax (Asyndeton) Set of rules dictating how words from different parts of speech are put together; asyndeton: omission of articles of speech. “Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?” Julius Caesar, by W. Shakespeare.
Vignettes Small impactful scene or descriptive passage (non-personal) that adds depth to the topic of narration. A Well-Lighted Cafe by Ernest Hemingway: “In the daytime the street was dusty, but at night the dew settled on the dust and the old man liked to sit late…”
Visual imagery Descriptions which are connotative of the setting, using sensory details to paint a picture with words. “The burger, aromatic with spices, made his mouth water in anticipation of the first bite.”
Poems – Literary Techniques List
Technique Explanation Example
Alliteration & Assonance Stylistic device in which a number of words share same first letter (alliteration) or vowel sounds (assonance). “warm wreaths of breaths” -Ted Hughes’ Full Moon and Little Frieda
Allusion A subtle reference to another text, event, historically significant or natural occurrence, a well-known figure’s discovery or a time period. Allusion to the Big Bang in Stormwolf’s Cloak of Protection: “searing pain of universal cautering iron, that transformational tool.”
Anaphora Deliberate repetition of the first part of a sentence to achieve an artistic effect. Richard III by W. Shakespeare: “This blessed pot, this earth, this realm, this England.”
Binary/Dichotomy Pair of related opposite terms “Seek freedom and become captive of your desires.”
Figurative language Use of words or expressions that are different from the literal interpretation “A bird that stalks down his narrow cage can seldom see through his bars of rage. His wings are clipped and his feet are tied…” →represents oppression
Iambic Pentameter A line in verse or poetry that has five strong metrical feet or beats, with stressed and unstressed syllables to provide structural form to poems. Shakespeare’s King Lear: “Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life.”
Onomatopoeia Words that imitate natural sounds to make the description more expressive and relatable. “buzz”, “splash”, “thump”, “roar”, etc.
Pathetic Fallacy Using aspects of the weather or natural forces to set the mood/setting of the text. Shakespeare’s Macbeth: “The night has been unruly. Where we lay, Our chimneys were blown down…”
Personification Human characteristics attributed to a non-living object to help audience empathise with it. “The moon has stepped back like an artist.” Ted Hughes’ Full Moon and Little Frieda
Plosive constants Phonic sounds of consonants made by stopping the airflow of the oral passage. e.g. “His stop consonants are too aspirated.”- includes letters p, b, t, d, k, g.
Representation How the author promotes a certain truth or meaning through textual tools. Ted Hughes’ anthology of poems, Birthday Letters, and Sylvia Plath’s poems were written to represent each other in a specific way (unreasonable, mad, irrational).
Rhyme Repetition of similar sounding words, occurring at the end of lines of a poem to give it a melody and offer symmetrical structure. “A bird that stalks down his narrow cage/ Can seldom see through his bars of rage.” I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou
Sibilance Alliteration of only soft ‘s’ sounds to create a hissing or whooshing effect. “Sally sells sea shells by the seashore.”
Symbolism Use of an object, concept, word or artefact that is representative of an idea with much deeper and more significant meaning. Shakespeare’s As You Like It: “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.”
Articles/Journals – Literary Techniques List
Technique Explanation Example
Emotive/evocative language Words that trigger the audience’s emotions and acquire their sympathy/anger/joy etc. “I am cheated of feature by dissembling nature, deformed, unfinished.” Richard III, Shakespeare.
First/second/third person narration Dependent on the perspective from which the story or text is being conveyed to readers. e.g. [first person] “I”, “me” and “we”.
Imperative voice/mood Powerful use of a verb at the beginning of a sentence of phrase to establish command. Yield never to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy.”- Winston Churchill.
Rhetoric Persuasively using language to question the audience in a manipulative way to gain their support. “And do you now strew flowers in his way that comes in triumph over Pompey’s blood?” Julius Caesar, by W. Shakespeare.
Statistics/numerical figures Numbers to indicate quantity and offer credibility of facts in the text. A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson: “There are 1.3 billion cubic kilometres of water on Earth.”
Superlatives A high degree adjective, usually with suffix –est to emphasise its attribute. “tallest”, “funniest”, “most difficult”, “the best”, etc.
Tone Attitude of the writer towards a subject or audience, indicating general atmosphere/mood/approach. “I shall be telling this with a sigh…” –The Road not Taken, by Robert Frost.
Play scripts – Literary Techniques List
Technique Explanation Example
Aside Short speech from a character that is spoken directly to the audience while other characters do not hear it. Macbeth [aside]: “Time thou anticipat’st my dread exploits. The flighty purpose never is o’ertook.”
Apostrophe Character speaks to an inanimate object or to someone who isn’t there to bring abstract ideas or non-existent people to life; helps communicate emotions better. “Oh! Stars and winds, ye are all about to mock me.”-Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein
Didactic A text that promotes instructions through its language and sends a moral message. Machiavelli’s The Prince indirectly details a guideline of what a prince in that era should act/rule like.
Disjunction A conjunctive word that dramatically perturbs the rhythm of the sentence. “He either missed the opportunity, or the opportunity wasn’t his to take.”
Ellipsis Three dots to show continuity or tailing thoughts; instigates suspense. “It shouldn’t be a problem, unless…”
Enjambment A poetic technique where a long line of a poem overflows to the next for coherence. “The holy time is quiet as a Nun
Breathless with adoration; the broad sun is sinking-“.
Euphemism Describing a graphic or distressing event using more subtle, less offensive phrasing. “Her clothes had seen better days.”
Gaps and Silence The absence of sound or dialogue momentarily to give reverberating spacious effect during reading, or trigger suspense. “It shouldn’t be a problem, unless…” [silence]
Humour Sense of amusement, wording that induces laughter through irony, puns, mockery or satire. “I have a high respect for your nerves. They are my old friends. I’ve heard you mention them…these twenty years at least.”-Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
Monologue A long speech by one actor in a play as part of theatrical performance. See Hamlet’s famous monologue.
Parody Amusing imitation or secondary version of an established style, media or genre. 10 Things I Hate About You is a parody of Shakespeare’s Taming of The Shrew.
Prose Form of language that has no formal metrical structure to imitate the natural flow of speech rather than rhythmic structure. Almost all Shakespearean plays (dramatic tragedies) are composed in prose form.
Proverb A short, well-known saying, stating general truth or advice. The Merchant of Venice: “All that glitters is not gold.”
Pun A play on words, merging the different meanings of like-sounding terms; causes amusement/provocation. Richard III, son of the Duke of York: “our discontent made glorious summer by this sun of
Soliloquy Act of speaking one’s thoughts aloud when alone regardless of other listeners. See Richard’s soliloquy at the beginning of Richard III.
TIPS for literary analysis
  • As a general rule of thumb, DO NOT IDENTIFY A TECHNIQUE WITHOUT EXPLAINING ITS EFFECT! It is outrageous how many students across the state continue to omit an explanation of the technique that they have extracted; little do they know that mentioning the technique has little value to the marker without its effect. The two must always go hand-in-hand.
  • We understand that it is often difficult to immediately pull out a good technique from the text. But never despair- techniques do not always have to be a technical, fancy term to make your analysis look A-grade. In a test scenario, your best chance is to return to the basics−it might not be the most impressive, but it will award you the marks.
  • For visuals and graphic novels, this could be as simple as outlining the positioning of characters/objects, salience, colour or monochrome (lack of colour), panels, or framing.
  • Films and photographs have the largest scope of scraping out a technique: tone of character’s speech, diegetic or non-diegetic dialogue, the type of film shot, lighting, angles or camera movement.
  • Literary passages: if you can’t easily find a technique from the meaning of the text, then pay attention to the sentence structure, such as syntax, asyndeton, truncated lines, or modality, superlatives and super adjectives from the wording. Is the diction emotive? Is it evocative?

