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September 25

275: Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed Roman emperor by the senate. By now the Roman Empire was in decline and Emperor’s served at the pleasure of the Army.  In the case of Tacitus, that meant a mere six months.  One of the Emperor’s greatest claims to fame was his relationship to the Tacitus, the famous first century Roman historian.  When it came to writing about the Jews, Tacitus (the historian) was not bothered by the facts.  He helped to propagate the claim that the ancient Israelites were a group of plague-infested Egyptians who were driven into the desert to die.  In hisHistories sounded themes that would be the staple of anti-Semites for the next two thousand years.  Jewish customs were vile and disgusting.  The vileness of their customs were actually the source of their strength.  Jews were compassionate and honest when dealing within their own community, but have nothing but contempt for the rest of mankind.  He did not see them as a political threat, but saw them as a corrupting influence that would undermine the moral fiber of the empire.  For this reason he advocated that they become as far from the imperial capital as possible.

1143: Celestine II, who was opposed by Petrus Leonis, the head of a “leading Roman family” that “had converted from Judaism to Christianity” was elected Pope today.

1253: Innocent IV re-confirms “Sicut Judaeis Non” a Papal Bull first issued by Calixtus II in 1120 “designed to provide protection for Jews from assaults by Crusaders” as they crossed Europe on their way to the Holy Land. (I cannot determine if the bull applied to the Jews in Jerusalem who slaughtered by the Christian Noble Knights)

1354: The Jewish communities of Catalonia and Valencia adopted statutes today that made “extermination of informers a public duty” in which “everyone was required to participate to the fullest measure. A similar statute was adopted by the Jews of Majorca. The informer of “moser” was constituted to be the lowest form of life among Jews, which, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia, the Talmud equated the serpent.

1396: Ottoman Emperor Bayezid I defeats a Christian army at the Battle of Nicopolis. The Battle of Nicopolis is referred to as the Last Crusade.  The clash was between the Moslem Ottomans and a alliance of Hungarian and French knights.  This French connection is ironic considering other events taking place at that time. In 1394, two years before this climatic fight, “Sultan Yildirim Bayezid invited the French Jews who were molested by King Charles VI, to the Ottoman Empire. They were settled in Edirne and the Balkans. The French Kings had the habit of inviting the Jews to establish commerce and borrowing money from them. However often, when payment was due, they expelled them; only to re-invite them when they needed further financing.”

1506: Charles V began his reign as Lord of the Netherlands. In 1522, Charles issued a proclamation against Christians who were suspected of being lax in the faith and against Jews who had not been baptized in Gelderland and Utrecht; and he repeated these edicts in 1545 and 1549.

1534: Pope Clement VII passed away.  At the time of his death Pope Clement was attempting to free 1200 Marranos that he felt had been unjustly imprisoned by the Inquisitions in Portugal.  His unusual attempt to gain mercy for these people died with his death.

1639(26thof Elul, 5399): Raizel Segal Kahana, the daughter of Yom Tov Lippman Helller and Rachell Heller and the wife of Yaakov Yosef Heller Kahana passed away today.

1669: Events began today that would result in another blood libel in Germany.  In the village of Glatigny, near Metz, Whilhelmina, the wife of Giles Lemoine, lost track of her three year old son Didier while she was doing laundry at the fountain in the village square. A search by the villagers proved fruitless. Then Daniel Payer told the searchers he had seen “a Hebrew with a heavy bear mounted on a white horse hurrying toward Metz and carrying in his arms a child about three years old.” The searchers then headed to Metz where they were told by a man who lived near the city gate that he had seen a Hebrew enter the city but he did not have a child. It was finally deduced that the man in question was Raphael Levi, a Jew living in Boulai, a village near Metz.  A warrant was then sworn out for his arrest. [see tomorrow’s blog for the next installment of this unfolding tragedy]

1694: Birthdate Henry Pelham who while serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom would oversee the passage of the Jew Act of 1753, which allowed Jews to become naturalized by application to Parliament.

1739(22ndof Elul, 5499): Marcus Mordechai Mozes Drukker passed away in Amsterdam.

1740: Nathan Levy who had applied for a plot of ground to be used as a place of burial for his family in 1738 obtained this grant today, and the plot was thenceforth known as the "Jews' burying-ground"; it was the first Jewish cemetery in the city, and was situated in Spruce street near Ninth street; it has been the property of the Congregation Mickvé Israel for more than a century.  Levy, who was born in 1704 and died in 1753, was one of the first Jews to live in Philadelphia.

1752(17thof Tishrei 5513): Chaham Mehir A. Cohen Bellnfante passed way today.

1775(1stof Tishrei, 5536): Rosh Hashanah

1779(15thof Tishrei, 5540): Sukkoth

1779: Birthdate of John Oxlee the English cleric and author whose knowledge of Semitic languages including Hebrew led to his study of Jewish law and the Talmud and who “in his Six Letters to the Archbishop of Canterbury, stated his reasons for declining to take any part in the society for the conversion of the Jews.”

1789: The establishment of religion on a national level was expressly prohibited in the U.S. with the adoption of the First Amendment, the opening words of which read: 'Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.'  This line from the Bill of Rights gave de jure recognition to a concept that has made the American experience different for the Jews than anything else that they had encountered during their centuries of living in the Diaspora.  There would be examples of discrimination against Jews in the United States such as covenanted real estate, college quotas, and oaths invoking the Christian deity.  But these proved to be minor compared  to what had happened elsewhere in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East where Jews were second class citizens because there was always a state religion be it Islam or Christian. Final ratification of the First Amendment would come in 1791.

1794(1st of Tishrei, 5555): As they observe Rosh Hashanah, French Jews can join their countrymen in a sense of a safety following the execution of Maximilien Robespierre and the end of the Reign of Terror

1798(15th of Tishrei, 5559): As Jews begin the observance of Sukkoth, the festival of thanksgiving, English Jews are thankful; for the victory that Lord Nelson has given them at the Battle of the Nile, while French Jews are thankful for Napoleon’s victories in Egypt

1812: Birthdate of Karl Biedermann, the liberal German politician who was an advocate for Jewish emancipation.

1813(1st of Tishrei, 5574): Rosh Hashanah

1815: Ezriel ben Isaac married Reizecha bat Abraham at the Western Synagogue today.

1817(15th of Tishrei, 5578): Sukkoth

1820(17th of Tishrei, 5581): Sukkoth Chol Had Moed

1820(17th of Tishrei, 5581): Bezalel ben Joel Ronsburg who served as a rabbi, dayan and rosh yeshiva in Prague who counted Zacharias Frankel as one of his pupils passed away today.

1832(1st of Tishrei, 5593): As English Jews observe Rosh Hashanah most of them are pleased with the recent passage of the Reform Act which created a Parliament more reflective of the changes in British society, but saddened because it did not deal with the issue of Jewish Disabilities.

1832:Jews living in Sydney, Australia gathered at Mr. Rowell's shop on George Street which had been fitted out as synagogue to hold Rosh Hashanah services.

1835(2nd of Tishrei, 5596): Rosh Hashanah II

1841(10th of Tishrei, 5602): Yom Kippur

1843(1st of Tishrei, 5604): Rosh Hashanah

1843: Birthdate of Herman W. Hellman, the Bavarian native who came to Los Angeles at the age of 15 and pursued a business career with his brother Isaiah while raising a family with the former Ida Heimann of Trevino, Italy and becoming a leading member of the Jewish community.

1845: In New York City, Edward Woolf and Sarah Michels gave birth to “electrician and inventor” Albert Edward Wollf, the graduate of CCNY and husband of Rosamund Wimpfheimer who “sterilized New York’s drinking water during the typhoid epidemic of 1893 and helped to eradicate yellow fever.”

1846: Birthdate of English archeologist Archibald Henry Sayce, the native of Southampton author of The Races of the Old Testament who established “that the Hittites, far from being a small Canaanite tribe who dealt with the kings of the northern Kingdom of Israel, were the people of a "lost Hittite empire," which Egyptian texts were then bringing to light.” (The Jewish Encyclopedia shows the year as 1846)



1847(15th of Tishrei, 5608): Sukkoth

1849(9th of Tishrei, 5610): Erev Yom Kippur

1860(9th of Tishrei, 5621): Erev Yom Kippur

1860: Representatives of the Hebrew Benevolent were among those attending the meeting of the National Emigrant Benevolent Association which was held this afternoon at the rooms of the German Society. 

1860: In Davenport, IA, Edward Russell, the abolitionist editor of the Davenport Gazette and his wife gave birth to Charles Edward Russell the author of Haym Salomon and the Revolution and a leading supporter of the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.

1861(21st of Tishrei, 5622): Hoshana Rabah

1861: Henry Heller, surgeon with the 27th Regiment which was originally called the “Washington Brigade” competed his term of service today.

1861: Philadelphian Jacob Herman who would be wounded at Cedar Creek in 1864 and rise to the rank of Sergeant began four years of service with Company C of the 98th Regiment.

1861:At their meeting this evening, the Board of Alderman in New York adopted the report of the Finance Committee which included a recommendation that $30,000 should be given to the Hebrew Benevolent Society for the erection of a hospital.

1862(1st of Tishrei, 5623): Rosh Hashanah

1862: As the Jews of Louisville, KY, including members of the Brandeis and Dembitz families, observed the Jewish New Year, Union forces led by General Don Carlos Buell began moving into the city. They were part of an army that was moving to stop the advance of Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg. Ultimately Bragg’s “invasion” of Kentucky and Ohio would fail driving another nail in the Confederate’s coffin.

1863: Birthdate of Dr. Moses Hyamson, Senior Dayan or Chief Judge of the Ecclesiastical Court of the United Synagogue of London who would become the rival candidate  for the office of Chief Rabbi of Great Britain to which Rabbi Joseph H. Hertz would be chosen.  After losing out to Hertz, Hyamson would be named Rabbi of Congregation Orach Chaim in New York, the position that Hertz vacated when he became Chief Rabbi of Great Britain.

1864:“The Jewish Synagogue erected for the congregation, Aderath Eb, was dedicated” this afternoon. “The edifice is situated in Twenty-ninth-street, between Lexington and Third-avenues, built of brick, and capable of accommodating about fire hundred people. The interior fittings are neat and handsome, without being gaudy. The services …were the customary dedication exercises, according to the Hebrew ritual. The sacred scrolls of the law were carried in procession three times around the Synagogue, and the perpetual lamp lighted in front of the arch while the Chazan and the choir chanted the Psalms of David.” Rabbi Morris Raphall and Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs addressed the congregation.  Captain Burdick  “and a squad of the Twenty-first Precinct Police, rendered efficient aid in preserving order at the door and keeping out unbidden guests.”

1864:According to “The Last Copperhead Plot and How it Miscarried” published today one of the plotters was a Jew named Rosenthal who had settled as a clothing dealer in Sandusky, Ohio about two years ago. He claimed to have been driven out of Richmond for Union sentiments but he is known to be an outspoken Copperhead.

1865(5th of Tishrei, 5626): Seventy year old Hayman Levy, the son of Solomon and Rebecca Eve Levy and the husband of Almeria Levy passed away today.

1866(16th of Tishrei, 5627): Second Day of Sukkoth

1869(20th of Tishrei, 5630): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

1869(20th of Tishrei, 5630: Seventy-one year old German-Jewish poet Moses M. Haarbleicher passed away today.

1871(10th of Tishrei, 5632): Yom Kippur

1871: It was reported today that a bill has been introduced in the French Parliament to take away the rights of citizenship granted to the Jews born in Algeria.  The proposal was made in response to Moslem uprising in Algeria. A Jewish delegation that included the Chief Rabbi, Albert Cohn and Joseph Cohen testified before the committee that is reviewing the proposal.

1874: As the dispute over the management of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum escalated, Raphael Lewin, the editor of New Era wrote to the New York Times challenging the recently published resolution adopted by the Directors of that institution. The directors claimed that Lewin’s claims of mismanagement which were to appear in his magazine were false and brought with malicious intent.  Lewin responded that he stood ready to prove his charges “and the purity of” his “motives” in publishing them.

1874(14th of Tishrei, 5635): Erev Sukkoth and Erev Shabbat are celebrated on the same evening.

1874: Rabbi Isaacs led Sukkoth eve festivals at the 44thStreet Synagogue in New York City.

1874: At Temple Emanuel the prominent Reform congregation on 5thAvenue, a larger than usual crowd attended services which were augmented by the singing of a Choir.

1879: Birthdate of Odessa native Joseph Malkin, the “first cellist” with the Berlin Philharmonic, Chicago Symphony and the New York Philharmonic who “founded the Malkin Conservatory in 1933.”

1879: A fire destroyed the business on Main Street in Deadwood, SD including “the wooden huts and muddy streets where the first Jewish inhabitants conducted their business.” The Jewish population had grown to over a hundred during the gold rush that enveloped the area. Reportedly “about one-third of all the early buildings on Main Street were owned or occupied by Jewish merchants. These were mostly traditional Jewish enterprises such as dry goods or those related to clothing.” The fire was probably not a case of anti-Semitic arson. Although no report exists as to the origin of the fire, such outbreaks were a common occurrence in the United States (see Chicago Fire, San Francisco Fire) at a time when there were no building codes and most buildings were wooden. 

1881(2nd of Tishrei, 5642): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

1881: Samuel Greenbaum presided over tonight’s memorials service hosted by the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in honor of the late President Garfield.

1881: “Echoes From Beyond the Sea” published today described events in Europe and Asia Minor including renewed application by English and German Jews made to the Turkish government for the purchase of land in Syria.  Jews would then “emigrate from European countries where life is intolerable” helped along by the construction of roads and railways financed by wealthy Jews living on the Continent and England.

1884: In Baltimore, MD, Leo and Annie Steiner Deutsch gave birth to the 1904 NYU Law School

graduate Bernard Deutsch, “the President of the Board of Alderman” in New York, “a leader in the American Jewish Community and  the husband of “the former Francis Weinstein with whom he had two daughters – Elinor and Dorothy



1884: In Philadelphia, David Longsdorf objected to the newspaper reports that treated the marriage of his friend Henry Friedman to Sarah Schuer in the same way as they did the elopement of Victoria Morsini. Friedman, whose father had helped form the Cameron Dragoons which fought with distinction during the Civil War and his bride had known each other for quite some time. The two Reform Jews did elope but were married under a Chupah by Dr. Silberman, an Orthodox rabbi in the presence of a minyan

1885: Congregation B’Nai Jehsurun brought suit today in District Court against the estate of the late Joseph Levy for the amount of $100 - $75 for the religious services including the cost of “watchers” and $25.00 for the grave. Marcus Cohen, president of the congregation, testified that normally the charge is $300 but due to the circumstances of the death, the charges were reduced.

1886: Vanity Fair published a “picture” of Sir John Simon, the Jamaican born Jewish Member of Parliament who spent the last twenty years of his life working to ameliorate the conditions of the Jews of Russia.


 1886: “Jew And Catholic” published today reported that the marriage of David Bretzfelder, a  28 year old Jewish letter carrier and Kittie Cannon, a young Roman Catholic has caused a great deal of discussion today in New Haven, Connecticut since it is “the first of its kind that ever took place in this city.”

1886: According to a summary of the annual report of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York published today, “four hundred and fifteen children are now cared for by the society, and its finances are in good condition, although further donations are need to meet the increasing demands of the institution.”

1888: Birthdate of Leon Rene Yankwich, the native of Romania and graduate of Loyola Law School in Los Angeles who served on the federal bench for almost four decades.


1888: Birthdate of Bucharest born, NYU trained dentist J. William Maller, the orthodontist who wrote “Child Psychology As Applied to Orthodontia.”


1889(29th of Elul, 5649): Erev Rosh Hashana

1889: In its appeal for funds published today, the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York reported that since opening is doors it has cared for 1,428 children, 560 of whom are currently receiving services.

1889: The Jews of San Diego, California, gathered at Second and Beech Street to greet the Jewish New Year of 5650 and pray in their own house of worship.

1890: It was reported today that “during the last fifteen years” Broadway has become “the principal highway of Jewish mercantile enterprise in America” as can be seen by the fact that business signs have given way to primarily “Hebrew names” and that in New York, Jewish merchants dominate “in the dry goods district” as well as the “retail streets in the popular sections of the city.”

1891: “Joseph Barondess, the ex-leader of the Cloak-makers’ Union disappeared today while out on bail during his appeal of a conviction for extorting money from the cloak manufacturers.

1891: “The issue of the American Hebrew published today contained a letter from Baron de Hirsch…which shows that he has by no means abandoned the plan of colonizing Russian Jewish refugees in the Argentine.”

1893(15TH of Tishrei, 5654): Sukkoth

1893 During the outbreak of Cholera in Italy, the Chief Rabbi of Leghorn ordered the grand synagogue be closed as a precautionary measure.

1893: It was reported today that “the anti-Semites represented by Dr. Forester and Rector Ahlwardt  have developed a parliamentary program” which will put an end to Jews immigrating to Germany.  They also seek to “prohibit Jews from owning land” and not to allow “Jews to enteral the medical, legal, editorial or military professions.

1894: “Jews Persecuted In Morocco” published today described the five pound tax they must pay “for passing along the principals highways” and the beatings and plundering to which they are regularly subjected.

1894: In Ireland, Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants Abraham William Briscoe and Ida Yoedicke gave birth to Robert "Bob" Briscoe who was a member of the IRA and Sinn Féin.

1895: It was reported today that the Hebrew Mutual Benevolent Society has paid $2,000 in foreclosure to acquire the property on the west side of Hoffman Street, south of 187th Street.

1895:In Lancaster, PA, Degel Israel an orthodox congregation was formed with about fifty members.

1896: “Olympia Theater Opened” published today described the premiere of Oscar Hammerstein’s new operetta “Santa Maria” the performance of which the critic described as “excellent.”

1897: Birthdate of American author William Faulkner.  Faulkner’s works were dotted with Jewish characters starting with a Jewish salesman in “Soldier’s Pay,” his first written novel published in 1926 to Barton Kohl, a Jewish pilot in “The Mansion,” published in 1959.  Faulkner’s treatment of Jewish characters changed over time. Alfred J. Kutzik reportedly published one of the definitive articles on anti-Semitism in Faulkner’s early works. For more on this topic, consult “Creative Awakening: The Jewish Presence in 20th Century American Literature” by Louis Harap.

1897: Jacob Aaron Cantor, a successful lawyer and New York political leader, married Lydia Greenbaum.  His first wife had passed away 8 years earlier.  The couple had three children.

1897: “The Essenes Still Exist” published today described a revelation made by Halevy at the Oriental Congress in which told the attendees about the existence of Abyssinian Jews where part of the same sect of Essenes who had lived at the time of Jews.  Numbering about 200,000 they are so strict in their observances that no water could be drawn on the Sabbath.

1897: It was reported today that Dr. Isidore Singer is preparing the Encyclopedia of the History and of the Intellectual Development of the Jewish Race “which will present in alphabetical order the most important publications which have appeared in all times relative to the Jews” and will follow :the format of the..
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September 24

416: “Roman emperors Honorius and Theodosius II order that any Jews who have joined the Christian church to avoid punishments for crimes must be allowed to return to Judaism because, in the long run, Christianity will be better off without them.”

622: Prophet Muhammad completes his hijra from Mecca to Medina. According to at least one source, Muhammad had gone to Medina by some of the local clans who were looking for an outside arbiter to settle the conflicts between the Arabs and members of a Jewish tribe called the Banu Qurayza.

768: Pippin the Short, King of the Franks passed way. Pippin allowed the Jews of Narbonne in the territory of Septimania (modern day southern France) to enjoy a measure of freedom and prosperity in return for their help in fighting the Moors.

1038: Jews in Granada celebrate a special Purim commemoration after the capture of the Muslim leader Ibn Abbas who was brought to Granada, killed, and beheaded by a rival (and Jewish tolerant) Muslim faction.

1569: Birthdate of Ernst of Schaumburg the German count who “granted the first permanent residence permits to Ashkenazic Jews so that they could settle in Altona starting in 1611.

1659: As part of an attempt by Anton Hulsisu to convert Jacob Abendana to Christianity, the two began a debate via correspondence over the meaning of a verse in the Book of Haggai: "The latter splendor of this house shall be greater than the former" (2:9), which Hulsius attempted to prove was a reference to the Church.” Unlike similar debates that had taken place in Spain and France, this exchange was amicable and posed no threat to the well-being of the Jewish community.

1664: The Dutch Republic surrenders New Amsterdam to England. The English re-name the city after the Duke of York and call it New York since there was already a York in England. If it had not been for the name change we would all be looking at New Amsterdam style delis.

1665: One of the two dates given for the death of Jacob Lumbrozo who was the first Jewish person to settle in Maryland, arriving in the colony controlled by the Calverts in 1656.

1683: The Jews were expelled from all French possessions in America. The Jews would return to Quebec in 1759 when the British were victorious in the French and Indian War.

1758: After yet another blood libel in Poland, the Jewish community sent Jacob Zelig to Rome to seek relief from the Pope. He convinced Pope Benedict XIV to start an investigation. Cardinal Ganganelli (Clement XVI) wrote an unequivocal condemnation of the libels and asked the Holy See to intervene in Poland to stop the accusations.

1759(3rd of Tishrei, 5520): Tzom Gedaliah

1761: Birthdate of Dutch journalist, translator and author Moses ben Zaddik Belifante

1768: Birthdate of historian Sharon Turner, the friend of Isaac D’Israeli who advised him to have his children, including Benjamin, baptized during the elder D’Isreali’s dispute with Bevis Marks Synagogue.

1789: The office of U.S. Attorney General was established. Edward Levi, an appointee of Republican President Gerald Ford, was the first Jewish Attorney General. He served from 1975 to 1977. Judge Michael Mukasey has been nominated by George Bush for the position. If approved, he will be only the second Jew to be nation’s top lawyer.

1794(29thof Elul, 5554): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1797: Birthdate of Gibraltar native Samuel Levy Bensusan.

1805(1stof Tishrei, 5566): Rosh Hashanah

1814(10thof Tishrei, 5575): Yom Kippur

1828(16thof Tishrei, 5589): Eighty-eight year old Michael Klapp, the husband of Sara Klapp passed away today.

1832(29thof Elul, 5592): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1832: Jews living in Sydney, Australia, gathered in Mr. Rowell's shop on George Street which has been fitted out as a synagogue to begin the observance of Rosh Hashanah.

1835(1stof Tishrei, 5596): Rosh Hashanah

1839(16thof Tishrei, 5600) Second Day of Sukkoth

1841(9thof Tishrei, 5602): Kol Nidre

1841(9thof Tishrei, 5602): Forty-one year old Abraham Basch who was secretary to the Mayor Landsberg and a teacher of Hebrew a Weyl’s seminary before it closed which left him to live of poverty, passed away today in Berlin.

1841(9thof Tishrei, 5602): Forty-one year old poet and teacher Abraham Basch passed away today.

1843(29th of Elul, 5603): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1855: Sir Charles Wilson received his first commission in the Royal Engineers. Wilson would put his engineering skills to good used when he would conduct the survey of Jerusalem in 1864 and 1865. He published his findings in Notes on the Ordinance Survey of Jerusalem.

1856: “The Swiss Federal Council granted the Jews full political rights within Aargau, as well as broad business rights. However the majority Christian population did not abide by these new liberal laws fully

1858: In Berkshire, VT, George Edmund Foss and Marcia Noble Foss gave birth to Eugene Noble Foss the 45th Governor of Massachusetts who had employed Leo Frank in 1906 and was a leader in the fight to have his conviction overturned because he was sure Frank had not received a fair trail.

1862(29th of Elul, 5622): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1862: As Jews prepare to greet the New Year, fourteen governors declared their support for Lincoln’s recently issued Emancipation Proclamation proving that the New Year will be a time of new beginnings for those held in the bondage of slavery.

