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Increased blood pressure is the largest single contributor to the global burden of disease, leading to 10.4 million deaths in 2017. Extensive data from randomized trials have shown that lowering blood pressure reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Results from such trials and…
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Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are one of four drug classes recommended for the initial treatment of hypertension. These medications are commonly used not only for hypertension — a condition present in 45.6% of U.S. adults — but also for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. On January…
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Renal-cell carcinoma is characterized by susceptibility to both immunotherapeutic and antiangiogenic treatment approaches and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Agents such as sunitinib that target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway are standard first-line therapy for advanced…
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The treatment of metastatic renal-cell carcinoma has been revolutionized twice in the past 12 years by data showing that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition can induce tumor shrinkage and increase progression-free survival and that immune checkpoint inhibitors can induce durable…
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Most patients with a diagnosis of renal carcinoma have clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma, which harbors genetic abnormalities that lead to excessive production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key driver of angiogenesis. Although sunitinib is a standard-of-care first-line therapy for…
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections that are associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Complicated UTIs are UTIs in patients who have underlying conditions, such as anatomical abnormalities, or risk factors, such as indwelling urinary…
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Antimicrobial resistance continues to erode our therapeutic armamentarium for treating patients with bacterial infections. Clinicians are now encountering infections that are susceptible to few or even (although rarely) none of the available drugs. One of the multiple components of a strategy to…
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Foreword. In this Journal feature, information about a real patient is presented in stages (boldface type) to an expert clinician, who responds to the information by sharing relevant background and reasoning with the reader (regular type). The authors’ commentary follows. Stage. A 75-year-old woman…
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Figure 1.
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An organoid is a three-dimensional construct composed of multiple cell types that originates from stem cells by means of self-organization and is capable of simulating the architecture and functionality of native organs. Organoids permit in vivo and in vitro investigation and represent one of the…
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