Do NOT make up techniques or force them to comply with the text you are analysing out of desperation. It is appalling how students write “such-and-such symbolises this-and-that” when there is no symbolism evident! Use the method above and remember, there will always be potential to write.

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What do you study in psychology – an insider guide

My name is Nathan, and I am an Honours student currently undertaking my fourth-year of psychology at Deakin University, part-time. I started my Bachelor of Applied Science (Psychology) way back in mid-2013, and finished my third year in mid 2017.

I always took on 75% of the workload (three out of a possible four subjects) in order to give myself a little breathing room, which for me, was the right decision.

The first thing I noticed about studying psychology was how more science-y it was compared to my expectations.

Before I began, I expected psychology to focus on topics like feelings, families, and relationships far more than it did. These concepts were present, but the course contained topics I never expected, such as research methods, which explores psychological statistics, and the means by which psychology is studied through research and tricky math (surprisingly, there was no need for strong math skills, most of the hard math was taken care of by the computer). Below, I’ll discuss what a bachelor in psychology really consists of.

There are two major aspects of studying psychology formally.

What do you study in psychology – the study
  • The first of which is what you will be learning. This can range quite dramatically, including subjects like
  • Child and adolescent development (‘what is normal at what age?’)
  • Neuro-psychology (‘how does the brain work at a microscopic level?’), and

Abnormal psychology (‘what happens when things go wrong within the brain?’) for example. From my experience, in the early years, we looked at psychology very broadly, only touching on each topic week-by-week.

But in the later years, topics you just touched on earlier, become their own fully fleshed out subjects.