1865: “Robert W. Nathan and Annie Florence Nathan whose ancestor were among the early settlers of New York City” gave birth to Harold Nathan, the graduate of Columbia University Law School who was a “partner in the law firm of Cook, Nathan, Lehman and Greenman,” a member of Temple Emanuel and the husband of Sallie Gruntal Nathan with whom he had two children – Marian and Robert, “the novelist and poet.”

1866(15th of Tishrei, 5627): Sukkoth

1868: The Very Reverend Henry Hart Milman, an English historian and ecclesiastic, passed away. In 1829, Milman published History of the Jews, “which is memorable as the first by an English clergyman which treated the Jews as an Oriental tribe, recognized sheikhs and amirs in the Old Testament, sifted and classified documentary evidence, and evaded or minimized the miraculous.” It is not known how the Jews reacted to this work, but his fellow Christians were upset enough to slow his climb up the ecclesiastical ladder.

1868: In Gliwice, businessman Isidor Friend and his wife Cecilia Nothmann gave birth to Rabbi Samuel Friend.

1869: Birthdate of Alexander Büchler, the son of Talmudist Phineas Büchler, who became a rabbi and teacher in the Hungarian Jewish community. He was murdered at Auschwitz in July of 1944.

1871(9th of Tishrei, 5632): Erev Yom Kippur

1871: In Vicksburg, Nicholas Scharff and the former Carrie Bernheimer gave birth to their first child Edward E. Scharff.

1871: It was reported today that violence had broken out in El-Kesar, a Moroccan town with 9,000 inhabitants, a sizable number of whom are Jewish. The clash was between members of the Shereef family that had come from Fez to celebrate a wedding and people living in the surrounding mountains who decided to “join” in the festivities. After presenting their wedding gifts, this band of 2,000 mostly young men attacked and robbed the custom house and the local market. Then they went to the Jewish Quarter, beat the inhabitants, fired their rifles into their homes wounding many of the inhabitants and then took as plunder whatever they wished. They then left for their mountain homes.

1872: David Salomons married Cecilia Samuels today.

1872(21st of Elul, 5632): Hannah Leo, the wife of Henry Leo, who was President of the Auxiliary Society of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, passed away

1873(3rd of Tishrei, 5634):Tzom Gedaliah

1875(24thof Elul, 5635): Fifty-eight year old M. Guedalla passed way today at Cambrian Villas, Beaumont, Jersey, UK.

1876: Based on information that first appeared in the London Jewish Herald, it was reported today that for the past four or five years Jews have been returning to Palestine in unprecedented numbers. The Jewish population of Jerusalem has doubled in the past ten years. Most of the immigrants have come from Russia.

1876: The Jews of Austin, Texas met at the Odd Fellows Hall and organized Congregation Beth Israel.

1876: The Austin Daily Statesmannoted that all other Texas cities of similar size had synagogues so “we can see no reason why Austin should not keep company with them.”

1878: As the Yellow Fever Epidemic continues to grip the Deep South, it was reported today that the children of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York “have received a touching letter from Isaacson and Sims of New Orleans acknowledging the receipt of $10.84” which the Jewish orphans had raised in small sums to provide relief for the 200 infants living at St. Vincent’s. Disease does not recognize religious differences and neither does extending a helping hand.

1879: Four days after he had passed away, Lionel Lawson, the son of Moses Levy and the former of Helena Moses, was buried at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery” today.

1879: It was reported today that the Romanian legislators have rejected a motion that would have the government ignore the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin that called for the emancipation of the Jews. The legislators also rejected that the emancipation process be applied only to individual Jews. This clears the way for the government to introduce a measure that will provide full citizenship for the Jews living in Romania.

1881(1st of Tishrei, 5642): Rosh Hashanah

1881: In New York City, Louis and Mary Strauss Frankenthaler gave birth to State Supreme Court Justice Alfred Frankenthaler.

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F60D16FE3558127A93CAA9178AD85F448485F9

1881: It was reported today that a special meeting of the Board of Deputies has been called to prepare a condolence message for the widow of the late President Garfield.  The Board of Deputies is the major organization representing the Jewish community in the United Kingdom

1882: Leopold Bloch, the son of Samuel and Jeanette Bloch and his second wife Klara Bloch gave birth to Bella Bloch today

1882: “Judicial Torture In Hungary” published today described events surrounding the disappearance of Christian girl at Tisza Eszlar and the arrest of  a married couple named Schart following claims that the Jews had killed her and “disposed of her remains.” The couple’s attorney has addressed a petition to the Minister President “revealing a state of things in Hungary worthy only of the Middle Ages.”

1882: “Shall Jews Go East or West?” published today

1882: It was reported today that 17,693,643 Catholics living in Austria make up 92% of the population.  There are 1,005,394 Jews living in the country

1882: “Il Giudeo” published today recounts the life of Il Giudeo, the 16thcentury Jewish renegade, from Smyrna who made his fortune sailing the Mediterranean

1883: The “New Books Received” list published today included The Laws of Marriage, “containing the Hebrew and Roman law concerning the impediments to marriage and the dissolution of the marriage bond” by John Fuller and Hannah: One of the Strong Women by Julia McNair Wright.

1883 “Caring For Poor Hebrew Children reported today that the Hebrews Sheltering and Guardian Society has cared for 418 children between the ages of 2 and 15 since it was opened.  Currently the society is taking care of 175 children, an increase of 55 since last year. Besides providing programs for poor children that include several summer excursions, the society has provided 8, 392 meals to poor Jewish citizens.

1884: “Hebrew Society Startled” published today described the refusal of Mr. and Mrs. Solomon Scheuer to comment on events surrounding the elopement their daughter Sarah.  Sarah Scheur the 19 year old Jewish heiress left New York to run away with Henry C. Friedman, a stock broker who is ten years her senior and “well known as a society man.”

1885(15th of Tishrei, 5646): Sukkoth is celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of Grover Cleveland.

1886: In New Haven, CN, Father John Maloney of St. Johns Roman Catholic Church officiated at the marriage of one his parishioners, Kittie Cannon and David Bretzfelder, a 28 year old Jewish letter carrier 1887: In New York, Judge White is scheduled to render in a child custody case which pits an African American couple named Lee and a Jewish couple named Brodcki against each other over a 9 year old girl each claim is theirs.

1889: “Man and Money Captured” described events leading up to the arrest of Simon Baruch in Hoboken, New Jersey. When originally confronted by the police, he denied being the Austrian swindler since he only had one dollar in his pockets.  However, when he took authorities to his hotel room, they found a safe filled with “a large amount securities and cash” which gave credence to the charges leveled against him.

1890(10thof Tishrei, 5651): Yom Kippur

1890: Johann Most is scheduled to deliver a speech this afternoon at two in which he will denounce Yom Kippur and Judaism; a speech the police have been ordered to prevent even if it means arresting the anarchist.

1890: In New York, “the public schools presented the appearance of partial desertion” because all of the Jewish children “were their parent in the synagogues.”

1890: In New York City, on “Broadway which during the last fifteen years has become the principle highway of Jewish mercantile enterprise in America” “in store after store the heavy iron shutters and darkened windows testified to the absence” of the shopkeepers who were observing “Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement, the most sacred of day in the Mosaic calendar.”

1890: Joseph Fredlander, the rabbi at the orthodox synagogue on 57th street will lead Yom Kippur services at Lambden’s Hall in New Rochelle.

1891: It was reported today, that 7,000 Jews left Berdichef today bound for Argentina which would seem to be impossible because there are no railroad facilities there than could handle such a large number of people.

1892: “Pandemonium” broke out between two and three this morning at Camp Low in Sandy Hook, NJ when Polish Jewish immigrants became ill after gorging themselves following the New Year’s observance during which they did not eat.

1892: During the Cholera outbreak in New York a young Jew named Samuel Machinsky “was allowed to lied on the sidewalk at the corner of Bowery and Houston Streets for two hours” tonight “before an ambulance” came to take him to the hospital.

1893: “New York Honors Heine” published today described the fountain that the Arion Society will erect in honor of the poet whom Germany would not honor because, even though he had converted, he was too Jewish for the Germans.

1895: “A report was received at the Department of State from Minister Clifton R. Breckinridge” containing “a copy of the laws and regulations bearing upon the admission of foreign Jews into Russia.  The information was requested” because “of the refusal of the Russian Consul at New York to issue passports to American citizens” who are Jewish.

1895: As of today, the Cossack riding in Will Bill’s Parade in Paterson, NJ who began beating a Jewish spectator who called out to him, has not been apprehended.

1896: “Santa Maria,” a comic opera “invented, written and composed by Oscar Hammerstein” opened tonight at the Olympia Theatre.

1896: Three days after he had passed away, 78 year old Sidney Goldsmid, the son of Alexander Goldsmid and the former Eliza Israel, was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

1896: Birthdate of novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald’s most famous novel was The Great Gatsby. In one memorable scene, Gatsby and Nick lunch with Meyer Wolfshiem, a Jewish gambler who "fixed the 1919 World Series." Apparently Gatsby owes his financial good fortune to the shadowy Jewish gangster. Wolfshiem is a thinly veiled reference to Arnold Rothstein the man who supposedly fixed the 1919 World Series. Popular American culture blamed the sinister Jew for corrupting the national pastime. Fitzgerald portrayed Wolfshiem as the corrupting influence on the eager but pure WASP, Jay Gatsby.

1898: Herzl addresses a letter to the Prince of Eulenberg, a German diplomat, pleading for an audience with Kaiser Wilhelm II before he leaves for Palestine.

1898: In Paris, Russian immigrants Etta and Menachem Valger gave birth to Featherweight Boxing Champion Benny Valgar.

1899: At the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, in response to a request. Dr. Howard Agnew Johnson preached “a sermon on the existing prejudice against the Jew.”

1899: In Nebraska, founding today of the Omaha Jewish Hospital Association which “meet the first Sunday of the month” with aim of securing “nurses and medical attention for the sick and helpless.”

1899: In New York, American Zionist welcomed the delegates returning from the 3rdZionist Congress at Basel with a public reception at Cooper Union

1899: “Zionist Success Predicted” published today described the creation of the Jewish Colonial Trust of London which “has a capital of $10,000,000 with 2,000,000 shares more than 100,000 of which have been purchased.”

1899: “The annual pilgrimage to the National Farm School” near Doyelstown, PA, took place today.  The school, the only one of its kind is “sustained and controlled by Jews from all over the country, it is open to boys of all creeds and nationalities.”

1899: In Chicago, a mass meeting co-sponsored by the Grand Lodge of the Western Star is scheduled to take place at the Central Music Hall where attendees can express their displeasure with the Dreyfus verdict.

1900(1st of Tishrei, 5661): Rosh Hashanah

1900: Services a Temple Beth-El, B’nai Jeshurun and B’nai Sholom were all well-attended.

1900: Rosh Hashanah services were held this morning in many halls on the New York’s East Side which were rented specifically for this purpose.

1900(1stof Tishrei, 5661): Seventy-three year old French author Louis Ratisbonne, the son of Adolph Ratisbonne and Charlotte Oppenheim, who was also the nephew of two famous French priest who had converted from Judaism passed away today.

1900: Toward the end of Rosh Hashanah services at Temple Beth El, Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, Rabbi Emeritus of the congregation, announced that he wished all members of the congregation who desired their deceased family member’s names be mentioned in the upcoming memorial services on the Day of Atonement should send a list of such names to him. After he sat down, Rabbi Samuel Schulman rose from his seat, walked to the front of the pulpit and “said that he was the one who would read the memorial services, and that the names of the deceased to be announced should sent to him at his residence…There was much whispering among the congregation, many of whom remained after the service and discussed the affair in small groups.”

1900: The 250 Jewish immigrants awaiting entrance into the United States will be able to have kosher chicken for their holiday dinner due to the generosity of Emil Schwab.

1902:  Isidor Straus wrote to Abraham Straus thanking him for the gift of a case of Scotch whiskey Abraham sent on the occasion of the opening of the new Herald Square store: Can it be that you want me to take a week off, to incapacitate me from putting forth what energy and force I possess toward making the "send-off" of our new store a success?" Are you afraid that unless the seductive smell and taste of it produce a handicap, the sales at Thirty-Fourth Street and Herald Square will Ieave Fulton Street so far in the rear that in our pride we will cease to recognize you.”

1903(3rd of Tishrei, 5664): Tzom Gedaliah

1904(15th of Tishrei, 5665): Sukkoth

1904: In Rozwadow, Abraham Katz, the son of Meier Katz and the former Hinda Garten was circumcised today.

1905: Plans are announced for the marriage of Miss Racie Friedenwald to Dr. Cyrus Adler, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary and one of the editors of the Jewish Encyclopedia. The wedding is scheduled to take place in Philadelphia, PA at Mikvah Israel with Rabbi Leon H. Elmaleh officiating.

1907: David Neumark was appointed as a professor at Hebrew Union College.

1908: Birthdate of composer and arranger Gertrude Rittman who fled Nazi German and created a career in the United Sates that began with composing the score for “Palestine at War” made by the Palestine Labor Commission before pursuing a career that produced such hits as “Brigadoon” and “South Pacific.”

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B04EFD6163CF933A25750C0A9639C8B63

1909(9thof Tishrei, 5670): Erev Yom Kippur – for the first time Kol Nidre is chanted during the Presidency of William H. Taft

1911: Birthdate of Austrian born American architect Henry P. Glass whose work includes “The Henry P. Glass House…the first passive solar house in America”

1912: Joseph Basch, Philip Klafter, Henry Horner, Jr. and George Halperin all from Chicago, Ill served as a delegate to the meeting of the Lakes-to-Gulf Deep Water Association which opened today in Little Rock, AR.

1914: “Russian Treaty Now A Possibility” published today described hopes that the Czar’s government will be able to negotiated a new trade agreement with the United States which will replace the one that “became inoperative” in 1913 “because it was interpreted by Russia as permitting the exclusion of American Jews from her dominions.”

1914: According to a wireless sent by the government in Berlin, “the Russians have brutalized the Jewish inhabitants in all places which they have occupied in Galicia.” The Russians incite the Ruthenian peasants and “hand over the Jewish property” to them.  “This contrasts…with the Czars manifesto to ‘his beloved Jews.’”

1914: The Austro-Hungarian Consulate General in New York made public the a communique from the “Israelitische Alliance of Vienna” to the American Jewish Committee of New York asking that money be sent through the embassy to aid the Jews who have fled Austrian territories seized by the Russians and expressing their belief that American Jews would support Austria in its war “to obtain human rights for” the oppressed Russian Jews.

1915: In Buffalo, dedication of Beth Zion Temple.

1916: It was reported today that among the contributions received by the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War were $47 from their committee in Oskaloosa, Iowa, $235 from N.C. Livingston and $250 from the Ezra Association in New Orleans.

1917: Franz Kafka wrote Max Brod today describing his “first impressions” of “the Bohemian village of Zürau.”

1917: The American Jewish Relief Committee announced plans for an appeal to be made on Yom Kippur for a fund of $1,000,000 “to provide aid for the three millions Jews who have been driven from their homes” in the European war zones.

1917: Four days after he had passed away, Private Herbert Phillip Bennoson, the son of Michael and Rosetta Bennoson was buried today at the “Plashet..
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September 23
 
484 BCE:  Birthdate of the very influential Greek playwright Euripides. Wherever Greek culture spread, writers attempted to create drama in the manner of Euripides.  During the time of Hellenization of the Jews, a Jewish playwright by the name of Ezekiel re-wrote Exodus as a Greek tragedy.  Written in Greek, it was in the style of Euripides and presents the story of Exodus slightly differently.  Here Moses not only was educated in the Jewish traditions, but had a wide range of knowledge of Egyptian spiritualist wisdom.  A central part of the Pagan Mysteries was a Pagan god-man, mortal yet immortal, god yet man.  One who died yet was resurrected, a figure that often came to save mankind and offered spiritual teachings.  If the Jews could Hellenize Exodus into a Greek tragedy, might a Hebrew version of Euripides' The Bacchae be far off?

63 BCE: Birthdate of Octavian who would reign as Caesar Augustus from 27 BCE to 14 CE. Augustus continued to follow the comparatively benign policies of his great-uncle Julius Caesar in dealing with the Jews.  He allowed Herod to rule a Kingdom of Judea.  Augustus was not blind to Herod’s moral shortcomings.  Combining his knowledge of Jewish dietary laws with Herod’s murderous treatment of his family, Augustus was reported to say that he would rather have been Herod’s pig than Herod’s son.  When Herod died, Augustus turned Judea into a province but he instructed the governors not to do anything that would be offensive to the Jewish population such as parading the Roman Eagle through the streets of Jerusalem.  He also sought to protect the rights of Jews living throughout the Empire including offering imperial protection for synagogues and exempting Jews from court appearance on Shabbat. Considering the track record of his successors, Augustus would be looked upon as a “good Roman Emperor.”

1122: Signing of the Concordat of Worms. It was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V that brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Emperors. The Jews of Worms may have had a special affection for Calixtus II. In 1120, he had issued Sicut Judaeis, a Papal Bull that reiterated the Church’s protection of the Jews in the wake of the persecutions of the first Crusade. The Jewish community of Worms had been wiped out by Crusaders traveling to the Holy Land during the First Crusade.  Unfortunately, Christians ignored the words of the bull since the community was again slaughtered during the Second Crusade.

1529: Siege of Vienna begins as Suleiman II begins his attack on the city. The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, represented the farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces (though they continued their conquest of the Austrian-controlled parts of Hungary afterwards).

1658(2ndof Tishrei): Nathaniel, son of Benjamin, son of Azriel Trabotti who was born in 1576 passed away to in Modena.


1672: The Cossacks captured Satanow, Poland, one of the few Polish towns to have escaped harm until this date.  The Jewish populations would suffer accordingly.

1720: In New York, Jacob and Abigal Franks gave birth to their youngest son, David who would side with the British during the American Revolution. “As a young man, he moved to Philadelphia, where he became a successful merchant, engaging in land speculation, shipping, and fur trading; he was also a member of the Congregation Mikveh Israel. He was elected a member of the provincial assembly in 1748. Franks, with his wife Margaret Evans a member of one of Philadelphia's Christian families, was socially prominent in the city. During the French and Indian War, he was engaged by the government to supply the army with provisions. In 1755, upon the defeat of General Braddock, he helped to raise a fund of £5,000 for the further defense of the colony. He signed the Non-Importation Resolution of 1765, but eventually his loyalist tendencies won over. During the revolution, he was the king's agent for Pennsylvania. Perceived as a threat to the security of the United States, he was jailed briefly in 1778 by order of Congress, and then imprisoned again in 1780. He for a time owned and inhabited Woodford, a mansion in Germantown, now a National Historic Landmark. His nephew, Col. David Salisbury Franks, a revolutionary who served as aide to Benedict Arnold, came under further suspicion because of his relationship with his loyalist uncle. He died in October, 1794 at Iseworth, UK.

1723: Jacques Basnage the French Protestant minister who wrote Jewish Antiquities and who was considered one of the best sources on the subject history 19thcentury authors liked Isaak Markus Jost began published their works, passed away today.

1726: Charles VII “issued an order that of every Jewish family only one member should be considered "pro incola," which meant that only one should be permitted to marry.”

1726: The torture of António José da Silva “a Portuguese-Brazilian dramatist, known as "the Jew" (O Judeu)” intensified.  Eventually he confessed to having followed Jewish practices, a confession that saved his life.

1764: German born, merchant and signer of the Non-Importation Resolutions Moses Mordecai “was naturalized today in Phladelphia.”

1759(2nd of Tishrei, 5520): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1776(10th of Tishrei, 5537): Yom Kippur – American Jews fast for the first time as citizens of the newly independent United States

1786(1stof Tishrei, 5547): Rosh Hashanah

1789(3rd of Tishrei, 5550) Tzom Gedaliah

1789: Burial of Meir Salomon Maas today at the Battonnstraße Jewish cemetery, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen-Nassau, Preussen,

1795(10thof Tishrei, 5556): As the Russians, Prussians and Austrians negotiate the treaty that will result in the third and final partition of Poland, Jews observe Yom Kippur.

1812: Birthdate of Marcus Nordeheim, the native of Memmelsdorf who began his business career as a butcher.

1818: Uzziel Emanuel married Jane Solomonson at the Great Synagogue today.

1820(15thof Tishrei, 5581): For the first time during the reign of King George IV of the UK, Jews observe Sukkoth

1828(15thof Tishrei, 5589): Sukkoth is observed for the last time during the Presidency of John Q. Adams.

1829: In New York Mary Levy became Mary Moss today when he married Eleazer Moss.

1837 (13 Tishrei, 5598): On the secular calendar Rabbi Akiva Eiger of Posen passed away.   Born in 1761, he was a renowned scholar and leading Talmudist.  He was also a leading opponent of the Reform movement sweeping across German, one of the leading Talmudists in the first half of the nineteenth century. His devotion to the sick during a cholera epidemic earned him the recognition of Frederick William III     Rabbi Akiva Eiger not only taught Torah, he lived it as well.  It was his custom to invite poor people to his Seder and treat them as honored guests and not mendicants.  According to one story, a guest once accidentally spilled a cup of wine on the new white Pesach tablecloth.  Seeing how embarrassed the poor man was, the Rabbi quickly knocked over his own cup and then announced, "It seems that the table is not very steady. He interpreted many parts of the liturgy and the Torah as warnings against false leaders - a topic of great importance to him given what was happening in Germany during his life time.

1837: Birthdate of Russian Jew Joseph Rabinowitz.

1839(15thof Tishrei, 5600): Sukkoth

1840: In Posen Schiee Jaffé and his wife gave birth to Dr. Benjamin (Benno*) Jaffé.

1840: Henry Jacob Humphreys married Sophia Cohen at the Great Synagogue today.

1842: Caroline A. Carvalho and Emanuel Nunes Carvalho gave birth to David Nunes Carvalho

1844(10thof Tishrei, 5605); Yom Kippur is observed for the last time during the Presidency of John Tyler, the first Vice President to become President following the death of the President.

1845: In New York, Abigail and Asher Kursheedt gave birth to Frederick Adolph Kursheedt.

1852: In Charleston, which at that time was part of Virginia, Sarah Solis and Solomon Carvalho gave birth to Jacob Solis Carvalho, the younger brother of David Nunes Carvalho.

1846(3rdof Tishrei, 5607): Tzom Gedaliah

1846(3rdof Tishrei, 5607): Sekl Loeb Wormser, the Frankfurt educated native of Michelstadt whose knowledge, piety and work with the sick earned him the honorific “the Michelstadter Ba’al Shem” passed away today.


1854(1stof Tishrei, 5615): Rosh Hashanah

1854: In Cleveland, Ohio, the Marshall arrested two men named Cohen and Freehart, both of whom have been identified as “English Jews,” for stealing valuable silks from several stores. 

1855: Three days she had passed away, 64 year old Amelia Israel was buried today in London.

1860(7thof Tishrei, 5621): Caroline Steckler, the second wife of California merchant Charles Steckler passed away today.

1861: In Philadelphia, Henry F. Birnbaum enlisted in Company H of the 65thRegiment of the Fifth Cavalry.

1863(10th of Tishrei, 5624): Yom Kippur

1863: In Kotteso, Hungary, Joseph Deutelbaum and Fannie Zelenka gave birth to Leopold Duetelbaum, the husband of Johanna Kurz who taught at the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Cleveland and the Sabbath Schools at Congregations Tifereth Israel and Anshe Chesed from 1892 to 1900 when he began serving as the Superintendent of the Chicago Home for Jewish Orphans.

1863:  Rabbi Samuel M. Isaacs delivered the Yom Kippur sermon at the synagogue on Wooster Street in NYC.

1863: Rabbi Jacob M. Raphall gave the Yom Kippur sermon at the Greene Street Synagogue in NYC

1863: Rabbi Samuel Adler delivered the Yom Kippur Sermon at Temple Emanu-El on 12thstreet in NYC.

1863: Rabbi J.J. Lyons delivered the Yom Kippur Sermon at the Nineteenth Street Synagogue.

1863: "Local Intelligence...The Yom Kippur" published today reported that

 

Last night commenced the most solemn festival known to the Jewish faith -- the Yom Kippur, or Day of Atonement. From the most ancient down to the present time, it has been religiously and strictly observed by them and the Solemn warrant for its celebration is found in Leviticus, xvi., 29, where Moses, by the express command of God, designates the formula the festival. The great fast of 24 hours duration, there prescribed, commenced last evening at sunset, and will continue until sundown to-day. This morning all the synagogues in the City will be thronged with worshippers. every orthodox Jew deeming it absolutely indispensable to go this day at least, if upon no other in the year, to the conventicle of his people, and with full confession, make solemn and earnest atonement for his sins during the past twelvemonth. This, too, is the only day on which, according to the ancient rite in Judea, even the high priest dared to enter the "holy of holies,'' the inner sanctuary of the temple.”

 

1864: Thirty year old Louis Manly Emanuel a native of London and a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School who was a surgeon with the 82ndregiment was mustered out today after three years and two months of service with the Union Army.

1864: “Hebrew congregation Shaaray Tefila, which for fourteen years past has occupied a house of worship in Wooster-street, dedicated a new synagogue this afternoon with the usual ceremonies of the Jewish ritual. The new edifice erected by this congregation is situated in Broadway, between Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth streets, and is in every way a suitable and comfortable building. The interior is fitted up with great taste and at considerable expense. The woodwork is grained in imitation oak. The altar, the ark and the veil are of beautiful workmanship, and elaborately ornamented with gold and silver bullion letters and embroidered. The service of dedication in the Hebrew church is very solemn and imposing. After the psalms had been chanted by an excellent German choir under direction of Mr. Woolf, and the prescribed passages of Scripture had been read, the priest and deacons carried the scrolls of the law, in procession, three times around the synagogue, finally depositing them in the ark. The services concluded with an impressive address by the Rev. S.M. Isaacs, minister of the congregation. The building was crowded by a large and attentive audience.”

1865: An association dedicated to building the first Jewish hospital in Philadelphia, PA was incorporated today.

1867: In New York City Jacob Mitchell and Rosa Straschitz, gave birth to William Mitchell the graduate of CCNY who managed the glass department of L. Straus and Sons for 12 years and began serving as Superintendent of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association since 1898.

1868: El Grito de Lares (The Cry of Lares), the first major revolt against Spanish rule and call for independence in Puerto Rico began today in Lares, Puerto Rico. Among the participants were Mathias Brugman and his son Hector who had formed a revolutionary committee code named: "Capa Prieto" (Black Cape). The revolt failed.  The Spanish executed the Jewish revolutionaries who had refused to surrender to the authorities. Mathias Brugman was the son Pierre Brugman and Isabel Duliebre, two Dutch Jews who met and married in New Orleans where they raised their son. The family moved to Puerto Rico as part of the Spanish government’s attempt to get non-Hispanics to settle on the island.  Brugman’s participation in the revolution was a product of his setbacks as a coffee grower and disgust with the abusive rule Spanish rule.

1871: As France continues to wrestle with the aftermath of the Paris Commune, it was reported today that an unidentified Jew has been passing himself off as a destitute refugee when in fact he had several hundreds of thousands of francs in his possession.  This has led to speculation that he is working for the government as spy informing the authorities of the activities of the communists.

1872: Dutch jurist and States General member Michael H. Godefroi, “delivered exhaustive speeches in the chamber, insisting that the commercial treaty with Rumania should not be ratified until guaranties should have been given that Netherland Jews in that country should enjoy perfect equality before the law.”

1873(2nd of Tishrei, 5634): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1875: Leyser Lazarus began serving as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau. He succeeded the legendary Zacharias Frankel who had passed earlier in the year.

1875: In Brighton, “after ten months of work at a cost of £12,000 (equivalent to £1.01 million in 2015), the dedication ceremony took place today and The Middle Street Synagogue with a seating capacity of 300 was opened today.”

1876: Birthdate of Moshe Zvi Segal

1876: In Pittsburgh, PA, “Julia and Moses Oppenheimer” gave birth to Oscar William Oppenheimer, the “husband of Claude Siesel” whom he had two children who was the “President of the Steel Drum Company” in his home town.

1881(29th of Elul, 5641): Erev Rosh Hashahnah

1881: “The Jewish New Year” published today described the upcoming Jewish holiday season that begins with the start of “Rosh Hashono” this evening.  Business will be almost entirely suspended among the Jewish community during these holidays; all will united in welcoming the new year in a becoming manner.”

1881: “Mourning For The Dead” published today described various plans to honor the late President Garefield including the plans of the “Young Men’s Hebrew Association to hold a memorial meeting in honor of the late President.”

1882(10th of Tishrei, 5643): Yom Kippur

1882: “The Fast of Yom Kippur” published today describes the importance of what “is regarded as the holiest day in the year.”  While for most Jews “neither food nor drink of any kind is allowed to pass” their lips, “among Reformed Jews the fast is not so strictly kept.”

1883: A Jew named Henry Stern was reported today to have “swindled several persons at Asbury, NJ” including the cashier at the National Banking Company of Freehold and the owner of Patterson’s Opera House whom he convinced to cash fraudulent checks, one for $100 and the other for $80.(Obviously there has been a change in the idea of what constitutes a newsworthy financial crime in the last 100 years.)

1883: Mrs. P. J. Joachaimsen was elected today to serve as President of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society in New York City.

1883: “The Late Leon Halevy” published today, relying on information that first appeared in the Paris American Register described the death and career of the Leon Halevy, the son of playwright and novelist Ludvoic Halevy.

1884: In New York City, the family of Sarah Schuer received telegrams that had been sent the young bride and her new husband, Henry C. Friedman from Saratoga saying that they were on their way to Niagara Falls. The couple had eloped last night and had gone to Saratoga to solemnize their marriage.  The bride is the 19 year old daughter of millionaire merchant Solomon Scheuer.  The 28 year old groom is a member of the New York Mining stock and National Petroleum Exchange.

1884(4th of Tishrei, 5645): Sixty-seven year old Hermann Edler von Zeissi, the Austrian dermatologist who became an authority on skin diseases and syphilis while work at the General Hospital in Vienna passed away today.

1887: Birthdate of Max Drob the Polish-born Rabbi with a most distinguished lineage, who became one of the major leaders of the Conservative Movement, making it a bridge between the excesses of Reform and the rigidity of Orthodoxy.


1887: Justice White presided over an unusual child custody case to at the Harlem Police Court.  Mr. and Mrs. William Lee, an African American couple, and Mr. and Mrs. Hirsch Brodcki, a Jewish couple each claimed that a nine year old girl now known Annie is there daughter.  According to the Brodcki, their daughter disappeared three years ago.  According to the Whites the child was given them by an unwed African domestic whose father was a white. 

1887(5th of Tishrei, 5648): Sixty-eight year old Samuel Rossin, a resident of New York who was head of S. Rossin & Sons, a tobacco importing firm passed away today while visiting his daughter in the Adirondack Mountains.  A native of Bavaria who began his business in Toronto, he was a Director of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews.


1888: “Jerusalem As  A Trade Center” published today relies on information that first appeared in the London Times to provide a snapshot of conditions in Palestine.  During the past year that in the past year exports from Jerusalem have exceeded imports, due in part to the good harvest in the area.  Two thirds of the goods that pass through Jaffa go on to Jerusalem which has become a market center for the Bedouins and villages farther to the east.  There has been a significant increase in the export of religious related art most of which goes to the United States and Europe.  While Jewish immigration has been limited by new Turkish regulations, the price of land has increased significantly due to the arrival of so many Jews from abroad.

1889: A United States Deputy Marshall brought a prisoner before Immigration Commissioner Hitchcock in New York who will probably be deported if he proves to Simon Baruch, the Jewish swindler who is charged by Austrian authorities with making off with the equivalent of $150,000.

1889:  Birthdate of Walter Lippmann.  Born in New York City, Lippmann was raised in comfortable circumstances by German-Jewish parents. A graduate of Harvard, Lippman began his career as a journalist.  During World War I he was both a captain in the Army (military intelligence) and Assistant Secretary of War.  Although his name is meaningless to many today, from the days of Woodrow Wilson through Lyndon Johnson, Lippmann was one America's leading journalists and political columnists.  During his the various stages of his career, Lippmann's writings were variously described as socialist, liberal and finally neo-conservative.  They were never characterized as being pro-Jewish.  He passed away in 1974. 

1890(9thof Tishrei, 5656): Erev Yom Kippur

1890: Anarchist Johann Most is scheduled to hold a mass meeting this evening at the Labor Lyceum on Myrtle Avenue for the purpose of mocking Yom Kippur and the Jewish religion.

1890: In Brooklyn, Captain Ennis of the 6th Precinct and 100 reserves to possession of the Labor Lyceum and locked the doors to prevent Anarchist Johann Most from delivering a speech attacking Yom Kippur using language that “very much shocked” Mayor Chapin

1890: A rabbi from a South Brooklyn congregation represented by Joel Krone will appear as plaintiff in a proceeding before the New York Supreme Court seeking an injunction that will prevent Johann most from holding a mass meeting tonight.  Speaking on behalf of Orthodox Jews, he is basing the request on the part of the Penal Code making “it a misdemeanor for person to assemble in such a manner as is adapted to disturb the public peace” and another section that defines “a public nuisance any act which annoys, injures or endangers the comfort, repose, health or safety of any consider number of persons.”

1890: Jews in New Rochelle, NY will close their services today in preparation for the observance of Yom Kippur.

1892(23rdof Tishrei, 5653): 2nd Day of Rosh Hashanah

1892: Four women died and untold hundreds more were injured when a fire broke out today at 27 Ludlow Street, a tenement building meant to hold 200 hundred people but that was filled with over a thousand Jews who were worshipping with one of the five congregations that were using the building for Rosh Hashanah services.

1892: For the second day in a row, the Erie Street congregation of Russian Jews held services in the assembly room of the new Young Men’s Christian Association building despite the fact that there were two crosses on the front of the building.

1892: According to statements by his son who is a physician, Dr. Gustav Gottheil, the rabbi at New York’s Temple Emanu-El is very sick and may be suffering from typhoid fever.

1892: A fire broke out on Ludlow Street that left so many Jewish victims Jacob H. Schiff and the United Hebrew Charities would take a leading role in collecting funds to aid them.
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September 22
 
384: Roman Emperors Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I forbid Jews from buying or owning Christian slaves. If any such slaves are found with Jews, they must be removed and sold to other Christians. If a Jewish master converts a Christian to Judaism, they will be severely punished.

1499: Switzerland gained de factor independence from the Holy Roman Empire. Jews began settling in Switzerland in the 13th century.  During the first half of the 14thCentury, the Jewish community of Basel was on the largest in Europe.  However, during the last half of the 14thcentury and on 15th century, successive bans drove Jews from the homes in various cities and cantons. The bans were primarily caused charges of well poisoning tied the spread of the Black Death.   By the time Switzerland gained her independence only a handful of Jews remained in this mountainous state.  The Jewish population would not begin to grow again until the end of the 18th century. 

1521: Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire passed away.  Selim did away with the Law of No Return, the Roman ban on Jews living in Eretz Israel.  The ban was in force until the 16th century.  Limits on Jewish immigration would reappear with the British White Paper.  Like many other members of Ottoman royalty, Selim employed a Jewish physician.

1526: Sultan Sueliman decreed that all the Jews seized at Buda and elsewhere, more than 2,000 in number, should be distributed among the cities of the Turkish Empire.

1558: In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph (Paul) Moro, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). Holding a crucifix, he tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occurred. Eventually the entire Jewish population was expelled.

1730: In Cento, Italy, Isaac Israeli and his wife gave birth to Benjamin D’Israeli, the grandfather of Benjamin Disreali, the British author and political leader also known as the Earl of Beeconsfield.

1759(1stof Tishrei, 5520): Nine days after the British defeated the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Jews could openly observe Rosh Hashanah in Canada.  The French banned Jews from living in Canada.  The British took the opposite view.

1761: Coronation of King George III who had his first conversation with a Jew when he spoke with prizefighter Daniel Mendoza

1761: Joseph Gompertz married Esther Moses today at St. Helens

1774: Pope Clement XIV passed away. In 1759, while still known as Cardinal Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, he had issued a reported condemning blood libel accusation. “In 1758, Pope Benedict XIV ordered an investigation into the matter and charged Lorenzo Ganganelli, councilor of the Holy Office of the Inquisition—and later Pope Clement XIV—to prepare a report on the commission’s work. Ganganelli’s report, presented to the congregation of the Inquisition in March 1758, reviewed the major accusations of Jewish ritual murder since the thirteenth century and concluded that the blood libel was indeed a calumny, of which Jews and Judaism were innocent.”

1776(9thof Tishrei, 5537): Erev Yom Kippur – one has to wonder what was going through the mind of American Jews as they heard the words of Kol Nidre and its references to vows following the decision to break the vows of loyalty to the King of England as stated in the recently adopted Declaration of Independence.

1776: George Washington wrote to John Hancock denying any knowledge as to the cause of the great fire that burned over 25% of New York City – thus putting the lie to British claims that the Americans had started the blaze to thwart their occupation of the city.

1778(1stof Tishrei, 5539): As the British tried to figure out what to do having lost the “first Battle of Saratoga’ Jews observed Rosh Hashanah

1789(2ndof Tishrei, 5550): During the first year of the presidency of George Washington, Jews in the United States observe the second day of Rosh Hashanah.

1789(2ndof Tishrei, 5550): Meir Salomon Maas passed away today Frankfurt am main.

1793(16thof Tishrei, 5554): Second Day of Sukkoth

1806(10thof Tishrei, 5567): A day before Lewis and Clark arrive in St. Louis, thus competing their successful exploration that took them to the Pacific Ocean, Jews observed Yom Kippur

1807(1stof Tishrei, 5569): Rosh Hashanah

1807: Birthdate of Prague native Gottfried S. Schmelkes who practiced medicine in Toplitz, Bohemia from 1838 until his death in 1870.

1808: One day after he had passed away, Nathan Raphael, the wife of the former Julia Asher with whom he had nine children was buried today at the “Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.”

1812: In Glasgow, Scotland, a “hatter” (maker of hats) named Isaac Cohen was admitted as a burgess of the city.

1817: Birthdate of Austrian dermatologist Hermann Edler von Zeissl.

1825(10thof Tishrei, 5586):  Jews observe Yom Kippur in the first year of the Presidency of John Q. Adams, the only American President chosen by the House of Representatives.

1831(15thof Tishrei, 5592): Sukkoth

1842: In Gostyn, Prussia, Samuel and Julia Naphthaly gave birth to Joseph Naphthaly, the San Francisco lawyer, Democratic Party politician and vinter whose property “produced 30,000 gallons of wine” who married the former Sarah Schmitt, the daughter of Blaize L. and Pauline Schmitt with whom he had two children, Samuel and Leon.”

1842: Birthdate of  Abdulhamid II who issued a firman in 1889 stating “That there shall be no interference with the Jews' places of devotional visits and of pilgrimage, that are situated in the localities which are dependent on the Chief Rabbinate, nor with the practice of their ritual

1846(2ndof Tishrei, 5607): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1850:  In Detroit, Michigan, twelve Jewish families came together at the Cozens's home to found the "Bet El Society" (a Michigan Historical Marker now commemorates this site). The congregation engaged the services of Rabbi Samuel Marcus of New York.

1851: The city of Des Moines, Iowa is incorporated as Fort Des Moines. William Krause was one those instrumental in the incorporation effort. He and has his wife had arrived in the area in 1846 when it was known as Raccoon Forks, making them the first Jewish settlers.  The Krause family which had opened the towns first store in 1848 was joined by Joseph and Isaac Kuhn in 1849.  Krause was active in civic affairs and played a key role in having the state capital moved to Des Moines.  By 1870, there were enough Jews in Des Moines to form a congregation called B’nai Jeshurn which built a synagogue in 1878.

1852: The New York Times reported that "The Kohinoor must be a rouser, to allow a company of Hebrew artists to cut away for months upon its sides, and yet be left the largest diamond out of the mines.”  The Kohinoor is one of the largest diamonds in the world.

1855 (10th of Tishrei, 5616): Eleven days after the fall of Sevastopol during the Crimean War, Jews on both sides of the conflict observe Yom Kippur

1855: Adam Mickiewicz arrived in Constantinople. He had journeyed to the capital of the Ottoman Empire from Paris so that he could organize a Jewish legion called the Hussars of Israel made up Jews from Russia and Palestine.  The legion was to be part of the forces fighting against the Czar during the Crimean War.

1855: The New York Times reported on the celebration by “the Israelites of the ceremonies marking the start of their New Year including a list of all the synagogues in the city that are holding services on what is described as ‘a fast day…a day of atonement.’”

1857: One day after he had passed away, David Davidson, the Swedish born son of Abraham and Hannah Davidson, was buried today at the “Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.”

1857: Daniele Manin an Italian patriot and statesman from Venice who was a hero of Italian unification (Risorgimento) passed away. He was born Daniele Fonseca, the son of a Jew in Ramo Astori, Venice. His name was changed to Manin when he was converted to Catholicism as a child.

1858: Two days after she had passed away, Deborah Nathan, the daughter of Isaac Saltiel and the wife of David Nathan with whom she had seven children, was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

1859: Birthdate of Baltimore, MD native Charles H. Lauchheimer a graduate of the United States Naval Academy and Columbia University Law School who rose to the rank of Brigadier General and served as “the Adjutant and Inspector of the United States Marine Corps” during World War I.



1862: Two days after Abraham Lincoln had written letter praising the skills of his podiatrist, Dr. Issachar Zacahrie, the President issued a preliminary draft of the Emancipation Proclamation which would become effective January 1, 1863.

1863(9th of Tishrei, 5624): Erev Yom Kippur

1863: Lt. Colonel Samuel Tolles and nine men from the 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry captured a Jew names Falk Odenheimer near the Pasquotank River in North Carolina.  Odenheimer claimed he was a refugee from Goldsboro, NC.  He was carrying $12,000 in gold and “Southern State money” as well as a number of watches when he was captured.  He had spent the night in the woods looking for a place where he could cross into the Union lines without being detected.  Apparently Tolles did not know what to make of the story since he sent Odenheimer back to headquarters under armed guard.

1867: Three days after he had passed away, 46 year old Joseph Lewis Franklin, the son of Eliezer Franklin, was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.”

1867: In Lancaster, PA Congregation Shaarai Shomayim dedicated its new synagogue building.

1868: Ernst Bernheim the German historian who would lose his academic career under the Nazis due to his Jewish ancestry and who had been attending the Johanneum since Easter of 1862 graduated with the German academic certificate known as the Abitur.

1870: The third congregational home for the West London Synagogue of British Jews which “£20,000 and had capacity for 1,000 congregants” “was opened today.”

1873(1stof Tishrei, 5634): Rosh Hashanah

1873: In New York City the commercial centers and Wall Street are seemingly depopulated because the city’s Jewish population are crowding their synagogues “to their utmost capacity” for services “that are of the most impressive and solemn nature.”


1874: Birthdate of Poltava native David Cantarow, who studied in Algeria and Paris and at Tufts after he which practiced gynecology and obstetrics.

1875: In Jersey, Esther Simon was married today at the home of her uncle.

1875: Henry Levi married Elizabeth Fileman today.

1876: “Pauline,” an opera in four acts with music by the Anglo- Jewish composer Frederic H. Cowen opened at the Lyceum Theatre in London.

1877(15th of Tishrei, 5638): In the first year of the Presidency of Ruther B. Hayes, Jews observe Sukkoth

1878(10thof Tishrei, 5548): Yom Kippur

1878: It was reported today that Union of American Hebrew Congregations (Reform) are moving ahead with the plans adopted last year to reorganize.  According to information supplied by the Jewish Messenger, a newly created Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights will replace the old Board of Delegates of American Israelites.

1879: It was reported today that the police in New York do not believe the story of Meyer Friedman, a Polish Jewish shoemaker, and his wife that there home was broken into by thieves who made off with $90 and a gold watch.  The police base their disbelief on the fact that the glass where the break-in was supposed to have occurred was lying on the ground outside the dwelling and not inside on the flooring indicating that it was broken by somebody on the inside.  Nobody doubts the Friedman’s no longer have the money and nobody has commented on the fact that the alleged burglary took place on Rosh Hashanah

1882(9thof Tishrei, 5643): Erev Yom Kippur

1882: In one of the ironies of history, Wilhelm Keitel, a German Field Marshall and senior Nazi military leader who would be hung as war criminal at Nuremberg was born as Jews prepared to hear the haunting tones of Kol Nidre.

1884: “The Connecticut Campaign” published today described the reaction of Dr. Lewis Kleeberg, the rabbi at Mishkahn Israel to the publication of anti-Semitic language used by the current Republican candidate for governor in a jury summation back in 1857.  Kleeberg said that words spoken in haste and hurry of a court room should not be taken as the speaker’s personal opinions.  Furthermore he dislikes “this mingling of religion and politics.  The effort to use the Jews of Connecticut as a sort of a club to wreak political revenge can do no harm to the man it is aimed at.

1884: New York stock broker Henry C. Friedman eloped tonight with Sarah Scheuer, the daughter of million merchant Solomon Scheuer.

1885: In Vienna, “Benno Stroheim, a middle-class hat-maker, and Johanna Bondy, both of whom were observant Jews.” gave birth to Erich Oswald Stroheim who gained fame as actor, writer, director Erich von Stroheim,

1885: Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of J.S. Loeb of Cincinnati and Ray Pinkussohn of Charleston, SC.

1889: Louis Bols, who was Allenby’s chief of staff during his campaign in Palestine and who served as “Chief Administrator of Palestine” after WW I, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant as he began his climb up the ladder of the British Army.

1889: It was reported today that in their annual report, the managers of House of Refuge on Randall’s Island do not disclose figures on the religious affiliation of any of its inmates except for those who are Jewish.

1889: It was reported today that the new Prince of Monaco has been “betrothed to the Dowager Duchess of Richelieu, a beautiful 31 year old widow who is the daughter of Michel Heine, an orthodox Jew who is a nephew of Heinrich Heine.

1889: It was reported today that Amy Levy, the 23 year old Anglo-Jewish author who was thought to be a future “Emma Lazarus” was cremated today, per her own request.  The ashes were then placed in a small oak chest after which they were buried in a Jewish cemetery.

1889: It was reported today that “a few men are taking the offered course in elementary Hebrew” being offered at Wesleyan University in Connecticut. Future U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s course in American history was the most popular elective being offered during this same fall semester.

1889: Rabbi Aaron Cohen delivered the sermon at today’s dedication of the new synagogue built by Congregation Beth Hamedrash Hagodol in New York.  Coroner Ferdinand Levy delivered an address after the endstone was laid at the building which had cost $44,000.

1889: Rabbi Moses Guedalia led the services this afternoon that marked the consecration of the Congres of Moses Montefiore’s new synagogue on in New York City. He was assisted by several visiting clergymen including Rabbis A.H. Nieto and H. Pereira Mendes.

1890: “Literary Notes” published today described “a Hebrew translation of Longfellow’s ‘Psalm of Life’” by Rabbi Isidore Meyers of Melbourne, Australia that has just been printed in Jerusalem

1890(8thof Tishrei, 5651): In the United Kingdom, 27 year old Ernest M. Lazerck, the son of Mr. and Mrs Moritz Lazereck passed away today.

1891: Russians claim that seven thousand Jews left Berdichefon for Argentina today.  This claim would be appear to be bogus since there is no railway facility at Berdichefon capable of handling such a large number of people at one time.