What do you study in psychology – the assignment

The second major aspect is what you will be producing.

The assignments in psychology are equally as varied as the subjects, ranging from simple multiple choice quizzes and short question-and-answer assignments which are typically not worth too much in terms of overall grade, to major assignments like lab reports, which are rigid studies that seek to answer specific questions about psychology, and are usually worth around 35-50% of your overall grade.

What do you study in psychology – the subject layout

Generally each subject in psychology will follow a set format.

This format can deviate a little, but overall, subject layout is similar across topics. For learning, each week you will be given a set reading from a textbook or online article, you will have to attend a lecture, and a tutorial session either weekly or fortnightly.

What do you study in psychology – the lecture

Lectures are the standard sit-and-listen situation where you will be presented with a bunch of slides and information regarding the topic, whereas tutorials are more closely akin to high-school learning. You will be in a small classroom with 5-30 other students, and will be able to have a back and forth with the teacher to discuss the subject, and be provided information about the assignments.

When it comes to assignments, and what you need to produce, each subject will normally require one or two minor assignments (such as quizzes) one major assignment (such as lab reports or group presentations), and finally, an exam. The exams are usually closed-book multiple choice, and can last between one or two hours. There are short answer exams, but they are less common.

Although some of these assignments and learning concepts were difficult, I never felt like I was left ‘high and dry’ by the teaching staff. The students were always given a starting point from which to work in each assignment, with clear directions and information regarding what was expected of students.

Overall, I would highly recommend studying psychology if you find yourself asking questions like ‘I wonder why that person said that’, or you find yourself wondering how people think. But most importantly, at the end of your degree, you will be equipped to make a difference in others lives, either through clinical practices, or through youth work.

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E Learning vs Traditional learning – How different are they?

We live in a busy world and it’s only getting busier. For those of you looking to study, whether studying for the first time, improving your career prospects or looking to learn more about something you’re interested in, the real challenge is fitting it your coursework and assignments. This increased need for flexibility is why universities are offering more online courses than ever before.

But what’s the difference between traditional and online study? We thought we’d step you through some of the major differences so you can see if it would suit your learning style, and your lifestyle.

E Learning vs Traditional learning 1 – Time management

One of the biggest differences is how your time is organised.

Traditional classes mean that you have to attend class at times set by the university, but online study usually involves weekly requirements (such as posting discussions) rather than ‘attendance’, meaning there’s no fixed time when you have to do your classwork.

This is fantastic if you need flexibility, but it means that you need to be paying attention to your own deadlines; you can’t just turn up to class and expect to be told about assignments and when they’re due, you’ll need to go hunting to find that out.

E Learning vs Traditional learning 2 – Interaction with other students

There are lots of different courses online and how engaged the students are in the course will depend on not only the course itself, but also the level of study (i.e. undergraduate or postgraduate).

In my experience, most people on campus have a little more time than their online counterparts for socialising (and it’s always easier to chat when you’re face-to-face), but chances are that if you’re busy, you don’t have much time to go out and take advantage of student-priced drinks on a Wednesday night.

If you’re doing a course to socialise, you’re probably better off to do it on-campus, but if you’re keen to meet like-minded people, you might have to accept that they live in another state.

E Learning vs Traditional learning 3 – Quality of teaching

Some of my fondest memories of my undergrad are from sitting in the lectures with the ‘fun’ lecturers, the ones with great stories that kept you engaged.

I also remember those lectures that dragged on forever with no break in the middle, but the point I’m making is that the teaching quality is rarely going to be as good online as it is face-to-face. Partially because you miss that opportunity for ‘quick’ questions with a lecturer or classmate, but partially because you’re getting all of your information from recordings or readings.

With that said, if you’re a diligent student then you’ll be reading and asking questions in your own time, and a good online tutor will answer questions that are only tangentially related to your classwork (and you won’t feel like you’re holding them up).

E Learning vs Traditional learning 4 – Explaining it to family and friends

This is going to sound really strange, but much like working from home, people imagine that studying online is somehow less work. Obviously this isn’t true, but a lot of people don’t trust that you can do something worthwhile from the comfort of your own home outside of business hours. If you need a lot of support for your study, know that you may not get as much as you need unless you communicate to people how much work you need to do.

There are obviously more differences, but hopefully these few have given you some ideas about whether online study would work for you, or whether it’s worth making the time to attend classes on campus.

The important thing to remember is that no matter what you wind up with the same piece of paper, so it’s important to pick whatever works best for you. When selecting a university, make sure you check on the services they offer students and find out whether they differ for online students (they usually don’t). If all else fails, call them up and ask them about any concerns you might have – you won’t be the first person to do it and they should be able to allay any concerns you might have. At the end of the day, do what’s best for you!

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