1891: In Brooklyn the only Isaac Marks listed in the city directory denied that the Henry Marks, the young who committed suicide yesterday in suburban Chicago, is his brother as claimed by the note found with the body that also contained a request that he be buried “according to Jewish rites”

1892: Approximately two thirds of the 358 passengers who arrived in New York today aboard the Moravia were Russian Jews.

1892(1stof Tishrei, 5653): As Grover Cleveland seeks to defeat Benjamin Harrison in the upcoming U.S. Presidential election, Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah

1892: In Cleveland, Ohio, “the Erie Street congregation of Russian Jews” is scheduled to hold Rosh Hashanah services in an assembly room of the new Young Men’s Christian Association Building.

1892: Birthdate of Friedrich Jacob Kiesler, the native of Czernowitz which was then in the Austro-Hungarian Empire who gained fame as the American architect and designer Frederick John Kiesler who “was chosen in 1952 as one of "the 15 leading artists at mid-century" by The Museum of Modern Art.”

1893: Bernard Pachman and Carl Feldman were arrested tonight when police attempted to stop a group of “Hebrew Anarchists” from throwing cobblestones at the offices of Freie Arbeiter Stimme on Pike Street.

1895(4thof Tishrei, 5656): Tzom Gedaliah observed since the 3rd was Shabbat

1895(4thof Tishrei, 5656: Prominent Jewish leader Abraham B. Wasser “dropped dead this afternoon while visiting at the home of a friend “in Elizabeth, NJ

1895: In Jacksonville, FL, the Phoenix Club, whose members included Sol Iseman, V.E. Jacobs, Fred Kann and Mike Sabel was formed today.

1895:  Birthdate of Lemberg native Frederich Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund who gained fame as Academy Award winning actor Paul Muni who got his start in the Yiddish theatre and who unlike other leading men of his day, Muni gained fame as a character actor playing figures as widely different as Mexican revolutionary, a Chinese peasant and a French publisher.


1895: In Detroit, Temple Bethel adopted the use of the New Union Prayer Book for Sabbath services.

1895: Birthdate of celebrated poet, novelist, critic, and editor, Babette Deutsch. While still a student at Barnard College, Deutsch had her first poems published in magazines, and her first volume of poetry, Banners, was published only two years after she graduated. Many more volumes of poetry followed, including 1928's Honey Out of A Rock, which touched on varied biblical and Jewish themes. Deutsch also wrote a number of novels, including A Brittle Heaven (1926), In Such a Night (1927), and The Mask of Silenus (1933). In addition to her work as a poet and novelist, Deutsch was also a noted critic, as well as a writer of fiction and biographies for children. In 1958 she was elected to the National Academy of Arts and Letters, and in 1969 served as the organization's secretary. Deutsch was on the advisory board of the National Book Committee, chancellor for the Academy of American Poets, and a consultant for the Library of Congress. Although Deutsch led a busy professional life, she also devoted much of her time to the Jewish community. Deutsch often worked with the Young Men's Hebrew Association, serving as a lecturer in their Poetry Center. Much of her poetry reflected her Jewish heritage, and her last three books of poetry all dealt with her anger at the horrors of the Holocaust and her efforts to make sense of such great tragedy.

1896: Birthdate of Uri Zvi Grinberg the Galacian born Israeli poet and author who uniquely wrote in both Yiddish and Hebrew

1897: In Special Sessions Court, “Nathan Straus pleaded not guilty” this morning “in the case brought by the Board of Health charging him with selling “impure milk.”  Straus has been providing sterilized and modified milk products through conveniently located distribution centers to the primarily immigrant population of the Lower East Side; a program he subsidizes which has demonstrably lowered the infant and child mortality rate in New York.

1898: Washington, D.C, native Franklin W. Hart was assigned to the “Celtic” today as “paymaster with the rank of Lieutenant.”

1899: “Max Regis, the former Mayor of Algiers and a notorious Jew baiter” fled from his villa which was just outside of town in which he and his fellow anti-Semites “had been barricaded for some days” because they feared arrest by the government.

1900(28thof Elul, 5660): Parashat Nitzavim

1900(28thof Elul, 5660): Caroline Brenner, the daughter of the former Louise Blumenau and Jacob A. Brenner, the Brooklyn attorney, Kings County judicial official and active member of Temple Beth-Elohim passed away today, two years after her brother Simon had passed away.

1901(9thof Tishrei, 5662): Eight days after Vice President Teddy Roosevelt was sworn in as President following the death of William McKinley, Jews prepare to hear Kol Nidre

1901: Birthdate of Everett, MA native Abraham Theodore Alpert who was awarded an A.B. from Harvard in 1922.

1901(9thof Tishrei, 5662): Sixty-two year old attorney and economist Simon Sterne passed away today in New York City.


1902:  Birthdate of Bucharest native Jacques Hasusman, to son of a Jewish father and English mother who gained fame as Academy award winning actor John Houseman known to one generation as the law school professor Charles Kingsfield in “The Paper Chase”but to an earlier generation he was the producer of Orson Well’s radio masterpiece, War of the Worlds.

1902(20thof Elul, 5662): Eighty year Solomon Cohn who began served a rabbi in Berlin from 1876 to 1894 when he retired and moved to Breslau where he passed away today.

1902(20thof Elul, 5662): Sixty-one year old Siegmund Hinrichsen who served as member of the Hamburg Parliament starting in 1871 passed away today.

1903(1st of Tishrei, 5664): Rosh Hashanah

1904:  Hyman Liberman began serving as May of Cape Town, South Africa.

1904: Birthdate of Max Hodesblatt, the Brooklyn native whose basketball skills earned him entrance into the CCNY Athletic Hall of Fame and who went on to a successful coaching career.

1905: The Jewish Chronicle reported that Aria College, in Portsmouth which had been founded Lewis Aria has closed for lack of funds.


1905: Myer Jack Landa, the..
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September 21

19 BCE: Virgil, the classical Roman poet passes away. Eclogue 4, the so-called Messianic Eclogue, is the best known of Virgil’s Eclogues or “Selected Poems also known as Bucolics or “Pastorals.. Written in 40 B.C., during the consulship of Pollio, Virgil's benefactor a year or two previously, it hails the birth of a baby boy who will usher in a golden age of peace and prosperity in which even nature herself will participate. The golden age is the new era of peace for which Augustus was responsible, and the child is thought to be the expected offspring of Augustus and Scribonia (the infant turned out to be a girl). The similarity of language in the poem to that of the Book of Isaiah gave rise to the idea, in the early Christian period, that the fourth Eclogue was indeed a prophecy of the birth of Christ. The similarity may be due to the fact that Jewish ideas spread over Italy in the second half of the first century B.C., and Virgil may have used his acquaintance with them to express the Roman equivalent of a Messianic expectation.

1104: The first synagogue in Speyer was consecrated today, “eleven years after the pogrom of 1096.

1348: The Jews of Switzerland were charged with perpetuation of the Black Death epidemic. There were riots in Bern Chilon and Zurich. Jews held at Chilion were tortured until they "confessed" to having poisoned wells in the area around Venice, Italy. Many Swiss Jews were burned to death during the riots while others were expelled from their respective cities after the violence had subsided. The Black Death was supposed to have been caused by poisoned wells and the Jews were the responsible for poisoning the wells. Of course the Black Death was really Bubonic Plague, but the ignorant found it convenient to blame the Jews for any inexplicable ill that befell them.

1451: Jews of Arnhem were ordered to wear the Jew-badge by the Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, the Cardinal for that part of Holland.

1486: Sixty-eight year old Johannes Hinderbach, the Prince-Bishop of Trent who blamed the Jews for the death of Simon of Trent which was his justification for murdering “several of them” and working to canonize the boy in what was one of many of the blood libels, passed away today.

1553: The Talmud was confiscated and publicly burned in Rome under the auspices of Cardinal Caraffa, later to be Pope Paul IV, a rabid counter-Reformationist. The Cardinal chose this day specifically because it was Rosh Hashanah so the Jews would feel the grief more strongly. Talmud burning would spread to other parts of Italy.

1558: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, passed. Charles wore two hats, or should we say two crowns. While he was the Holy Roman Emperor he was also King of Spain. As the Spanish monarch he continued to enforce the ban against Jews living in his realm. But as Holy Roman Emperor, his rule over German Jewry was such that they “regarded the emperor as their benefactor and protector against the Protestants.”

1618(Tishrei, 5379): In Holland, Dona Ester, wife of Moses Peixotto passed away. Her tombstone provides us with one of the earliest records of the Peixottos, a prominent Sephardic family who came to the United States in the first decade of the 19thcentury.

1645(1st of Tishrei, 5406): In Mogilev, Russia, rioters attacked the Jews during Tashlikh services..

1676: Innocent XI begins his Papacy. “Innocent showed a degree of sensitivity in his dealings with the Jews within the Italian States. He compelled the city of Venice to release the Jewish prisoners taken by Francesco Morisini in 1685. He also discouraged compulsory baptisms which accordingly became less frequent under his pontificate; but he could not abolish the old practice altogether. More controversially he issued an edict by which all the money-lending activities carried out by the Roman Jews were to cease. Such a move would incidentally have financially benefitted his own brothers who played a dominant role in European money-lending. However ultimately convinced that such a measure would cause much misery in destroying livelihoods, the enforcement of the edict was twice delayed.

1710(Elul, 5470): Hodel, daughter of Moshe Kikinish of Lemberg, died a martyr's death after falsely confessing to blood-ritual charges in order to save the lives of other Jews.

1731: Jews were granted the right to attend fairs in Smolensk provided that they limit their transactions to wholesale business.

1755(16thof Tishrei, 5516): Sukkot Second Day

1758: In Paris, Abraham Silvestre who was “of Jewish origin” and his wife gave birth to linguist and orientalist Silvestre de Sacy who prepared texts for the British and Foreign Bible Society.

1759(29th of Elul, 5519): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1768(10thof Tishrei, 5529): Yom Kippur

1776(8thof Tishrei): Shabbat Shuvah

1776: During the British occupation of New York, a fire broke out that destroyed approximately 25% of the city – a fire that the British claimed was started to disrupt their forces and that the Americans claimed the British  started so that they could loot the city, most of whose Jewish inhabitants had fled with the departure of American forces.

 1789(1st of Tishrei, 5550): Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time under the Presidency of George Washington.

1779: Birthdate of Count Wedel Jarlsberg, a Norwegian noble who supported banning Jews from his country.

1793(15thof Tishrei, 5554): Sukkoth

1793: In Georgetown, SC, “Solomon and Rebecca (Moses) Harby gave birth U.S. Navy officer and War of 1812 veteran Levi Charles Meyers Harby, who served in the “Texas Navy” during its war for independence and in the Confederate Navy during the Civil War while finding time to marry “Leonora Rebecca De Lyon, a member of the prominent Jewish family from Savanah with whom he had three children.

https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/view/Military.aspx?pid=1347201850&vid=867db4a3-6e14-4e95-904f-ffa15404553e&tid=807361

1802: Anti-Jewish riots took place in Switzerland. Five centuries have passed since the black plague but the Swiss behavior remained unchanged.

1812(15th of Tishrei, 5573): First Day of Sukkoth

1825(9th of Tishrei, 5585): Erev Yom Kippur

1836(10thof Tishrei, 5597): Yom Kippur

1836: Joseph Samuels led services in the newly dedicated synagogue in Cincinnati, Ohio – the first such structure in the Queen City.

1838: Privileges granted the Jews of Sweden were revoked by the Swedish government.

1841: Hassocks Gate Railway Station which was designed by Anglo-Jewish architect David Mocatta opened today.

1842: Birthdate of Ottoman Sultan Murad V. During his reign, Jews migrated to Turkey after the signing of the Berlin Treaty. Also, his Jewish subjects celebrated the 400th anniversary of their arrival from Spain. It took three tries, but Herzl finally got an audience with the Sultan in 1902 during which he makes his case for a Jewish Homeland under the protection of the Sultan.

1842: Birthdate of John B. Weber, Civil War veteran and New York Congressman who was appointed the first Commissioner of Immigration at the Port of New York in 1890 which meant he had a major impact on the flood of Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe – deciding in some cases who could stay and who had to be returned. Weber joined Dr. Walter Kempster in visiting Russia and preparing an official report on the conditions of the Jews living in that country and the purposeful policy of deprivation and discrimination pursued by the Czar to impoverish the Jews and force them to immigrate to the United States.

1843: In Bromberg, Prussia, Moses Nathan Silberberg and Pauline Pulvermacher gave birth to Max Silberberg the husband of Dora Feder who came to the United States in 1859, served in the Union Army and served for several years in the Ohio State Legislature, representing a district from Cincinnati.

1846(1stof Tishrei, 5607): In the first year of the Mexican-American War, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1847: Birthdate of Yitzhak Isaac Halevy Rabinowitz the “rabbi, Jewish historian, and founder of the Agudath Israel organization” who was raised by his grandfather Mordechai Eliezer Kovno, “after his father was killed by soldiers.”

1850(15th of Tishrei, 5611): Sukkoth

1853: Rabbi J.J. Lyons officiated at the wedding of T. Jefferson Tobias of Charleston, SC to Adelaide Hendricks, the daughter of Uriah Hendricks of New York City.

1853: “Great Britain: London Trade-American Sewing Machines” published today reported “if the clothing firm of E. Moses and Son has not begun using the sewing machine in its tailoring operation, it soon will, since the firm is always looking for ways to be be more cost effective.” “London clothier Elias Moses was the first to pioneer a retail model of massive advertising and deep discounts to create a high-volume business in low-margin ready-to-wear clothing…The Moses & Son store even looked different, fitted with” the “ then unheard of plate-glass display windows out front and fixed prices on clothing inside. But after the father passed away, and the son retired, the store rather lost is heart. When the son of Moses and Son died in 1884, the Times of London mourned, ‘The large premises at Aldgate and Oxford Street know the name of E. Moses and Son no more.’”

1857: Bertha and Marcus Goldman gave birth to Henry Goldman who joined Goldman Sachs & Co in 1885 where he “helped list retail companies like Sears and Woolworth” and he refinanced Studebaker.  He left the company during World War I over his support for Germany an attitude that would change when he visited the country when the Nazis came to power and became a tireless worker to help German Jewish intellectuals and children escape to the United States.

1858: In Philadelphia, PA, Rebecca Baehr married Julius Israel of Camden, SC.

1859: Benjamin Szold arrived in the United States and began serving as the Rabbi for Oheb Shalom in Baltimore, Maryland. He would serve in that capacity until his death in 1902. Szold moved the congregation from Minhag America (Reform) to Minchag Ashekenaz (Traditional). For all of his own accomplishments, his greatest claim to fame may be that he was the father of Henrietta Szold.

1860: Seventy-two year old German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer who called the Jews "The Great Master of Lies" passed away today.

1863: At its meeting today the Board of Alderman referred to the Committee on Donations and Charities the Report of Committee on Finance, with resolution that the Comptroller be directed to dispose of the following ground, belonging to the Corporation, and located adjoining the Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, on Seventy-seventh-street, and extending from the westerly line or side of said Orphan Asylum to the easterly line or side of Lexington-avenue. being in extent one hundred and thirty-five feet front and rear, by one hundred feet deep to the said- Hebrew Benevolent Society, to be held by the said Society upon the same tenure or conditions as the twelve lots of ground heretofore granted to the Bifid Society; the grant hereby made to said Society to be sanctioned by the Legislature of the State at its next or any subsequent session, in order to perfect the title thereto in the aforesaid Society, and to obviate the prohibition contained in the forty-first section of the Amended Charter of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, in respect to disposing of the property or franchises of the City.

1865(1stof Tishrei, 5626): American Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time during the Presidency of Andrew Johnson

1867: Birthdate of American statesman, Henry Stimson. By the time he passed away in 1950, Stimson had amassed an incredible record of public service serving Presidents from Teddy Roosevelt to Harry Truman. Stimson served as Secretary of War from 1940 through 1945. This meant that he was the cabinet member who oversaw the Army and Army Air Force in the successful defeat of the Axis military. Towards the end of the war, there were some in the Roosevelt administration who circulating a resolution opposing creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Stimson came out against this move which helped to smother it at a time when American support for a Jewish state was a hotly debated issue in the halls of government.

1870: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi J.H.M. Chumaceiro officiated at the wedding of S.C. Peixtto of Columbia, SC and Hortense Levy, the “eldest daughter of Max Levy.”

1870: According to the Teachers’ Reading Room and Exchange in Manhattan there are 7 Hebrew Schools below 59th Street with a total enrollment of 1,147 and 47 teachers.

1871(6th of Tishrei, 5632): Sixty-four year old Rabbi Mendel Hess passed away. Born in 1807, at Lengsfeld (now Stadtlengsfeld), Saxe-Weimar he was a German rabbi.He was one of the 1st Jewish theologians to combine a university education with Talmudical training. From 1828 until his death he was chief rabbi of the grand duchy of Weimar, residing first at Lengsfeld and later at Eisenach. Although the measure had aroused great dissatisfaction among the Jews, he strictly enforced the decree of the government (June 20, 1823) ordaining that Jewish services should be conducted exclusively in the German language and that the reading in Hebrew of sections of the Bible should be followed by their translation into the vernacular. The position of rabbi as government official became very unpleasant, as he was required to inform against those who failed to attend the services, a requirement which even the progressive Jews, who approved of the ordinance, condemned. Intermarriages between Jews and Christians being allowed in the grand duchy, Hess officially consecrated such nuptials, notwithstanding the proviso that the off-spring should be brought up in the Christian faith. In the consecration of Jewish marriages he likewise ignored time-honored traditional rabbinical regulations, and it is said that in his disregard of Jewish sentiment he went so far as to attend a theater on the eve of the Day of Atonement ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1845, p. 62). Hess was a member of the three rabbinical conferences which (1844-46) convened at Brunswick, Frankfort-on-the-Main, and Breslau, and as such was an advocate of uncompromising radicalism. After 1848 he felt the illiberality of enforced reforms, and petitioned the government to repeal the law which made attendance at the Reform services compulsory ("Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1853, p. 474). He edited "Der Israelit des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts" from 1839 to 1847, and, with Samuel Holdheim as coeditor, in 1847 and 1848. Hess also published two collections of sermons and addresses (Eisenach, 1839, 1843).

1873(29th of Elul, 5633): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1874(10th of Tishrei, 5635): Yom Kippur

1874: Birthdate of Joe Levin, a founder of B'nai Abraham Synagogue in Brenham, Texas.

1876(3rd of Tishrei): Tzom Gedaliah

1876: In Vladislavov, David and Marie Bernstein gave birth to Herman Bernstein, the Russian born American author and diplomat who wrote “History of a Lie,” a book which exposed the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” as an anti-Semitic forgery and served as U.S. Ambassador to Albania.

1876: Birthdate of Viennese actress Mathilde Sussin who died in 1943 at Theresienstadt.

1878: As a Yellow Fever Epidemic gripped the Deep South, the officers of Hebrew Hospital Association in Memphis, Tennessee issued the following appeal: “Our funds having been entirely exhausted, and sickness still continuing with unabated fury in our midst, we appeal to our co-religionists through the United States for pecuniary aid. There are orphans to be cared for, in addition to relieving the wants of the sick and the distressed. And our good work must be discontinued unless aid is given us. All remittances should be addressed to David Eiseman, Treasurer of the Hebrew Hospital Association.”

1878: Raphael D.C. Lewin delivered a lecture on the subject of “Life and Character of Moses Mendelssohn, the German-Jew Philosopher of the Eighteenth Century.” The proceeds of the lecture will go to aid those suffering from the Yellow Fever Epidemic.

1878: The Chamber of Commerce Relief Committee dispersed funds to various organizations aiding victims of Yellow Fever including $1,000 to the Hebrew Benevolent Association of New Orleans, $500 to the Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans of New Orleans and $500 to the Hebrew Benevolent Association of Memphis, TN.

1878(9th of Tishrei, 5548): Erev Yom Kippur

1879 (4th of Tishrei, 5640): Tzom Gedaliah

1879: In Columbus, Mississippi, founding of B’nai Israel, a congregation that holds Friday night and Saturday morning services in the Odd Fellows Building, provides a religious school that meets twice weekly and owns a cemetery “one mile south of the courthouse.”

1879 (4th of Tishrei, 5640): Rabbi Meir Leibush ben Yechiel Michel also known as the Malbin passed away. Born in 1809, he ultimately became the Chief Rabbi of Bucharest. He wrote a commentary on the Bible, showing the close relationship between the Oral and the Written Law. He fought strongly against many reformist movements which he likened to modern day Kararites. While not very popular with the "enlighteners," he apparently was quite popular with the common people of the various communities that he served.

1880: It was reported today that the Jewish festival of Succoth or Feast of Booths commenced on Sunday evening and will continue until next Monday night.  The first and last days of the festival are only regarded as holy days, the intermediate days being of no special import.  His is the harvest of feast of the ancient Jews and is also commemorative of the Israelites dwelling in Succoth of booths during their weary journey through the wilderness.”

1883: Birthdate of Robert Goldstein the producer of “The Spirit of ‘76” a film made before the United States entered WW I which portrayed the cruel treatment of Americans during the Revolution by British soldiers.  Unfortunately for Goldstein and he was prosecuted under Title XI of the Espionage Act, and received a ten-year sentence plus a fine of $5000. The sentence was commuted on appeal to three years.

1883: Birthdate of New York City native and attorney Edwin Chester Vogel, a partner in the firm of Elkus, Vogel, Gleason and Proskauer and prominent art collector.

https://www.nytimes.com/1973/05/22/archives/edwingvogel-89-collector-of-art-philanthropist-exofficer-of-cit.html

1883: It was reported today that while addressing a banquet being held in Grosswardein, the Hungarian Prime Minister said “Jew-baiting affected the honor of the Fatherland, and the Government was bound to protect the lives and property of all citizens regardless of class prejudice.”

1884: Birthdate of Clarence Cleveland Dill, the United States Senator from the state of Washington who was so supportive of Herbert Hoover’s nomination of Benjamin Cardozo to serve on the Supreme Court that, on a radio broadcast he called it “the finest act of his career as President.”

1884: “The English Peers” published today, using information that first appeared in the Fortnightly Review, described the obstructionist role played by the House of the Lords in the past sixty years including their repeated oppositions to bills passed by the House of Commons that would have relived Jews of their “civil disabilities.”

1884: It was reported today that in London, this week’s edition of the Jewish Chronicle contained a letter from Henry Rice, the President of the United Hebrew Society of New York and I.S. Isaacs, the society’s secretary, describing the opposition of Jews in the United States “to the immigration of idle, weak people who expect to live on charity alone and urging that care be taken that none be sent save those able to earn a living.”  The Jewish leaders warned that the U.S. government would send back the former.  The Chronicle called “the letter harsh and unsympathetic.”

1884: “Heine’s Memoirs” published today provides a detailed review of The Memoirs of Heinrich Heinewhich include “some newly discovered fragments of his writings” and “an introductory essay by Thomas W. Evans”

1884: It was reported today that unnamed Jewish peddler has been arrested in New Haven on charges that he had split open the head of John Carroll after being teased by a group of boys last night.

1884: The Society of United Hebrew Charities met at Wheatly Hall in Philadelphia to discuss the additional street being place on its limited resources to the huge influx of Russian immigrants.

1884: “Honoring An Aged Philanthropist” published today described the “extensive preparations” being made by American Jews to celebrate the 100th birthday of Sir Moses Montefiore on October 24.  At four o’clock in the afternoon on that date synagogues throughout the United States will hold services following the special liturgy first developed in the British Empire.” 

1886: Birthdate of Lucian Leman Kahn, the native of Hamilton, Ohio, Virginia Military Institute Class of 1906 who served as a Captain with the 8th Division of the AEF during WW I.

1890: In Vienna, a sub-Lieutenant who had been arrested for attacking an old Jew appeared before the Police Commissioner today and explained his action by saying that “he had…quarreled with a Jew and hated all the race so much that he had sworn he would punish the first one he set eyes upon.”

1890: Rabbis Pereira Mendes and M.H. Harris officiated at the funeral of Benjamin F. Peixotto at Temple Israel of Harlem. Pall bearers include Julius Bien, Meyer S. Isaacs, Adolph Sanger, Daniel T. Hays, Michael H. Cardozo, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, M.M. Davis and Adolphus Solomons of Washington, D.C.

1890: “New Publications” published today included  a description of The Centurial: A Jewish Calendar for One Hundred Years, a Jewish calendar and almanac compiled by E. M. Myers.

1891(18th of Elul, 5651): Henry Marks, a young Jew from Brooklyn  who had served with Troop E, Fifth Cavalry, US Army, shot himself “on the lake shore at Edgewater” outside of Chicago.

1891: Seventy year old Victor Guérin a French explorer and archaeologist whose seven trips to the “holy land” resulted in the seven volume Geographical, Historical, and Archaeological Description of Palestine and who used such Jewish sources “as the Mishna and Talmud, as well as Jewish travelers such as Benjamin of Tudela and Isaac Chelo” passed away today.

1892(29th of Elul, 5652): Erev of Rosh Hashanah

1892: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Abraham Max Rabiner, the 1916 graduate of Albany Medical College, and Assistant Professor of Neurology and Psychiatry at New York Univeristy.

1892: Polish Jews being held in quarantine at Sandy Hook “have been sent kosher food from their friends in New York so they can begin their celebration of Rosh Hashanah.

1892: “The Jewish New Year” published today provided a description of the upcoming holiday that includes “a peculiar observance, the blowing of the shofar or cornet…”

1893: Solomon Breyer is at home with a scalp wound he suffered when the synagogue on Rivington Street he was praying at Erev Yom Kippur caught fire and burned.]

1893: According to reports published today, a concert will be held..
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September 20
 
357 B.C.E.: Birthdate of Alexander the Great.  Alexander's eastern conquests would bring the Jews in contact with Greek Culture.  The conflict between Greek and Jewish values would become a dominant motif in Jewish history over the next several centuries.  The Jewish view of Alexander was positive, if somewhat idealized.

1187: Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.  When the siege ended in October, the Moslems recaptured the city leading to the near collapse of Christian control in the Holy Land. Saladin allowed the Jews to return to the City of David from which they had been banned by the Christian Crusaders. (Did they realize that this meant Jesus would not have been able to live in Jerusalem?)  Saladin’s victory would lead to the Third Crusade.

1540: The first auto da fe in Lisbon of those forcibly converted to Christianity (conversos) is held. The term auto da fe literally means act of faith.  In point of fact it was a public execution in the form of a burning at the stake.

1563: Maximilian II whose reign was “a golden age for the Jews in Prague” became King of Bohemia

1590: French playwright and poet Robert Garnier, the author of Les Juives, passed away. “Les Juives is the moving story of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the Jewish king Zedekiah and his children. The Jewish women lamenting the fate of their children take a principal part in this tragedy, which, although almost entirely elegiac in conception, is singularly well designed, and gains unity by the personality of the prophet.”

 1701: In Great Britain, Bevis Marks Synagogue inaugurated.


“Situated in the City of London, just off the ancient thoroughfare of Bevis Marks, the Synagogue was opened in 1701 and the oldest still in use in Britain. Jews first arrived in England with William the Conqueror, but following an edict of Edward I, were expelled from England in 1290. For more than 350 years there were no Jewish communities or places of worship in Britain. In Catholic countries the cruelties of the Inquisition forced some Jews to convert outwardly to Catholicism whilst, in secret, adhering to the faith of their fathers. In the early 17th century some of these crypto-Jews, known as Marranos', came from Portugal via Hamburg or Amsterdam, to settle in the City of London. But they were still forbidden to practice their religion openly. In 1655 a group of such Jews addressed a petition to Oliver Cromwell, requesting freedom to worship and to re-admit Jews to England. Cromwell gave tacit approval and, as a result, in 1656 the upper floor of a house in Creechuch Lane (a stone's throw from Bevis Marks) was opened for use as a place of worship. Towards the end of the century a new synagogue was planned on the Bevis Marks site. Construction was entrusted in 1699 to Joseph Avis, a Quaker, and the building was completed in 1701 at a cost of £2650; it is said that Mr. Avis refused to make a profit from building a house of God and returned all surplus money to the Congregation. It is also believed that Princess (Later Queen) Anne presented an oak beam from a Royal Navy ship for use as a roof support for the Synagogue building. In 1992 and 1993 the Synagogue suffered great damage from terrorist bomb attacks on the City of London. Nearly £200,000 was raised by donation and has since been spent in repairing and renovating the structure to return it to its former glory. As it approaches its tercentenary, the Bevis Marks Synagogue appears much as it did on its opening day in 1701.”
 
 
1721: Thomas Dogget, the Anglo-Irish actor who played “the role” of Shylock “comically, even farcically” passed away.  (Dogget was one of a whole host of actors who played the role of the Jew without ever knowing any of them)

1725: In Moravia, a fine of 1,000 ducats “was imposed on anyone who allowed Jews to come into possession of real estate, particularly customhouses, mills, wool-shearing sheds, and breweries.” (As reported by Jewish Virtual Library)

1741: Handel completed the first act of “Samson,” a work based on the Biblical figure described in the Book of Judges.

1755(15thof Tishrei, 5516): Sukkot and Shabbat

1761: On the exact anniversary of the first auto-de-fe in Portugal, Gabriel Malagrida was burned alive on the Terreiro do Paço at Lisbon. He was to be the last victim burned in Portugal at any auto-de-fe.

1763: In London, Joseph Gompertz and Esther Moses gave birth to Lion Gomperts, the husband of Rebecca Salomons.

1775: Maria Theresa issued an order allowing Jews to “keep tanneries”  which was the third of three orders that would appear to show a desire to improve the economic conditions of the Jews

1779(10th of Tishrei, 5540): Yom Kippur

1779: Birthdate of Jacob Baiz, the native of Bayonne, France and Leah Baiz who eventually settled in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands.

1779: Birthdate of Karl Streckfuss, the Prussian privy council who in 1833 wrote a treatise, “On the Relation of the Jews to the Christian States” in which he expressed reluctance “to recommend a universal emancipation because of the alleged moral and deficiencies of the common type of Jew. (As reported by Jacob Katz)

1789(29th of Elul, 5549): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1798(10th of Tishrei, 5559): Yom Kippur

1798: Birthdate of Philipp Freiherr von Schey Koromla, the native of Guns who became a successful businessman and was the first Hungarian born Jew to become a member of the Austrian nobility.

1800(1st of Tishrei, 5561): Jews observed Rosh Hashanah for the last time with a member of the Federalist Party serving as President of the United States.

1800: As of this Rosh Hashanah, Rabbi Nachman had returned from Palestine where he had lived since 1789 and had taken up residence in Zlatopol where the resident had asked him to name the leader for the High Holiday Services.

1800: Moses David Friedman, the son of Dawid Friedman and Rachel Friedman gave birth to Abraham Friedman.

1812: A.M. Rothschild is buried next to ancestor Iassk Elchanan who died in 1585.  Elchanan was the first one whose tombstone was marked with the emblem of a shield which gave rise to the Red Shield.

1817(10thof Tishrei, 5578): Yom Kippur

1817: In Bernberg, Saxony, Nathanael Reichenheim and Zipora Cäcilie Reichenheim gave birth to Ferdinand Reichenheim the husband of Fanny Reichenheim.

1819(1stof Tishrei, 5580): Rosh Hashanah

1820: Mark Jacob Nordon married Jane Arrobus at the Western Synagogue today.

1825: Simeon Oppenheim and his wife gave birth to Samuel S. Oppenheim “one of the founders and a member of the Building Committee and Board of Management of the New West End Synagogue in London who worked on charitable activities with Rabbi Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati.

1836(9thof Tishrei 5597): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre chanted to the last time during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson.

1837: Julius Singer married Rika Woolf at the New Synagogue today.

1838(1stof Tishrei, 5599): Rosh Hashanah

1838: Birthdate of Nathan Barnet, the native of Pozan who became mayor of Patterson, NJ and was a founder of the Miriam Barnet Hebrew Free School.

1847(10th of Tishrei, 5608): Yom Kippur

1848: Creation of The American Association for the Advancement of Science whose Jewish members have included Stephen Jay Gould, American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science who served as the organizations president in 2000.

1850: “Emperor Franz Joseph remitted the war-tax today but ordered that the Jews of Hungary without distinction should contribute toward a Jewish school fund of 1,000,000 gulden; a sum they raised within a few years.”

1851: Birthdate of British playwright Henry Arthur Jones, author of “Judah” in 1890 and “The Triumph of the Philistines” in 1895.


1856: During the week ending today, of the 461 people who died in New York, only one of them died at The Jew's Hospital.

1863: During the American Civil War, the 15th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, a Union unit that had been formed under the command of Lt. Col. Gabriel Netter left Paducah, Kentucky, and headed for McLemoresville, Tennessee. (Netter was one of several Jews to serve as ranking officer in the U.S. Army)

1865(29th of Elul, 5625): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1865: Today's “City News” column reported that “This evening the series of annual Jewish holidays commences. The first of these is known as Rosh Hashanah, (the New-Year.) It begins this evening and terminates on Friday night. The origin of the festival is given in Leviticus xxiii., 23, 24, 25. Though not one of the three great festivals on which the male population of Israel was to appear before the Lord, it is nevertheless considered as one of the first among the principal holidays, and as such has ever been celebrated by the Sons of Jacob. A peculiar rite of this festival is the blowing of trumpets, and this is not only observed, but the hearing of the same is obligatory on all Jews. With this festival begins an era called the ten days of repentance, which is terminated by the Yom Kippur, (Day of Atonement.) This festival of New-Year is observed very strictly by the Israelites of this city, no business being transacted, and the synagogues being thronged by hundreds of devout worshipers.”

1867: One day after she had passed away, 68 year old Elizabeth Marks was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

1869(15thof Tishrei, 5630): Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of U.S. Grant.

1870: During the fight for the unification of Italy, Victor Emanuel seized the Capitol city of Rome. This victory would lead to the end of Rome’s Ghetto which had stood for three centuries.

1874: Vice President Jesse Seligman chaired today’s regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society of New York.  The trustees unanimously adopted a motion challenging the veracity of charges of mismanagement which had first appeared in the Era magazine and then were reprinted in the New York Times.  The motion referred to the charges as “false and malicious” stating that they were made out of “animosity and malice” aimed at the chief officer of the society.  The motion called for the establishment of an independent committee to investigate the charges and report on their “truth or falsity.”

1874(9th of Tishrei, 5635): Erev of Yom Kippur

1874: Dr. Solomon Adler, the senior rabbi and Dr. Gustav Gottheil, his assistant, will deliver sermons in German and English during the Kol Nidre Serve at Temple Emanu-el, the major Reform congregation in New York City.

1876(2ndof Tishrei, 5636): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1880(15thof Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

1881: It was reported today that 116 Russian Jews have left Antwerp bound for New York.

1881: Vice President Chester A. Arthur was sworn in as President following the death of President Garfield. In 1882, during Arthur’s single term as President, the United States finally ratified the Red Cross Treaty enabling the American Red Cross to join the international body.  President Arthur appointed Adolphus Simeon Solomons as one of three delegates to represent the country at the Geneva Congress, where he was elected vice-president. This was one of the earliest moves to give an American Jew a prominent position in public affairs. Solomons had been a driving force behind the creation of the American Red Cross.  It was at his home that a proposal was approved to form the Association of the American Red Cross and incorporate it in Washington, D.C. Solomons was born in New York where he began a printing business which he would later move to Washington, D.C. and expand into a full-scale publishing house. A Civil War veteran, Solomons worked to establish numerous institutions that would aide both the general population and the Jewish community.  He helped establish the first school for nurses in Washington and one of the first shelters for homeless men.  He helped to establish Mt. Sinai Hospital and the Russian Jews Immigrant Aid Society.

1882: In MIscolcz,, Hungary, Rivka and Yehuda Leib Marmorstein gave birth to Avraham (Arthur) Marmorstein the holder of a PhD from the University of Heidelberg and S.A. Hirsch’s successor as the “lecturer in Talmud, Codes and Bible at Jews College whose son Bruno, while serving as a Captain in the British Army “helped to liberate Belsen.”

1883: Birthdate of Albrecht Alt, the German theologian who wrote “Israel and Egypt” as part of his doctoral and who served as the Provost at the Evangelical Redeemer Church in Jerusalem.

1884(1st of Tishrei, 5645): Rosh Hashanah

1884: In Leadville, CO, Temple Israel celebrated the Jewish New Year for the first time in its brand new building.

1984: In San Francisco, opera singer Julie Rosewald led the music service at Temple Emanu-El making her the first woman to perform the Rosh Hashanah liturgy.


1884: “Forced Out Of Business” published today, described the demise of Rindskopf Brothers & Co.  The company, which began operating in Cincinnati in 1854 before moving to New York in1866 was forced into bankruptcy by its inability to obtain financing during the economic downturn as well as its failure to change its business practices. Morris Rindskopf, one of the principles of the company, is a well-known philanthropist who is the treasurer of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities neither of which are involved in nor threatened by the bankruptcy.

1885: “Dr. Pusey’s Daniel” published today provides a detailed review of Daniel the Prophet, a compilation of nine lectures delivered at Oxford by E. B. Pusey.

1887(2nd of Tishrei, 5647): 2ndDay of Rosh Hashanah

1887: Birthdate of Ette Levy who would be buried 73 years later in Natchitoches, LA

1888(15th of Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

1890: In Columbus, Ohio, “Fred and Rose Eichberg Lazarus” gave birth to department store executive Robert Lazarus, the husband of Hattie Weiler Lazarus with whom he had five children.


1890: Birthdate of poet Rachel Bluwstein Sela, Zionist lyric poet known as “Rachel the Poet.”

She died at the age of 41. Flowers of Perhaps: Selected Poems of Rachel is an English translation of some of her works.


1890: In Vienna, a sub-Lieutenant started beating an old Jew before he was stopped by a Prussian officer who turned him over to a police officer.

1890: Misses Ella and J.M. Drefyus were among the passengers who arrived in New York aboard the SS La Champagne.

1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans that Anarchist Johann Most has announced for a mass meeting at the Labor Lyceum to be held on Yom Kippur designed to mock the Day of Atonement.

1891: Rabbi H. P. Mendes delivered the sermon at the dedicatory services for the new synagogue on Staten Island in Richmond Turnpike, Tompkinsville which were attended by approximately 350 people.

1891: In New York, the Addison Literary Society hosted a debatestyled “Resolved that the civilized nations of the world should enter a protest against Russia’s barbarous treatment of her Jewish subjects.”

1891: In Milville, NJ, the lockout at the Flint and Green Glass Works of Whitall, Tatum & Co which came in response to a strike sparked by the employment 14 Jews entered its second day.

1892: In Zutphen, Holland, a Polish shoemaker and his wife gave birth to Joseph Lefkowitz who gained fame as Joseph Leftwitch, the Anglo-Jewish critic who was one of the “Whitechapel Boys”, the author of a biography of Israel Zangwill and the creator of the Golden Peacock.


1892: In Fort Worth, TX an unidentified Jewish merchant was accidently shot in the leg by Ollie Bowles who was trying to shoot the man who had just been acquitted of trying to murder him.

1892: An unnamed Jewish resident of Chicago wrote a letter to former President Grover Cleveland who was running for President expressing his gratitude for the statements of support for the Jews of Russia in the platform of the Democratic Party.

1893(10th of Tishrei, 5654): Yom Kippur

1893: The Hebrew Anarchist continued their tradition of mocking the observance of Yom by holdholding balls and enjoying other entertainments.  This year’s events were held at the Clarendon Hall where attendees paid fifteen cents to enjoy the speeches and merriment.

1893: Rabbi Louis Lustig and his congregation will not be worshiping at their usual house of prayer at 180 Rivington Street because of a fire that broken out at eleven o’clock last night after Kol Nidre Services.

1895(2nd of Tishrei, 5656): 2ndday Rosh Hashanah

1895: The Russian Jews who arrived in Norwich, Ct yesterday from Quebec and are planning to take a steamer to New York City that they are following this “round-about route…to escape the rigid Custom House inspection” that greets immigrants who arrive in New York from Europe.

1895: “Silver Dollar” Smith, a Jewish saloon owner and member of the Tammany machine went looking for William Smith in an attempt to get him to press charges against Martin Engel, a Tammany leader.

1896: A new Charles Frohman melodrama is scheduled to open in Boston today which will eventually be brought to New York

1898: Colonel Dreyfus was released from prison on Devil's Island. This is the famous Dreyfus of "The Dreyfus Fair" that rocked France and provided the impetus for Theodore Herzl to become the father of modern Zionism.

1898:Herzl began a journey that would take him to Paris, The Hague and London on business of the Jewish Colonial Trust (Bank).

1899: In Prussia, “Hugo Strauss and Jennie Strauss, née David” gave birth to American philosopher, Leo Strauss.




1899: French President Emile Loubet pardoned Dreyfus.

1899: In Kirchhain (Prussia), Hugo and Jennie Strauss gave birth to German-American political philosopher Leo Strauss

1899: After hiding out in a villa with his anti-Semitic comrades, Max Regis, the former mayor of the city and “a notorious Jew baiter” went into Algiers “stirring up anti-Jewish demonstrations, during which the windows of several shops owned by Jews were smashed.

1901: “New Jersey Honors President’s Memory” published today described services held in houses of worship all over the Garden State including the Camden’s Sons of Israel Synagogue attended by 500 Jews who heard speeches by Joseph Roterman , Frank Auerbach and Rabbi Leventhal from Philadelphia.

1902: Louis and Emma Sachs gave birth to Solomon Sachs who was murdered by the Nazis at Sobibor.

1906(1st of Tishrei, 5667): Rosh Hashanah

1908: In Houston, TX, members of Congregation Adath Heshurun dedicated their new synagogue.

1911: In New York, a case of Jew versus Jew British boxer Matthew “Matt” Wells defeated World Featherweight Champion Abe Attell known as “the Little Hebrews” in a non-title bout.

1912(9thof Tishrei, 5673): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre

1912: Birthdate of Gutsi Kollman, the widow of Eric Kollman who was a distinguished professor of history at Cornell College in Mt. Vernon, IA from 1944 to 1973.

1914: This afternoon, former Deputy Attorney General Maruice B. Bluementhal spoke at the Young Folks’ League saying that “Americans not only uphold neutrality but disapprove of the war in toto” yet “our hearts go out to three hundred thousand Jewish soldiers in the Russian Army, who having bled and suffered at the hand of their country on account of being Jews, are now suffering and dying for their country because, as Jews, they are loyal to the flag under which they live.  Theirs is a martyrdom which demonstrates the moral and intellectual superiority of the oppressed Jews over his opporessor.”

1914(29thof Elul, 5674): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1914: Tonight, at Temple Emanu-El Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a Rosh Hashanah sermon on the topic of “Peace” using as his theme the words of Isaiah,“Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near saith the Lord.”

1914: Cantor Epstein and Rabbi Straus officiated at tonight’s service at Adath Abraham Temple.

1914: Rabbi Samuel Schulman conducted services at Temple Beth-El on Fifth Avenue.

1914: Four thousand worshippers attended services conducted by Rabbi Jacob Tarlav of the People’s Synagogue which were held at the Educational Alliance building on East Broadway.

1916: After having referred Joseph Barondess’ motion that teachers and clerks be allowed to be “absent from their duties so they could observe Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur the New York City School Board was scheduled to hold a special meeting to decide on the request which had been watered down from “with pay” to “excused without pay.”

1916: Hugh M. Dorsey, the man responsible for the infamous prosecution of Leo Frank was told today by his chief support Thomas E. Watson that he was not to issue any statements in support of Woodrow Wilson.

1916: “Henry Morgenthau, former Ambassador to Turkey, explained” today ‘that this appeal for a ‘Ten Thousand Club,’ whose members were to contribute $1 each to a Woodrow Wilson campaign fund was not intended as a sectarian appeal to the Jews” and that publication of the appeal in Yiddish newspapers was just the first of many appeals that would be made in foreign language papers read by immigrants.

1917: “Refuses Request of Jews” published today described the appeal that the Jewish Union of Frankfort-on-the-Main to the Pope to get his aid in overturning the decision of the Italian government to deny shipping of the Palm branches necessary for the celebration of Sukkoth to Jews in Germany and German..
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September 19

335: Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his Uncle Constantine I who had turned the Roman Empire into a Christian entity.  Following the death of Constantine, his successor Constantius II reportedly had Dalmatius murdered along with other members of his family whom he considered a threat to his rule.  Constantinus consolidation of power was not a good thing for the Jewish people because he was responsible for a whole series of laws and regulations that were “explicitly anti-Jewish.” 

1187: Saladin breaks Camp at Ascalon, and moves towards his ultimate goal of taking Jerusalem

1356: The English decisively defeated the French, led by King John II at the Battle of Poitiers.  The English captured the French king and held him for ransom.  The Dauphine, the future King Charles V, served as regent during his father’s imprisonment.  He authorized the return of the Jews to France “in order to use the taxes to enable him to pay his father's ransom.”  When he assumed the throne, Charles V would continue to honor the promises he had made to the Jews during his regency. 

1590(20thof Elul): Today three years before he passed away, Moshe Alshich granted smichah to Chaim ben Joseph Vital.  Alshcich was born in Turkey in 1508 but settled in Safed where he was a disciple of Rabbi Joseph Caro.

1590(20thof Elul): “Rabbi Judah Arye Moscato…whose principle fame rests on his exegesis, Kol Yehuda of Al Charzari, which was printed for the first time in Fano, Italy in  passed away today

1635(7thof Tishrei): Gitele Loew the wife of Rabbi Simon Brandeis and the mother of Rabbi Samuel Brandeis passed away today in Prague.

1657: During the Swedish invasion of Poland, a period called the Deluge, the Polish king gives up his claims over Prussia in return for aid in fighting the forces of Charles X, the Swedish monarch. This was a period of great suffering for the Jews of Poland who treated badly by the invading Swedes and treated even worse by the various Polish military forces. 

1659: Tobiah Bacharach and Israel ben Shalom were executed today on an accusation of ritual murder.

1724(2nd of Tishrei, 5485): Gluckel of Hamelin passed away



1759: Birthdate of French banker Olry Hayem Worms, whose first wife was Blumele Levi and whose second wife was Flore Zacharie.

1777: During the American Revolution, the First Battle of Saratoga begins.  The victory at Saratoga was critical because it brought the French into the war on the side of the Americans. Colonel David Salisbury Franks, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the American Revolution distinguished himself during this pivotal battle in American history.

1785(15thof Tishrei, 5546): Sukkoth

1792(3rdof Tishrei, 5553): Tzom Gedaliah

1796(16thof Elul, 5556): Jonah b Nathan Z-tz-l was buried today in the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery following his death on September 18.

1796: Today, David C. Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser published “Washington’s Farewell Address” a letter to the American people in which George Washington, who had made Jews feel welcomed in the newly created United States, declined a third term in office and enunciated his view on what Americans would need to protect their future.


1798(9th of Tishrei, 5559): As the naval forces of the Second Coalition assert their control over the Mediterranean in their on-going fight with Napoleon, Jews on both sides hear the chanting of Kol Nidre this evening. 

1807: In Charleston, SC, Isaac Da Costa married Miss Jane Samuel.

1812 (13th of Tishrei, 5573): Sixty-year old Mayer Amschel Rothshchild the found father of the famous banking family passed away today in Frankurt, Germany. For more see Founderby Amos Elon and https://family.rothschildarchive.org/people/21-mayer-amschel-rothschild-1744-1812

1816: In London, Sir Isaac and Isabel Goldsmid gave birth to their second daughter Rachel who became Countess D’Avigdor when in June, 1840 she married Count Salamon Henri D’Avigdor whose father was a member of Napoleon’s Sanhedrin.

1827: Birthdate of Leo Herzberg-Frankel who worked as the chief clerk of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in his native Brody for 40 years while he pursued his literary career.

1838: Birthdate of General Charles Gones who “when confronted with overwhelming evidence that Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy was guilty of the espionage that Alfred Dreyfus had wrongfully been convicted of, Gonse simply overlooked it and refused to recognize Dreyfus's innocence.”

1841: In Cincinnati, Ohio, German Jewish immigrants organized Congregation B’nai Yeshurun

1842(15thof Tishrei, 5603): Sukkoth

1843: Jacob Alexander married Golda Levy at the Great Synagogue today.

1847(9th of Tishrei, 5608): Jews living in California hear Kol Nidre for the first time this evening as citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1847: François Guizot became Prime Minister of France under King Louis Philippe I

1849(3rd of Tishrei, 5610):Tzom Gedaliah

1852: In England, “Maurice Moses Beddington,” the son of “Esther and Henry Tsebi Moses” and his wife “Hannah Maria Beddington gave birth to Mary Louisa Beddington who became Mary Louisa Micholls when she married Edward Emanuel Micholls

1856: Birthdate of Budapest native Victor Caro who served as the Rabbi of Milwaukee’s Temple B’nai Jeshurun from 1892 until 1912 when he passed away while visiting Germany In an attempt to deal with health issues.

1857(1stof Tishrei, 5618): Rosh Hashanah

1857: The New York Times reports on the dedication of a “House of Israel,” a new synagogue in Baltimore, MD “where the ladies of the congregation established a free school for religious instruction.”

1857: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 48 Doris.

1857: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 49 Pales.

1859: George Bush “an American biblical scholar, pastor, abolitionist and Christian Restorationist academic” passed away. Bush, who is reportedly related to the two Americans of that name “published a book entitled ‘The Valley of Vision; or, The Dry Bones of Israel Revived’” in 1844. “In it he denounced “the thralldom and oppression which has so long ground them (the Jews) to the dust,” and called for “elevating” the Jews “to a rank of honorable repute among the nations of the earth” by re-creating the Jewish State in the land of Israel. This, according to Bush, would benefit not only the Jews, but all of mankind, forming a “link of communication” between humanity and God. “It will blaze in notoriety...". “It will flash a splendid demonstration upon all kindreds and tongues of the truth.”


1861(15th of Tishrei, 5622): Sukkoth (I can find no record of a Sukkah being built by either Union or Confederate troops.)

1861: Twenty-nine year old Philadelphian Myer Asch began serving as a Second Lieutenant with Company H, of the First Cavalry of the New Jersey Volunteers.

1862: During the Civil War, Philadelphian Henry Straus began serving as the Assistant Surgeon in the 150th Regiment popularly known as the “Bucktail Regiment.”

1862: In Odessa, Isaac Goward and Rachel Smilaynsky gave birth to birth Mary Ostrowsky’s husband George Coward who came to the United States in 1882 after which he became an agent for the Philadelphia committee of the Baron de Hirsch fund and the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society as one of “the organizers of the Hebrew Literature Society.

1862: Federal forces under the command of Lt. Colonel Gabriel Netter clashed with a much larger force of Confederates near Owensboro.  Netter refused to surrender and was killed during the ensuring clash. Netter was one of the many Jews who served in the Union Army during the Civil War.


 

 

1863:  During the Civil War, Union and Rebel forces clash at the Battle of Chickamauga. Frederick Kneffler was cited for bravery at the battle of Chickamauga. This Jewish resident of Indianapolis, attained the rank of Major General while commanding the 79th Indiana

1864: David Michaels who would rise from Corporal to Second Lieutenant began his service with Company of the 210th Regiment.

1864: A citation awarding the Medal of Honor to Corporal Isaac Gause, was issued today for his valor on the battlefield on September 13. The citation was issued to the Jewish trooper serving with Company, 2nd Ohio Cavalry “Capture of the colors of the 8th South Carolina Infantry while engaged in a reconnaissance along the Berryville and Winchester Pike.”  This would have meant that Gause was serving in the Army of the Shenandoah under the command of General Philip Sheridan.  The campaign successfully drove the Rebels from the Shenandoah Valley which was a key source of supply for the Confederate Army.  Capturing another unit’s colors was the epitome of success and called for unusual bravery because in those days military units fought ferociously to avoid having their flags captured.

1866(10thof Tishrei, 5626): Yom Kippur

1866: “Yom Kippur” published today states that “Yesterday at sunset began the most important of all Jewish” festivals “that of the ‘Yom Kippur,' or Day of Atonement--a feast which is more generally observed by the Hebrew race throughout the world than any other of their numerous festivals.”

1868: When the Battle of Beecher Island came to an end Sigmund Shlesinger a native of Hungary serving with Forsyth’s Company of Scouts was among the survivors.

1869: Three days after she had passed way, 60 year old Rachel (Solomon) Lewis, the wife of Abraham Lewis was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery on Buckingham Road.”

1870: The Italian Army laid siege to Rome, the capital of the Papal States.  The one day siege would prove successful.  Rome would become the capital of a newly unified Italian nation.  And Italy would go from one of the worst places in Europe for Jews to live to one of the best.

1870: In New York City, Marcus Witmark and Henrietta Peyser gave birth to Julius P. Witmark, the husband of Carrie J. Rosenberg who sang as a “boy soprano” until the age of 15 and later joined the family firm of M. Witmark and Sons, Music Publishers.

1875: “Whitewashing Shylock” published today provided a refreshingly different view of the famed character from the “Merchant of Venice.”  The real villains are Antonio, the Merchant of Venice who was “humbug and a tuft-hunter” who falsely portrayed himself as a man of wealth and Bassanio.  They sought to cheat Shylock and use the fact that he was a Jewish moneylender to their advantage. The only weapon left to Shylock was cunning which “he sharpened up for this occasion.

1876(1st of Tishrei, 5637): As the United States celebrates its centennial, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1879(2nd of Tishrei, 5640): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1879: In New York City, Nathan Strauss and Minnie Gladken gave birth to illustrator Malcolm Atherton Strauss whose works appeared in numerous publications including Life magazine and the New York Herald.


1881: It was reported today a committee of Jews representing communities all over Russia has arrived in St. Petersburg with the hopes of meeting with the Minister of Interior. They plan to present him with a petition asking for “an official public declaration of liberty for all creeds and suspension…of the laws sanctioning the expulsion of Jews from certain localities.

1881: President James Garfield dies from an assassin’s bullet. Garfield was shot by a disgruntled office seeker named Charles Guiteau.  This brought the long simmering battle over political patronage jobs in the federal government to a boil.  Garfield’s death provided the impetus for the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.  The Pendleton Act created a system of federal service positions that were filled based on merit not political patronage.  This civil service system based on ability would provide career opportunities to future generation of Jewish professionals.

1881: In Schenectady, NY “Isaac Levy, wholesale liquor dealer, and Lewis Behr, tailor, draped their shops in black for the fallen president” James Garfield.  Jews had already expressed their sorrow by holding special prayer services at Gates of Heaven when the President had been shot. (As reported by the Schenectady County Historical Society)

1882: Two days after she had passed away, Leopolldine (Friedberger) Samuel, the German born widow of Lambert Samuel was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.”

1883: Birthdate of Berlin native Walter Wasserman, the German filmmaker whose career spanned twenty years.

1884(29thof Elul, 5644): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1884(29thof Elul, 5644): In Leadville, CO, Rabbi Sachs, a recent graduate of Hebrew Union College led the services dedicating the new building that would house Temple Israel.

1884(29thof Elul, 5644):  Forty-four year old attorney and author Leon da Silva Solis-Cohen, the son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simha Solis, the husband of Lucia Mannes Ritterband and veteran of the Keystone Battery who was medically discharged from the Union Army passed away today

1884: One of the major wholesale houses in the clothing trade – Rindskopf Brothers & Co – failed today.  Simon Rindskopf, Morris Rindskopf, Raphael Buchman and Jacob Rosenthal, the company’s partner “filed an assignment in the County Clerk’s office for the benefit of their creditors.”

1885(10th of Tishrei, 5646): Yom Kippur

1885: Birthdate of Richard Lert, the Austrian born American “music director and conductor of the Pasadena Symphony and co-founder of the Music Academy of the West in California” who was the brother of “stage director Ernst Lert.”

1885: Rabbi Gottheil will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Temple Emanu-El

1885: Rabbi H. P. Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the 19thStreet Synagoue.

1885: Rabbi De Sola Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Shaary Tefila

1885: Rabbi Kohut will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Ahavas Chesed

1885: Rabbi Henry S. Jacob will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue.

1885: Rabbi I.C. Noot is scheduled to deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at B’nai Israel on east 4th Street in New York City.

1886: Three hundred Romanian Jews arrived in New York aboard the SS Egypt.

1887(1stof Tishrei, 5648): Rosh Hashanah

1887: Rabbi Gottheil is scheduled deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Temple Emanu-El

1887: Rabbi H. P. Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 19thStreet Synagogue

1887: Rabbi De Sola Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 44thStreet Synagogue

1887: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue. The sermon will be based on the text “Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake.”

1887: Rabbi Kohut scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Ahavas Chesed.

1889: “A Library’s Record” published today provides a description of the success enjoyed by the Maimonides Library which was established by B’nai B’rith in New York.  In the past year, the library has acquired 2,781 volumes bringing its total collection to 32,326 books.  The percentage of books in circulation has increased from 32 per cent to 37 per cent.

1890: Benston Fuerstenbaum, who had spent the last three months in jail on charges of breach of contract reluctantly, married Goldie Fromner in City Court which had been decked out with a Chupah under which a rabbi performed the ceremony.

1890: In Brooklyn Police Commissioner Hayden promised a group of “prominent” Jews that he would “have a force of police on hand to keep anarchist Johann Most within bounds” during the protest he is planning on holding on Yom Kippur.

1891: Aaron Jatkowski is being held on charges of having assaulted Charles Lieberman when the latter sought to stop a drunken party at the synagogue in Newark, NJ

1891: Several Jewish families moved away from Milville, NJ, today as the strike called because Flint and Green Glass Works had hired 14 Jews worsened.

1892: Alexander Berkman who was being tried for having attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick and who was serving as his own lawyer was brought to the courtroom where he discovered that the jury had already been empaneled thus depriving of him a chance to question those who would sit in judgment on him.

1892: “The Leonard Wing” of the Republican party in New Orleans nominated attorney Morris Marks who has been head of the Hebrew Widows and Orphan’s Home to run against Captain Burr Wood, the handpicked candidate of former Governor Warmoth.

1892: Birthdate of life long New York, the law school graduate turned composer and songwriter whose hits included “I’m Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter,” “Walking My Baby Back Home” and “Where the Blue of the Night Meets the Gold of the Day.”


1893(9th of Tishrei, 5654): Kol Nidre

1893: “Rabbi Louis Lustig and a score of laymen” escaped to safety when a fire broke out on the second floor of a frame building at 180 Rivington Street where they had been conducting Yom Kippur services.

1893: A group of Jewish anarchists calling themselves the “Gruppe Proletariat” began a 24 hour vigil at the Clarendon Ballroom where they spent much of their time giving speeches denouncing “religion in general and” Judaism in particular. 

1894: Birthdate of Dov Hoz, the native of Orsha who made Aliyah in 1906 and who a leading labor Zionist, founder of the Haganah and the founder and CEO of "Aviron," a pioneer of aviation in Israel that trained pilot and established flight lines in Israel and outside.


1895: According to a list published today, the following charities each received a bequest of 100 dollars from the late Mrs. Rebecca Kastor: Mount Sinai Hospital, Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, Hebrew Free School Association, the Ladies Bekuscholm Society and the the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

1895(1stof Tishrei, 5656) Rosh Hashanah

1895: Approximately 200 Russian Jews arrived in Norwich, CT having traveled there from Liverpool via Quebec.

1898: “Anti-Semitic Movement Threatening In Algeria” published today described the attempts undermine the well-being of the Jewish community there including the rising influence of Édouard Adolphe Drumont, the founder of the Anti­-Semitic League of France and the plans of the new Governor  “to suppress the Jewish Consistories in Algeria.”

1898: Stanford E. Moses who had served as Assistant Engineer aboard the U.S.S. Brooklyn during the Spanish-American War was promoted today Passed Assistant Engineer and assigned to the U.S.S. Oregon.

1898: Ensign William O. Cohn was discharged from the U.S. Navy today.

1899: L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, runs a story about a Christian boy found dead in Hungary, his blood drained out by Jews who wanted it for their ghastly, superstitious rituals

1899(15thof Tishrei, 5660): Sukkoth

1899: Sixty-six year old Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, the French Protestant political leader who became a staunch defender of Dreyfus passed away today.

1899: Following a passionate campaign by his supporters, including leading artists and intellectuals like Émile Zola, Dreyfus was pardoned by President Émile Loubet and released from prison

1899: “The mass meeting that is being organized by Maurice Blumenthal…’to protest against the action of the Dreyfus court-martial and to have the wrong right’” which will include speeches by Jews and non-Jews is scheduled to be held this evening at Cooper Union.

1899: Eighty-two year old Charles Patrick Daly, author of The Settlement of Jews in North America, passed away today.

1901:  Birthdate of Hungarian born, American movie producer Joseph Pasternak. His more than ninety movies include Anchors Away and Date With Judy.

1901: As memorial services were held today for the late President William McKinley, approximately five hundred Jews attended services at the Sons of Israel Synagogue, where Rabbi Leventhal led prayers for Teddy Roosevelt who was now President of the United States.

1901: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi B.A. Elzas officiated at the wedding of Sam T. Weil and Hattie Sternberg.

1903(27thof Elul, 5663): Seventy year old German Jewish businessman Ernst Jacob Oppert best known for his attempt..
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September 18
 
825 BCE: The Jewish people began a 14-day celebration to dedicate the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The Temple project was initiated by King David, and built by his son, King Solomon. Solomon's Temple was the spiritual center of Jewish life for 410 years, until its destruction by the Babylonians in 422 BCE (As reported by Aish)

31: Sejanus, Roman head of Praetorian Guard was murdered in the periodic intrigue that wracked Roman government at the imperial level.  Born in 20 BCE, Sejanus was in the business of violently dispatching then enemies of the Emperor Tiberias.  Sejanus had a reputation as anti-Semite and his patron Tiberius was no friend of the Jews.

53: Birthdate of Trajan who was Roman Emperor when the Jews in the Diaspora revolted in 115. The revolt ended in 117 but Trajan died before the Jews were vanquished.

323: Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire. This victory came between the Edict of Milan (313) which legalized Christianity and the Council of Nicea (325) which was designed to bring conformity to Christian doctrine and practice.  This victory by the first “Christian Emperor” would help in the drive to make Christianity the only acceptable religion throughout the Roman Empire.

1180: King Louis VII of France died. His reign had not been a good period for the Jews since in 1144 he expelled all the Jews who had converted to Christianity and then returned to Judaism. Also, during his reign I the first Blood Libel in France took place in Blois in 1171.

1180: Philip Augustus became king of France. Immediately after his coronation Philip Augustus ordered the Jews arrested on a Saturday, in all their synagogues, and despoiled of their money and their vestments. In the following April, 1182, he published an edict of expulsion, but according the Jews a delay of three months for the sale of their personal property. Immovable property, however, such as houses, fields, vines, barns, and wine-presses, he confiscated. The Jews attempted to win over the nobles to their side, but in vain. In July they were compelled to leave the royal domains of France (and not the whole kingdom); their synagogues were converted into churches. These successive measures were simply expedients to fill the royal coffers. The goods confiscated by the king were at once converted into cash.” Desperate for money, Phillip reversed his decisions and allowed the Jews to return in 1196.  The conditions were humiliating for the Jewish community and exposed the avaricious nature of the French monarch. The King established special accounts to keep track of the financial condition of the Jews to ensure that he collected the maximum amount of money from that that was possible.  At a time when serfdom was beginning to disappear, the Jews became the serfs of the King and his nobles.  Just as they could dispose of “my lands” in any manner they so fit, so could they treat “my Jews” in any way they chose.

1346: The sons Judah ben Asher “the German Talmudist who became the Rabbi at Toledo” signed an agreement similar to the one already signed by their father and their uncle regarding “the disposition of their own earnings” for charitable purposed.

1380: The Cortes of Soria, Castile, denies the rights of Jews to judge their own criminal cases. The Cortes also reaffirmed King Enrique II's decree forbidding Jews from serving in the royal administration. These events help fuel the harangues of Ferran Martinez who lead the bloody anti-Jewish events of 1391.

1505 Consecration of Gian Pietro Carafa, who as Pope Paul IV had issued The bull, Cum Nimis Absurdum (the title stemmed from its opening phrase, "Since it is absurd") ordering the creation of a Jewish ghetto in Rome” which would have the immediate effect of reducing by half the Jewish population during a five year period.

1553(10thof Tishrei): Yom Kippur is additionally somber following the recent burning of copies of the Talmud.

1573: During the Eighty Years War, Spain attacked the Dutch city of Alkmaar.  The Dutch forces would withstand the subsequent siege.  Their victory proved to be a turning point in the Eighty Years, which when it ended would guarantee that the Netherlands would be an independent nation free from Spanish control. This meant that Holland would continue to be a place of refuge for the Jews of Europe, especially those fleeing the Spanish Inquisition, and provide a place where a Jewish community could flourish.

1612 (27 Elul): In Frankfurt, Vincent Fettmilch a former pastry cook and leader of the Guilds", calling himself the "new Haman of the Jews attacked the synagogue while the community was at prayer. Although many tried to organize a defense they were soon overpowered and many took shelter in the cemetery. He was beheaded four years later. His real crime was to turn against the ruling class of Frankfort.  It was for this for which he lost his head.

1722: On “the eve of the New Year 5483” the Great Synagogue, which was later referred to as “Moses Hart’s Shul” was dedicated in London.

1739: The Treaty of Belgrade was signed today ending one of the many wars between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburgs. As a result of the treaty, Belgrade and northern parts of Serbia were ceded to the Ottoman Empire.  This was a positive event for the Jews of the region, many of whom were Sephardim whose progenitors had arrived after the Spanish Inquisition.  At this time living under the Ottomans was preferable to life under the Habsburgs.  Additionally, it made it easier for the Jews to engage in overseas trade.

1758(15thof Elul, 5518): Rabbi Akiv Eger author of Mishnas De'Rebbi Akiva who was rabbi of Zülz, Silesia from 1749 and Pressburg from 1756 and the grandfather of Rabbi Akiva  Eger passed away today.

1764(Elul, 5524): Jonathan Eybeschütz, the Dayan of Prague who served simultaneously as the Rabbi of Alton, Hamburg and Wandsbek, passed away today.



1765: Birthdate of Pope Gregory XVI. In 1836 the Jewish community of Rome will send a petition to Pope Gregory XVI begging him to stop the annual Saturnalia abuse of the Jewish community. He will refuse the request saying that, “It is not opportune to make any innovation.”

1773(1stof Tishrei, 5534): As the colonists try and figure out how to respond to the Tea Act of 1773 Jews observe Rosh Hashanah just 3 months before the Boston Tea Party.

1783: Sixty-five year old Hebrew scholar Benjamin Kennicott, a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford and a fellow of the Royal Society who wrote The State of the Printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament and Vetus Testamentum hebraicum cum variis lectionibus (Old Testament in Hebrew with a variety of lessons) and who in 1760 “issued proposals for collating all Hebrew manuscripts of date prior to the invention of printing” passed away today.

1790: Forty-four year old Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn who was the patron of Jacob Philadelphia, “a Jewish magician, physicist, mechanic, juggler, astrologer, alchemist, and Kabbalist” passed away today.

1792(2ndof Tishrei, 5553): Second Day of Rosh Hashana

1806: Today “Louis-Mathieu Molé announced to the Assembly that the emperor was satisfied with the answers and that he intended, in order to give a religious sanction to the principles expressed therein, to call together a Sanhedrin. Like the Sanhedrin of old, this Sanhedrin was to be composed of seventy-one members, two-thirds rabbis and one-third laymen, having at their head one president and two vice-presidents.”

1808: Moses Nathan married Hava Samuel at the Hambro Synagogue today.

1810:  Under the leadership of Bernard O”Higgins, Chile declared her independence from Spain. It would take Chile 8 years of effort to finally gain that independence.  The new Chilean government would ban the Inquisition which would give Chile’s Convsersos a chance to begin practicing their faith in public.  O’Higgins enjoyed support among the Convserso Community.

1818: During a period of reaction under King Frederick William III, the Jews of Prussia were no longer allowed to hold any academic positions.  This led some Jews, including Heine, to conclude that the only road to real advancement passed through the Baptismal font.

1820(10th of Tishrei, 5581): As James Monroe seeks re-election in a Presidential election unique because he would win all but one of the votes in the Electoral College, Jews observe Yom Kippur

1825: Birthdate of Alexander Abraham de Sola, a Canadian Rabbi, author, Orientalist, and scientist. Originating from a large renowned family of Rabbis and scholars, De Sola was part of family long known for its Rabbis and scholars. He was recognized as one of the most powerful leaders of Orthodox Judaism in the United States during the latter half of the nineteenth century. He passed away on June 5, 1882.

1825: Birthdate of Seligman Baer, the native of Baden who was “a student of the Masoretic text, an editor of the Hebrew Bible and Jewish liturgy.”

1828(10thof Tishrei, 5589): As Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams square off in one of the nastiest Presidential campaigns of the young republic, Jews observe Yom Kippur

1830(1stof Tishrei, 5591): Rosh Hashanah

1830: Birthdate of Hungarian-born American Hebrew scholar and Rabbi, Adolph Huebsch

1831: In Budapest, Hermann Diamant, the maternal grandfather of Theodor Herzl and Johanna Katharine Diamant gave birth to Rosalie Reik

1839(10th of Tishrei, 5600): Yom Kippur

1842(14thof Tishrei, 5603): Erev Sukkoth

1842(14thof Tishrei, 5603): Fifty-five year old French diplomat Frédéric Cerfberr perished today at sea while traveling from New York to France.

1843: Aron Ezekiel Hart wrote to John Neilson, the editor of the Quebec Gazette today that his father, Ezekiel Hart, who was on Nielson’s “dearest friends” had passed away at the age of 73 on Saturday, September 26/

1848: In Popowitz, Bohemia, Jacob Robi and Josephine Arnstein gave birth to Adolph Robi, the husband of Josephine B. Hahn, the mayor and postmaster Northville, NY who finally settled in St. Louis in 1893.

1849(2nd of Tishrei, 5610): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1850: In New York, Benvenida Solis and Leon Ritterband gave birth to their seventh and youngest child David Solis Ritterband.

1851: The New-York Daily Times, which will become The New York Times,begins publishing.  Adolph Ochs would acquire the Times in 1896.  It is true that a Jewish family owns the New York Times.  But it has never been “a Jewish newspaper.”

1854: In London, Solomon and Rachel Lubin Weinstock gave birth to Harris Weinstock, the New York businessman who followed the injunction to Go West Young Man, Go West by moving to California where he founded a department store with his half-brother David Lubin that would be known as “Weinstock’s”, served as a Colonel in the National Guard and who was the husband of Barbara Felsenthal with whom he had two sons and two daughters.


1854: A column styled “Items of German News” published today reported that two dozen Russian Jews have been detained at the Prussian city of Memel.  Apparently, “they had smuggled themselves across the border” with Russia and had bordered an English steamer that was about to leave the city when they were discovered.  They were detained because they did not have passports.  At this time, nobody knows what will be done with them.

1858(10thof Tishrei, 5619): Yom Kippur

1858: Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto who as Pope Pius X met with Theodore Herzl at the Vatican in 1904 and expressed the statement that “Jerusalem cannot be placed in Jewish hands” because the Jews did not recognize Jesus Christ, was ordained today as a Priest.

1858: Birthdate of Lawrence Alfred Isaacs, a graduate of University College School, a longtime member fhte Jewish Working Men’s Club and Lad’s Institute which he served as treasurer of 11 years and the “representative of the Jewish Working Men’s Club at the Council of the Working Men’s Club and Institute Union who was a resident of West Hampstead.

1860(2ndof Tishrei, 5621): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1861(14th of Tishrei, 5622): Erev Sukkoth

1861: Birthdate of “Amalie (Emma) Henriette Jessen” the wife historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his position and reputation when the Nazis came to power and whose foster Hetti Meyer was killed at Theresienstadt.

1862: President Abraham Lincoln signed the commission naming Rabbi Jacob Franklin as the Jewish Hospital Chaplain for Philadelphia, PA which “was becoming ‘a central depository for sick and wounded soldiers’” including many Jewish members of the Union Army.  A native of Bavaria, Germany, Frankel had been serving as the rabbi and cantor for Rodeph Shalom, before the Civil War.  His appointment made him the first rabbi to be named as a chaplain after the law was changed to make this possible.  Frankel served for three years while continuing to function as the leader of the Philadelphia congregation.

1866(9thof Tishrei, 5672): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre

1868(2ndof Tishrei, 5629): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1868: Sabato Morais received “a life-time contract from Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia, PA

1868: On the second day of the Battle of Beecher’s Island Colonel George A. Forsyth’s Company of Scouts which included Sigmund Shlesinger continued their fight with a larger force led by Roman Nose and suffered so many casualties that Forsyth sent a runner to bring back reinforcements.  (Be Shlesinger wished her was in synagogue even if the sermon was boring)

1870: In Maryland, a lawsuit was filed in Circuit Court for Baltimore City by members of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation known as the Lloyd City Synagogue, claiming that changes have been adopted in ritual in a manner that violates the articles of incorporation.

1870: It was reported today that the Jews are about to established a Hebrew University in Berlin. The university is expected will adopt the best academic practices of any European university and will be open to Jews regardless of the place of origin.

1871(3rd of Tishrei, 5632): Tzom Gedaliah

1871: Eighty-year old Amsterdam native Joseph Myers, who in 1819 had married Rebecca Cohen with whom he had three daughters was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

1874: In Baltimore, “Phillip Hamburger and Rachel Bernei” gave birth to Louis Philip Hamburger, the Johns Hopkins Medical School graduate and husband of Freda Hamburger who was “an instructor” at his alma mater who was “examining physician at the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives” and “consulting physician at the Hebrew Hospital.”

1876(29thof Elul, 5636): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1878: Mayor Philips of New Orleans is scheduled to inform Mark Moses, the former Rabbi of the Jackson Street Synagogue who is now in Providence, Rhode Island, that his wife, two sons –Samuel aged 21 and Isaac aged 10 – and his 20 year old daughter Matilda have all passed away this week during the Yellow Fever Epidemic.  The only survivor is his 4 year old daughter.

1879(1st of Tishrei, 5640): Rosh Hashanah

1879(1stof Tishrei, 5640): Seventy-year old Meïr Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Weiser known as the Malbim passed away today.


1879: An article published today that decried the quality of the butter available today traced the history of the dairy delight back to the days of “the ancient Hebrews’; a little known fact that will come to a surprise to those who think butter is a modern invention.

1880: Religious freedom was granted to the Jews of Morocco.  The Moroccan Jewish community was an ancient one. The Rambam had lived at Fez after leaving in Spain.  A large part of the Moroccan Jewish community would leave for Israel after the creation of the state in 1948.

1880: “Flying Men” published today includes the strange tale an 8thcentury Sicilian magician named Diodorous who converted from Christianity to Judaism.  He carved statues for a living including a an elephants made from lava that could still be seen at Catania in the second half of the 19th century.  According to legend, this “modern day” Icarus flew from Constantinople to Catina, a trick which led to him being burned at the stake by the local bishop.

1880: It was reported today that based on studies of different religious denominations in Berlin 1 out of every 400 babies born to Jewish parents are deaf-mutes as compared to 1in 3,000 for Catholics and 1 in 2,000 for Protestants.  The disparity between the Jews is attributed to the fact that Jews “encourage intermarriage with blood relations” as compared to Catholics who forbid it and Protestants who tolerate it.

1880 “Byron” published today provided a review of Byron a biography of the English poet  by John Nichol which includes mention of the little known “Hebrew Melodies written in 1814” which show “the author’s familiarity with the Old Testament .”

1882(5thof Tishrei, 5643): Seventy-two year old Alejandro Chumacero, the chakam (rabbi) of Curacao, Dutch West Indies and the father of four prominent sons -- Abraham Mendes Chumaceiro, Benjamin Mendes Chumaceiro, Jacob Mendes Chumaceiro and Joseph Chayyim Mendes Chumaceiro – passed away today at Amsterdam.

1883: Three days after he had passed away, Elias Davis, the son of Israel Davis and the former Rosetta Levy and he husband of the former Elisabeth Moses with whom he had five children was buried today at the “Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemeery.

1884(28thElul, 5644): Sixty-eight year old Abraham Stein passed away in Prague today where he had been serving as rabbi at the old Meisel Synagogue since 1864 when it changed “to a modern temple with a choir, organ and sermon.”

1884: “A Bid For Hebrew Votes published today described the events surrounding the race for Governor of Connecticut.  The opponents of Henry B. Harrison have reminded voters of anti-Semitic language he used in a jury summation in 1857; language for which he has apparently never apologized.

1885(10thof Tishrei, 5646): In Alpena, Michigan, a cantor was retained for the first time to lead Yom Kippur services today.

1887(29thof Elul, 5647): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1887: “The Jewish New Year” published today reported that the Jewish New Year, 5648, will begin tomorrow, and that it is the most important holiday on the calendar with the exception of Yom Kippur.  (What makes this item exceptional is that it appeared in on the nation’s leading secular newspapers, not a Jewish publication.)

1890: The Bowling Circle of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association held its first meeting this evening and elected offices.

1890: Second Lieutenant Oren B. Meyer transferred from the U.S. 1stCavalry to the U.S. 2nd Cavalry.

1890: Professor W.R. Harper, the Chairman of the Hebrew Languages and Literature Department at Yale University was chosen to serve at the President of the University of Chicago.

1890(4th of Tishrei, 5651): Benjamin Franklin Peixotto, one of the most prominent Jewish leaders of the second half of the 19th century, died of consumption today at his home in New York City surrounded by members of his family including two children. His wife was not with him.  She has a fatal heart condition and is lying near death at Baden Baden, where she is in the company of the couples other children.   Peixotto’s father had come to New York from Amsterdam to serve as a rabbi.  Peixotto was born in New York in 1834.  When he was 13, his father died and he moved to Cleveland where eventually wrote for the Cleveland Plain Dealer and studied law. From his earliest days, Peixotto took an active interest in the affairs of the Jewish community serving as a Grand Master of the B’nai B’rith and a director of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of Cleveland, an institution for which he had obtained the original charter from the Ohio State Legislature. He returned to New York in 1866 and then moved to San Francisco in 1867 where he practiced law.  President Grant appointed him Consul to Bucharest in 1870, at a time when the civilized world was expressing their disgust at the persecution of the Jews of Romania.  He held the position for five years where he effectively represented the interest of the United States while working to ameliorate the worsening condition of his co-religionist.  He returned to the United States where he took an active role the campaign to elect Ruther B. Hayes as President.  He turned down an offer to serve as U.S. Consul to St. Petersburg (Russia) in 1877 but accepted an appointment as U.S. Consul to Lyons, France, a position he held until 1885 when he returned to New York to resume he practice of law.  In 1886, he found Menorah, a monthly publication devoted to topics related to the B’nai B’rith, Jewish literature and the Jewish religion.

1891: In Newark, NJ, Charles Lieberman, an active member of the synagogue on Bedford Street went to Justice Priesel and asked him to issue arrest warrants for six Polish Jews who “had entered the synagogue and held a bacchanalian orgy.

1891: Almost three thousand members of Temple Beth-El took part “in the consecration of their new house of worship” at the corner of 76th Street and 5thAvenue.

1892: In Seattle, Washington, Ohaveth Sholum Congregation opened their synagogue which had been designed by Herman Stenman.  It was the second synagogue to open in the state within a four day period.

1892: “Cholera Has Spared The Jews” published today described the results of an investigation by Jewish communal officials that could find only 40 cases of the disease among the quarter of a million of the Jews living in Russia.  The study did not include Poland, but it would seem to disprove the contention that Russian Jews passing through Hamburg are responsible for the cholera epidemic

1893(9thof Tishrei, 5654): Erev Yom Kippur

1893: “The musical portions of the services” at Temple Emanu-El, Temple Beth-El and Temple Ahavath Chesed are expected to “be especially beautiful” this evening.

1894: Members of Company D, 47th Regiment of the New York National Guard have been charged with vandalism in Tompkinsville including the destruction of the front fence of the town’s synagogue.

1894: Birthdate of Leo Perper, the native of Odessa who came to the United States in 1908..
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September 17

1183: As Christians and Muslims jockey for control of what is really the homeland of the Jews, Saladin left Damascus with a large army today with the intention of driving the Crusaders out of Jerusalem.

1375: In Pilsen it was recorded today that ‘Dominus Zyfridus habet potestatem eandem pecuniam inter Judeos sive Christianos con quirerere’. (‘The Lord Zyfridus - a Knight of the Cross from the German order of knights has the right to gather this money among Jews or Christians’) which is a variant on the more common statement that ‘inter Christianos vel judeos obligandi vel vendendi’ (‘of distraint or sale among Christians or Jews’).

1394: The Jews were expelled from France by order of King Charles VI. He used the pretense that a Jewish convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, to once again expel the Jews. The order was signed on Yom Kippur and was used as excuse for plundering the Jewish.  It was actually enforced on November 3.  Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.

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1394: Charles VI suddenly published an ordinance in which he declared, in substance, that for a long time he had been taking note of the many complaints provoked by the excesses and misdemeanors which the Jews committed against Christians; and that the prosecutors, having made several investigations, had discovered many violations by the Jews of the agreement they had made with him. Therefore he decreed as an irrevocable law and statute that thenceforth no Jew should dwell in his domains ("Ordonnances", vii. 675). According to the "Religieux de St. Denis", the king signed this decree at the instance of the queen ("Chron. de Charles VI." ii. 119). The decree was not immediately enforced, a respite being granted to the Jews in order that they might sell their property and pay their debts. Those indebted to them were enjoined to redeem their obligations within a set time; otherwise their pledges held in pawn were to be sold by the Jews. The provost was to escort the Jews to the frontier of the kingdom. Subsequently the king released the Christians from their debts.

1480: Two Dominican friars, Miguel de Morillo, Master of Theology, and Juan de San Martin, Bachelor of Theology were commissioned to go to Seville and seek out heresy of the Jews.

1482: William III of Luxembourg passed away.  During his reign, William, who ruled Thuringia and Luxemburg, minted a silver gorschen (coin) “known as the Judenkopf Groschen. Its obverse portrait shows a man with a pointed beard wearing a Jewish hat, which the populace took as depicting a typical Jew.”  [I cannot find a reason for him doing this.]

1485: Pedro Arbues, the inquisitor for Aragon, was murdered in church by a group of Marranos in retaliation for his activities. The perpetrators were caught, had their hands cut off, and were then beheaded and quartered. Arbues was canonized.

1553(9thof Tishrei): The chanting of Kol Nidre took on an even more solemn than usual since Jews were mourning the burning of copies of the Talmuda

1609(18thof Elul, 5369): According to the Gregorian calendar Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the “MaHaRal” "Moreinu ha-Rav Loew," ("Our Teacher, Rabbi Loew") who according to legend created the Golem of Prague, passed away today.



1630: Founding of Boston, Massachusetts.  The Puritan colony and its major city were effectively a theocracy.  As such, they were not hospitable to any religious group that deviated from their beliefs.  The Jewish community in Boston would not reach critical mass until the 19th century when the first synagogue was formed in 1842 and the second, Adath Israel was formed in 1853.  The atmosphere has obviously changed.  According to the Boston Globe, the Jewish community in metropolitan Boston has been growing to the point where that it numbers more than 200,000 and makes up over seven percent of the population. 

1676(10th of Tishrei, 5437): Sabbatai Zevi, one of the most famous of the False Messiahs passed away. Born in 1626, his antics would develop a huge popular following. Their hopes would be dashed when he chose Islam over death at the hands of the Ottomans. For many, many decades accusing a Jew of being a Sabbatean was onerous as accusing an American of being a member of the Communist Party during the McCarthy Period.  There are those who saw the rise of the Chasidic movement with its message of joy and hope as the anti-dote to the disillusionment that had come with the failure of Sabbatai Zevi and the slaughter of the Jews during the Cossack uprising.

1727(2nd of Tishrei, 5488): Glückel of Hameln passed away. Born in 1646, she was a Jewish mother, successful mother, German businesswoman and diarist.  It was in this latter category that she gained lasting fame.  Her writings provided an eyewitness account life in central Europe three and a half centuries ago.  In addition to providing a portrait of the daily life of our European forbearers, she also gave us a front seat view of the survivors of the Chmielnicki massacres and the followers of Sabbati Z’vi.  Her memories were passed down from generation to generation until they were first published in 1896.  Copies of The life of Gluckel of Hamelin Written by Herself and the Memoirs of Gluckel of Hamelin were published in English during the second half of the 20th century.

1764: Birthdate of Berek Joselewicz Polish Jew who was a successful merchant and a colonel in the Polish Army during the Kosciuszko Uprising during which Poles tried to throw off the yoke of Russian occupation. Joselewicz commanded the first Jewish military formation in modern history

1769: Birthdate of New Yorker Benjamin Gomez. The Gomez family was one of the most prominent families of all early Sephardim in America. Benjamin traced his family’s roots to Isaac Gomez who fled Spain in 1660. In New York the family members were wealthy ship owners and merchants, as well as leaders in the Jewish community. Benjamin was the first Jewish bookseller in America.

1787: The Constitutional Convention meeting in Philadelphia, PA, adopted the United States Constitution.  It would not become the “law of the land” until it is ratified by the various states.  The organic document of American governance was a critical factor in the development of the Jewish community in the United States.  The Bill of Rights, which includes the guarantees the separation of church and state, was not part of the organic document.  But ratification of the Constitution was predicated on the promise that the document known as the Bill Rights would be added by the amending process as the first matter of business for the newly formed federal government.

1788: In Portsmouth, Hamphsire, UK, Solomon Lyon, a native of Bohemia and Rachel Hart gave birth to Emma Lyon.

1792(1stof Tishrei, 5553): Rosh Hashana

1794: Polish General Thaddeus Koscuisco who was leading a revolt against the Russians granted Joseph Aronowicz and Berek Joselowicz permission to form a Jewish legion. Five hundred men volunteered in response to the call to arms that was issued in Yiddish.

1800(27th of Elul, 5560): Fifty-eight year old German Kabbalist Nathan Adler and author of Mishnat Rabbi Nathan http://www.hebrewbooks.org/22433 passed away.

Born in 1741, he was a German kabbalist born in Frankfurt, December 16, 1741. As a precocious child he won the admiration of Chaim Joseph David Azulai (Chida), who, in 1752, came to Frankfurt to solicit contributions for the poor of Palestine. Adler attended the rabbinical school of Jacob Joshua, author of Pene Yehoshua, who was at that time rabbi at Frankfurt, but his principal teacher was David Tevele Schiff, afterward chief rabbi of the United Kingdom. In 1761 he established a yeshivah himself, in which several prominent rabbis received their early teachings, notable among whom were Abraham Auerbach, Abraham Bing, rabbi in Würzburg, and especially Moses Sofer (Schreiber), rabbi in Presburg. Nathan Adler was mystically inclined. He had devoted himself to the study of the Kabbala, and adopted the liturgical system of Isaac Luria, assembling about himself a select community of kabbalistic adepts. He was one of the first Ashkenazim to adopt the Sephardi pronunciation of Hebrew, and gave hospitality to a Sephardi scholar for several months to ensure that he learnt that pronunciation accurately. He prayed according to the Halebi ritual, pronounced the priestly blessing every day, and in other ways approached the school of the Hasidim, who had at that time provoked the strongest censures on the part of the Talmudists of the old school. His followers claimed that he had performed miracles (Moses Sofer, Chatam Sofer, Orah Chayyim, 197), and turned visionaries themselves, frightening many persons with predictions of misfortunes which would befall them. Finally, the rabbis and congregational leaders intervened in 1779 and prohibited, under penalty of excommunication, the assemblies in Nathan Adler's house.Rabbi Nathan, however, paid no attention to these orders, but continued in his ecstatic piety. He even excommunicated a man who had disregarded his orders, although this was contrary to the laws of the congregation. His doors remained open day and night, and he declared all his possessions to be common property, that thus he might prevent the punishment of those who might carry away by mistake anything with them. Moreover, he commanded Moses Sofer, who had quarreled with his father, never to speak to his parent again. When the same disciple reported to him that he had gone through the whole Talmud, he advised him to celebrate that event by a fast of three days. In spite of the continued conflict with the congregational authorities, the fame of Rabbi Nathan's piety and scholarship grew, and in 1782 he was elected rabbi of Boskowitz in Moravia. But his excessive and mystical piety having made enemies for him, he was forced to leave his congregation, and in 1785 returned to Frankfurt. As he still persisted in his former ways, the threat of excommunication was renewed in 1789, which act was not repealed until shortly before his death at Frankfurt.His wife, Rachel, daughter of Feist Cohen of Giessen, survived him. He left no children, though Nathan Marcus Adler, chief rabbi of London, was named after him. His mysticism seems to have been the cause of his repugnance to literary publications. The kabbalists claimed that real esoteric theology should never be published, but should only be orally transmitted to worthy disciples. In his copy of the Mishnah he wrote brief marginal notes, mostly cross-references. Some of them were collected and explained ingeniously by B. H. Auerbach under the title Mishnat Rabbi Natan. One responsum is found among those of Moses Sofer on Yoreh De'ah, 261

1803(1stof Tishrei, 5564): Rosh Hashanah

1805: In London Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid and Lady Goldsmid gave birth to Anna Maria Goldsmid who gained fame for her translation of the sermons of Dr. Gotthold Salomon and her role as a social worker.

1812: Rothschild signed his revised will.

1819: Birthdate of Jacob Lagowitz, the native of Frankfort-on-the-Oder who came to the United States in 1849 where he made his fortune in the manufacture of traveling trunks and bags before he passed away in 1889.

1825(5thof Tishrei, 5568): Sabbath of Return

1831(10thof Tishrei, 5592): Yom Kippur

1835: Sixty-six year old Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller whose Scholia in Vetus Testamentum formed the basis of most of the exegetical work on the Old Testament in the nineteenth century and who published “a pocket edition of the Hebrew Bible in 1822” passed away today.

1836(6thof Tishrei, 5597): Shabbat Shuva is observed for the last time during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson.

1837: Alexander Jones married Sarah Moses at the New Synagogue.

1839(9thof Tishrei, 5600): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Niddre

1841(2ndof Tishrei, 5602): 2nd Day of Rosh Hashanah

1849(1st of Tishrei, 5610): Rosh Hashanah is observed in San Francisco for the first time in a wood-framed tent.

1849: In an unusual move, 33 year Simon Heymann who had passed away today was buried at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

1851: Birthdate of Rabbi Dávid Leimdörfer who served as “a military chaplain in the Austro-Hungarian Army from 1875 to 1883” when he became the rabbi at Hamburg Temple.

1855: When Joseph Moses Levy “re-launched” the Daily Telegraph he sold it for one-penny as opposed to The Times which cost sevenpence giving rise to his slogan for the paper “the largest, best, and cheapest newspaper in the world".

1856: A story published today entitled The Last Island Calamity reported that 33 bodies have been recovered following the storms that racked the Louisiana island last month of which 18 have been identified including that of a  German Jew named Gimble.

1856: In Bucharest, “Chevailier Abraham Emanuel Gaster, the son of community leader Asriel Gaster and his Phina Judith Rubenstein, the daughter of Isaac Rubenstein gave birth to Moses Gaster, the Romanian born Anglo-Jewish scholar who served as the leader of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in London and was the brother of Ecaterina Gaster Revici the wife of Tulius Revici.

1860(1stof Tishrei, 5621): As the United States teeters on the brink of Civil War, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1861: Judah P. Benjamin completed his service as the Attorney General for the Confederacy.

1861: Judah P. Benjamin began serving as the Secretary of War in the cabinet of Jefferson Davis, the President of the CSA.

1862: Union and Rebel armies clash near Sharpsburg, Maryland in what history has come to call the Battle of Antietam. Up to that point, Antietam was the bloodiest day of the war with over 22,000 dead Union and Rebel troops.  Since Lee retreated back into Virginia after the battle, Lincoln saw it as a victory.  He had promised that he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation following the next Union victory.  Lincoln proved to be a man of his words.  In general Jews were pleased with the issuance of the proclamation since they were opposed to slavery.  One of the heroes of Antietam was General Leopold Blumenberg, of Baltimore. Blumberg was born in Prussia where he enlisted in the military.  After a rapid rise to the rank of lieutenant, Blumenberg saw his career stymied by anti-Semitism so he moved to the United States.  He joined the Union Army in 1861.   At the time of the battle he was a major of his regiment. He was severely wounded at the battle of Antietam and crippled for life and was subsequently brevetted for his meritorious services. His battlefield bravery earned him appointment as Provost Marshall in Washington.  He left the Army in 1865 and died as a result of his wounds in 1876.  He was buried at Baltimore’s Har Sinai Cemetery. Blumenberg is but one example of the many brave Jewish volunteers who fought for the Union.  For example over half of the soldiers in the famed 11th New York Regiment, known as "Ellsworth's Zouaves" in honor of the founder James Ellsworth, were Jewish.   The 59th Regiment which had been organized by Philip J. Joachimsen who served as a Lt. Colonel lost over 200 men and 8 officers during the carnage in the West Woods near the Dunker Church.

1862: While serving with Company A of the 72nd Regiment Nathan Roenfelt was “wounded and captured” at the Battle of Antietam.

1862: When he enrolled at Virginia Military Institute (VMI) today, Moses Ezekiel became the first Jew to attend that state’s military college.

1862(22ndof Elul, 5622): William Lazarus, who had been serving with Company E of the 132ndRegiment since August 13 was killed today at the Battle of Antietam.

1863: One day after he had passed away, 24 year old William Meyers was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1863: At its meeting today, the Board of Alderman rejected the Report-of Committee on Finance, in favor of adopting resolution that the Comptroller be directed to dispose of the following ground belonging to the Corporation, and located adjoining the Orphan Asylum of the Hebrew Benevolent Society: On Seventy seventh-street and extending from the westerly line or side of said Orphan Asylum to the easterly line or side of Lexington-avenue, being in extent one hundred and thirty-five feet front and rear, by one hundred feet deep, to the said Hebrew Benevolent Society, to be held by the said Society upon the same tenure or conditions as the twelve lots of ground heretofore grunted to the said Society; the grant hereby made to said Society to be sanctioned by the Legislature of the State, at its next or any subsequent session, in order to perfect the title thereto in the aforesaid Society, and to obviate the prohibition contained in the forty-first section of the amended charter of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, in respect to disposing of the property or franchises of the City.

1865: Today's Foreign Items column reported that a synagogue is about to be opened in St. Petersburg. A Jewish Banker named Gusburg the Jewish banker, has given 70,000 rubles towards the completion of the projection.

1865: Today's "City News" column described preparations in New York City for the upcoming observance of “The Jewish New Year.” “Thursday will be the first day of Tishri, the commencement of the year 5,626, according to Jewish chronology. The event will be celebrated by the Jews throughout the world Extensive preparations are being made for its observance in this city. There will be services in the various synagogues, to be followed by festivals, social gatherings, and general merry-makings.”

1867: In New York, the Board of Aldermen accepted an invitation to visit the Hebrew Orphan Asylum today at 1 p.m.

1868(1st of Tishrei, 5629): Rosh Hashanah

1868: Sigmund Shlesinger was among the U.S. soldiers facing force of Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux on the first day of the Battle of Beecher Island

1871: An article that had originally appeared in the Jewish Messenger was published today which provided a summary Benjamin Franklin Peixotto’s service as the U.S. Consul in Bucharest.  The mere fact that America’s senior diplomat in Romania is Jewish has given heart to the Jews of Bucharest, Jassy and other towns in their fight against the government’s harsh treatment.  Peixotto has effectively represented the position of many in the West that Romania must emancipate its Jewish citizens. 

1871(2nd of Tishrei, 5632): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1871: In McGregor, Iowa, Louis R Rowe and his wife gave birth to Leo S Rowe, the Wharton graduate  and Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Pennsylvania who president of the American Academy of Political Science and a member of President McKinley’s Commission to Revise and Compile the Law of Porto Rico.

1872: In Iberville Parish, LA, “Perry J. Moses and Rosalie Levy Moses “gave birth to the daughter Rosalie Virginia Moses who became Rosalie Phelps when she married Aaron Cohen Phelps.

1873: Two days after have passed way, 72 year old Samuel Jacobs, the second oldest of Eliezer Jacobs five children was buried today at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.

1873: One day after he had passed away, 61 year old Henry Jacobs was buried at the “Brompton (Fulham Road) Jewish Cemetery.

1875(17th of Elul, 5635): Abraham Weisberg, a Jewish peddler was murdered today in Westchester County, NY leaving behind an “estate” valued at $290.

1876: Mrs. Leopold Weil’s English, German and French Boarding and Day School for Young Ladies of the Jewish Faith is scheduled to open today in New York.

1876: “The Jewish Holidays” published today provides an amazingly detailed account of the origins and customs related to the High Holidays.

1877: During the Russo-Turkish War, it was reported today that “an enterprising Jew from Vienna” has opened an office in the Balkan city of Nikopolis from which he sells newspapers which means that the Russian officers are only 36 hours behind their comrades in arms serving in Bucharest.  The sale is limited to newspapers that are not critical of the policies of the Russian government. This means he cannot sale papers from London or Vienna but his customers are happy to read such French and Italian papers as Gaulois and Figaro.

1877(10th of Tishrei, 5638): Yom Kippur

1877: “Ten Fires in Two Hours” published today described the impact of ten fires set between 6 pm and 8 pm in a series of tenements primarily occupied by Jews or that housed businesses owned by Jews including Isaac Cohen’s Crockery Store which sustained $50.00 in damages.

1877: Rabbi De Sola Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the Forty-fourth street synagogue in Manhattan.

1877: At Temple Emanu-El in New York City, Rabbi Gustav Gottheil preached a sermon in which he contended that the objection some Israelites have to be called “Jews is an unfounded one, and that the name Jew is one which any person might be glad to bear.”

1877: It was reported today that Harper & Brothers will be offering The Jews and Their Persecutors by Eugene Lawrence which is the latest publication in their popular "Half Hour Series."

1877: At Romny, Poltava, Russia, Abraham Myer Krichefski, the son of David and Rebbeca Kricefski married Mashe Cohen, the daughter of Rachel Cohen.

1878: As the Yellow Fever Epidemic continues to grip the Deep South, New Orleans Mayor Pillsbury received a telegram from Mark Moses, the former Rabbi of the Jackson Street Synagogue who is now living in Providence, Rhode Island, asking for information about his family that lives on Magazine Street.  He is worried because he has not received any letters from them in the past several days and has had no reply to telegrams that he has sent.

1878: As the nation responds to the financial needs of Southerners fighting Yellow Fever, the Young Ladies’ Charitable Union has instructed that 40 of the 100 dollars it has collected should be sent to the Hebrew Relief Society of Memphis.

1879(29th of Elul, 5639): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1882(4th of Tishrei, 5643): Since the third of Tishrei fell on Shabbat Tzom Gedaliah is observed today.

1882: “Pass Judgment on Judaism” published today contends that “those who are interested in the so-called Jewish question” (a euphemism for excluding Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe) should examine “the temper and..
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September 16

1380: King Charles V of France died.  Charles ruled during a very difficult time in French history – the 14thcentury – that included the One Hundred Years War and the Black Death.  For French monarchs, guile and deception were critical to keep the state afloat. Regardless of his reasons, the Jews of France fared better under him than they did under many of his predecessors and successors. When he assumed the throne in 1364, he continued to honor the promises he had made to the Jews during the Regency. The “Jews of Paris lived quietly in the district of St. Antoine, near the dwelling of Hugues Aubriot, the grand provost of Paris, who protected them” reportedly because “he was fond of the beautiful Jewesses.” He saw to it that Jewish children who had been baptized were returned to their families and that those who stole from the Jews, including members of the nobility, were punished. The Jews did have enemies including those who owed them large sums of money and members of the nobility.  These groups convinced Charles to issue a decree expelling the Jews; a decree he rescinded before it ever went into effect. “In 1370, when the king increased the general taxes, he solemnly confirmed the privileges that he had granted to the Jews, demanding of them only 1,500 francs. In 1372 he restored to them certain manuscripts which had been confiscated. But at the same time he did not lose sight of his own interests, and when he was in need of money, in 1378, he made an agreement with the Jews in accordance with which, in return for being exempted from all other imposts, they were to pay him 20,000 francs in gold, in four installments, and 200 francs a week. In 1379 he granted them an important concession in connection with the fairs of Champagne and Brie. On visiting the fairs the Jews were accustomed to take mortgages on the property of their creditors. But they could foreclose these mortgages only when solvent Christians acted as sureties, and they complained that, since they could not in general find anyone to act as surety, they always lost their claims. The king therefore decreed that Jews might in future be accepted as sureties. [Source – Jewish Encyclopedia;  for a highly readable account of life in 14thcentury France that will help you better understand the plight of the Jews see A Distant Mirror by Barbara Tuchman.]

1087: Victor III, sometimes referred to as “the Jewish Pope” passed away today.


1498:  According to some sources, Tomas de Torquemada, head of the Spanish Inquisition which destroyed the Sephardic Community on the Iberian Peninsula, passed away. 

1501: A decree was issued by the Portuguese Governor Nicolas de Oviendo which aimed at keeping Jews from entering the New World.

1638: Birthdate of Louis XIV.  Known as the Sun King, Louis reigned from 1643 until 1715.Louis’ dealings with Jews were of marginal historic interest.  During his reign, Jews were variously allowed to, and banned from, conducting trading activities in French colonies and in Provence. As Colbert, one of Louis’ ministers pointed, opposition by Christian merchants to Jewish business ventures was not based on religion.  Rather, the merchants were using the smoke screen of religion to eliminate competition.  Only at the end of his long, debauched life, did Louis show any interest in the religious dynamics of the issue.  Having grown pious as he faced death, Louis issued a decree banning Jews from Provence, including the port of Marseilles demanding that they leave and leave their possession behind.

1658: With the signing of the Treaty of Hadiach on this date, the Polish Crown elevated the Cossacks and Ruthenians to a position equal to that of Poles and Lithuanians in the Polish-Lithuanian Union, and in fact transformed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth.  This led to a worsening situation for the Jews of Poland who had already suffered at the hands of the Cossacks for the last ten years. 

1701: Sixty-seven year old King James II of the United Kingdom who put an end to a mandatory tax being imposed on Jews for not attending “the established church” and who said that the Jews should “quietly enjoy the free exercise of their religion” passed away today. (Editor’s note – The kings’ action was tied to the conflict between Catholics and Protestants racking the British Isles during which the treatment of the Jews was a sideline event.)

1747: Birthdate of German theologian Johann Ludwig Ewald an “advocate for the Jews” arguing that the “shortcoming” of the Jews “were the result of persecution.”

1747:  Pope Benedict XIV prohibited Jewish converts to Christianity from giving their wives gittin(religious divorce). 

1777: In Frankfurt am Main, Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Gutle Schnapper gave birther to their fourth child Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the English House of Rothschild.

1779: Philip Minis volunteered to serve a guide for the French and American forces who were beginning their siege of Savanah today during the American Revolution.

1784(1stof Tishrei, 5545): Rosh Hashanah

1793(10thof Tishrei, 5554): Yom Kippur

1795: For the first time, during the Napoleonic Wars, British Forces occupied Cape Colony, South Africa, as way of keeping the valuable maritime choke point from falling in French hands. Although there is evidence that some non-observant Jews were living in the colony at this time, there was no organized Jewish community due to the fact that the Dutch East India Company, which controlled the colony, required all of its employees to be Protestants.  The British would leave in 1803 only to return in 1806 when they would establish a permanent colonial presence. Oddly enough, when the Dutch regained control they promulgated an ordinance allowing for the practice of all religions; an ordinance the British repealed in 1806 and did not reactivate again until 1820, at a time when Jews first began to settle as a community in South Africa.

1807: This evening, “Mr. Hyam Abendadone of the Island of St. Thomas” married Miss Grace Abendanone of Charleston, SC.

1810: Mexico declares its independence from Spain. Spain would not recognize the independence until 1821.  At the time of the declaration Mexico lacked an identifiable Jewish population thanks to the anti-Semitic policies of the government of Spain.  There were numerous Conversos living in Mexico.  Jewish migration to Mexico began in earnest in the middle of the 19th century. Today Mexico has approximately 40,000 to 50,000 Jews living in the country.

1812(10th of Tishrei, 5573) Yom Kippur

1812: Rothschild observed Yom Kippur for the last time.  As an observant Jew, he walked to the synagogue, spent the day in prayer and returned home in the evening to break the fast.

1818: David ben Shumel married Sarah bat Isaac at the Western Synagogue today

1824: Louis XVIII who had been returned to the French throne as part of what is called “the Restoration” and during whose reign the “enemies of Jews” failed to undo the improvement of their conditions reached under Napoleon, passed away today.

1824: Charles X, the last of France’s absolute monarchs whose abdication helped lead to full emancipation of French Jews, began his reign today.

1828: Birthdate of “Dutch Christian Old Testament Scholar” Abraham Kuenen who “was one of the leaders of the modern school of Old Testament Critics” who spent the last six years of his life working on a new translation of Hebrew Bible.

1829: Lewis Davis married Rebekah Ann Jacobs at the Western Synagogue today.

1829: In violation of Papal Law, “a meeting of inquisitors addresses the case of 3 Jewish families living in Foligno, Italy.

1829: Isaac Isaacson married Miriam Mosely at the Great Synagogue today.

1835: Birthdate of Posen native Abraham Slimmer who came to the United States at the age of 15 and became a successful Iowa businessman before passing away in Dubuque. (Some sources show his birthdate as September 14).

1841(1st of Tishrei, 5602): Rosh Hashanah

1841: Lydia Maria Child, a non-Jew from Boston, attended Rosh Hashanah services at Shearith Isreal Synagogue in York City.  What follows are excerpts from a letter of she wrote after attending the sevice,

 

Shortly after entering, she and her female companion were "gruffly" moved from the front seats to the women's section "in the upper part of the house." Child then recorded her feelings of being in a Jewish house of worship. "The effect produced on my mind by witnessing the ceremonies of the Jewish synagogue was strange and bewildering; spectral and flitting; with a sort of vanishing resemblance to reality; the magic lantern of the past." As she underwent this religious experience, she was "solemnly impressed with recollections of those ancient times when the Divine was heard amid the thunders of Sinai, and the Holy Presence (Shekinah) shook the mercy seat between the cherubim." Carefully, she looked at the ark containing the "Sacred Law written on scrolls of vellum and rolled as in the time of Moses." However, she was dismayed when she realized that instead of a "brazen laver" for washing there was only "a common bowl and ewer of English delf." All male members of the congregation, even little boys, wore "fringed silk mantles bordered with blue stripes." What she found incongruous were "these mantles worn over modern broadcloth coats and fashionable pantaloons with straps." Even the dress of the "priest" as she labeled the chacham, was problematic for her. "His large white silk shawl, which shaded his forehead and fell over his shoulders, was drawn over a common black hat!" She did see this official at times "cover his face completely, as in the time of Moses, stoop and lay his forehead on the book before him." Apparently, Child had made this visit thinking the Jews of her day were representatives of biblical times. Since this was not the case for her, she wrote. "But through the whole, priest and people kept on their hats. My spirit was vexed with this. I had turned away from the turmoil of the Present, to gaze quietly for a while on the grandeur of the Past; and the representatives of the Past walked before me, not in the graceful oriental turban, but the useful European hat!" She was also critical of the shofar blowing, even as she compared it to the instrument that sounded on Sinai. "The trumpet," she wrote, "which was blown by a Rabbi with a shawl drawn over his hat and face, was of the ancient shape, somewhat resembling a cow's horn. It did not send forth a spirit-stirring peal; but the sound groaned and struggled through it."  (Editor’s note: I do not have the citation for this.  I hope the author will not think that I have ‘moved the boundary stones’ on his or her work.

 

1843(21st of Elul, 5603): Ezekiel Hart passed away. Born in 1767, he was a Jewish Canadian entrepreneur and politician, and the first Jew to be elected to public office in the British Empire. “He was elected three times by the voters of Trois-Rivières to the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada. Some members consistently prevented him from taking his seat by observing that as a Jew, he could not take the oath of office, which included the phrase ‘on the true faith of a Christian’.”

1847(6th of Tishrei, 5608): The poet Grace Aguilar died at Frankfort-on-the Main, at age 31. She was the oldest child of parents descended from Portuguese Marranos who sought asylum in England in the eighteenth century. A prominent poet and writer, her words graced Jewish journals around the world. She was a staunch defender of Judaism, and a Torah loving woman. "Her last words, spelled on her fingers, were, 'Though he slay me, yet will I trust in Him,'"

1849(29th of Elul, 5609): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1850(10th of Tishrei, 5611): Yom Kippur

1854(23rdof Elul, 5614): Leil Selichot

1854(23rdof Elul, 5614): Miriam Aaron, the wife of Lewis Aaron passed away today, following which she would be buried in the Canterbury Jewish Cemetery.

1856: Birthdate of Moses Gaster, the native or Romania who become Chacham of the Spanish and Portugese Congregation in London as well as leading scholar at Oxford.

1858: Today’s Personal column reported that “a curious Hebrew publication has just issued from the Berlin press-a biography of Alexander Von Humboldt, written in the ancient tongue, and destined to extend the knowledge of the life and scientific labors of this celebrated man in the wide circle of the Russo-Polish and Asiatic Jews. The full title is, Alexander Von Humboldt: A Biographical Sketch, Dedicated to the Nestor of Wisdom on his 88th Birthday by S. Slominski.”  Alexander Von Humboldt was a Prussian born naturalist and explorer who was born in 1769 and died in 1859 at the age of 89.  He was not Jewish.

1859: A convention designed to "overcome evil with good" is scheduled to be held in Buffalo, NY.  The Jews were among those whom the public invitation should "consider themselves cordially invited."

1860: Birthdate of Solomon Joseph Solomon, the British painter who was the brother of another painter,   Lily Delissa Joseph.



1861: Judah P. Benjamin began serving as Secretary of War for the CSA.

1861: Corporal Samuel A. Apple began serving a four year hitch with Company B of the 51st Regiment.

1861: Private Moses Jacoby began serving a four year hitch with Company E of the 47thRegiment.

1863(3rd of Tishrei, 5624): Tzom Gedaliah

1871(1st of Tishrei, 5632): Rosh Hashanah

1871: An article published today entitled “Commencement of the Jewish New Year” reported that “at sundown last evening the new Jewish Year, 5632 commenced.  The Jews do not inaugurate their ecclesiastical year with festivities; on the contrary, the Jewish year is commenced with ten days of atonement.”   According to the article the Jews keep the first part of year holy because they are remembering the receiving of the word from Mount Sinai. [Editor’s note – At least they got part of it right]

1876: B.F. Peixotto, the United States Consul at Bucharest, Romania, is scheduled to address the Young Men’s Hebrew Association at their meeting hall on the corner of 42nd Street and 6th Avenue in New York City.

1877(9th of Tishrei, 5638): Erev Yom Kippur 

1877: The following anti-Semitic canard was published today during the Russo-Turkish War “The Jews are indeed ubiquitous.  They are everywhere.  Their jeweled fingers are in everything.  The Russians cannot feed their troops without them.  The Turks borrow of them to clothe their armies.  No great event of any kind occurs unless they assist in it, both as principles accessories.

1877: It was reported today that Jews in the following cities have built synagogues in the past year: London & Bath (UK), Waadt (Switzerland), Rio de Jeneiro (Brazil), Linz (Austria), Bremen & Heilbrun (Germany), Ancona and Bologne (Italy), New York, Springfield & Petersburg (United States)

1877: It was reported today there 373 houses of worship in Rome, four of which are synagogues.

1877: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil will preach the sermon at Kol Nidre services this evening at Temple Emanuel in New York City

1877: Rabbi Adolph Huebsch will preach the sermon tonight at the temple on the corner of 55th Street and Lexington Avenue.

1877: Ten fires broke out tonight between 6 and 8 o’clock in places occupied by persons who are thought to be Jews.  Thanks to the swift response of the fire department none of the fires caused much damage.  The damage caused by all then fires was valued at approximately 500 dollars with individual losses ranging from “slight” to $300.

1878(4th of Tishrei, 5548): Tzom Gedaliah observed because the 3rd was Shabbat

1879: It was reported today that among those in Memphis who have recently contracted Yellow Fever are the Jewish brothers, James and Israel Peres, the sons of Jacob J. Peres who owns the brokerage firm of J.J. Peres & Company.

1879: Birthdate of Georg Lewin, the Berlin native who gained fame as Herwath Walden whose eclectic interests led him to careers as “a musician, composer, writer, critic, and gallery owner.”

1880: “City and Suburban News” published today described the observance of “Yom Kippur…the most solemn fast in the Jewish calendar” which ended yesterday at sundown during which “no orthodox Jew allowed morsel of food or drop of water to pass lips during the 24 hours.”

1881: It was reported today that “a disastrous fire” that has destroyed an “enormous” amount of fire has swept through Vitebsk, a major Jewish population center in the Pale of Settlement.  For more about Vitebsk see:


1882(3rd of Tishrei, 5643): Shabbat Shuva – no Fast of Gedaliah because of Shabbat

1886: Sixty-seven year old Louis, duc Decazes who while serving as Foreign Minister in 1875 “informed Henri Blowitz, the Bohemian Jew who was the Paris correspondent of The Times of a confidential dispatch from the French ambassador to Berlin, discussing German plans to attack France” which he asked Blowitz to publish as part of an effective plan to prevent the Germans from carrying out their plans passed away today.

1888: It was reported today that “a peculiar and unprecedented schism has arisen among the Jews” of London.  “The Socialist Jews” have protested against the Day of Atonement by holding a banquet at the International Workingmen’s Club in Whitechapel.

1888(11thof Tishrei, 5649): Seventy-five year old Lazare Isidor, who had been appointed Chief Rabbi of Paris in 1847 before being named Chief Rabb of France in 1867 passed away today.

1889: In Vienna, Rachel Goggmann Cenrobert and Austrian automobile entrepreneur Emil Jellinek gave birth to Mercédès Adrienne Manuela Ramona Jellinek.  She is the Mercédès in Merceds-Benz.  Yes, this quintessential German product was named for the granddaughter of the Chief Rabbi of Vienna.

1890(2ndof Tishrei, 5651): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

1890: “Prague-based German merchant Ludwig Kraus and his wife, Louise” gave birth to Ernst Deutsch “the protagonist in the world première of Walter Hasenclever's Expressionist play The Son.”

1890: Harris Adolphus and Max Rodden, the former Rabbi of the “Polish Hebrew synagogue” in Trenton, NJ, sought warrants for the arrest of Moses Skomwitschiki, the congregation’s new rabbi and several of the congregation’s officers.

1890: In Huntington, PA, Rabbi T.A. Moses of New York was stricken with apoplexy tonight after having dismissed the congregation for whom he had been leading services for the past week.

1891: In Providence, RI, Morris Reiger and Michael Bernstein, the mangers of the London Opera Company which they had organized among a group of Polish Jews, escaped from the police after having apparently absconded with ticket money collected for performances of “The Greenhorn.”

1891: “Troubles In the Dispensary of the Beth Israel Hospital” published today described the conflict between the Beth Hospital Association which started its hospital four months ago and the dispensary which had been open for a year before the two were combined.

1891: “Cholera In Asiatic Turkey” published today described the discriminatory measures being taken in the villages around Aleppo to deal with the epidemic where the Turkish officials allowed the Moslems and Christians “to leave the villages but not the Jews.  They are compelled to stay.”

1892(24thof Elul, 5652): Sixty-one year old Judah Leib Gordon, one of the leading “Hebrew poets of the Jewish Enlightenment” passed away.

1893: Birthdate of Hungarian native Sir Alexander Korda who became a leading figure in the British film industry where he worked as both a director and producer.

1894: It was reported today that in the one New York district inhabited by Russian and Polish Jews “there an average of fifty-seven families to a house” while the general average in other tenement districts “is 34 persons to a house.”

1895: Reverend G.R. Cutting, pastor of the Yonkers Presbyterian Church presented a paper entitled “The Conversion of the Jews” today in which “he took the view that the Jews will be restored to the land of Palestine. Some of his fellow ministers who heard the paper said that the “Jews might become Christians before the end of the world, but that they would not return to Palestine” as would be proven if a vote were taken among the Jews; the majority of whom vote to remain in America “in preference to going to Palestine.”

1896(9thof Tishrei 5657): Erev Yom Kippur – Kol Nidre

1896: At a hearing in Jefferson Market Court John Dangels told the Judge that he lost his temper yesterday when David Meyer had refused to leave his butcher shop.  He did not contest Meyer’s statement that the reason he had beaten him was because he was, to use Dangels’ word “a sheeny.”

1896: A group of Anarchist, most of whom were Jews held a meeting at Clarendon Hall with the announced intention of “ridiculing and burlesquing the Yom Kippur observances and the Jewish religion.”

1896: Twenty-three year old Nathan Fischer attacked Abraham Fisher, an usher at Mount Sinai Temple in a dispute over Fischer’s admission ticket. The police were called and Fisher was arrested.

1897: “President McKinley and the members of his cabinet attended the cornerstone laying of the new Synagogue” being “erected by the Washington Hebrew Congregation on 8th Street, near H.

1898(29thof Elul, 5658): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1898: Temple Beth-El, Temple Emanu-El and the West End Synagogue “have an extended an invitation to all solders who wish to attend services” at their respective congregations.

1898: Any Jewish families who wish to open their homes to soldiers on Rosh Hashanah should contact William Mitchell, Superintendent of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association or The American Hebrew.

1898: About 40 members of the 47th Regiment stationed at Fort Adams marched out of their barracks at Newport after having received a ten day furlough from Adjutant General Corbin so they could observe the Jewish holidays.

1898: Dr. M.H. Harris delivered a sermon tonight at Temple Israel of Harlem entitled “The Influence of Good Wishes” as Jew “ushered in the 5659.”

1898: Herzl is received by Graf Philip Eulenburg, the German ambassador in Vienna.

1898: Birthdate of prize-winning Israeli novelist Chaim Hazaz

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