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In the Great Recession many years ago, employers were ridiculous with the job qualifications they requested -- a master's degree to be a receptionist or NASA astronaut experience to drive a bakery truck.

That was when jobs were in short supply. Now, those tables have turned and employers are lowering their requirements. You won your elementary school's spelling bee? You can now be CEO!

OK, that may be stretching it a bit, but a new survey by Robert Half finds that 84 percent of companies are willing to hire and train a candidates who lack required skills for a job. Some 62 percent of employees say they've been offered a job when they were underqualified.

"Workers can be trained on duties for a role, but individuals with the right soft skills and fit with the corporate culture are often harder to come by," explains Paul McDonald, senior executive director at Robert Half.

How do you get a job when you might not possess all the qualifications? Here are some ideas:

1. Focus on what you can do. You've got to make it easier for the hiring manager to see how you'd be a good fit for the role. For example, maybe you don't have a "project management" job title, but for years you've coordinated projects in your job, from beginning to end. You've worked with clients, vendors, colleagues, partners, etc. to bring in projects on time and on budget. Try to link your experience to the job as much as you can by highlighting comparable skills.

2. Highlight your understanding of the company. While I always advise doing your homework on an employer, in this case you're going to have to dig deeper. You need to not only understand the company's culture and what they do, but you need to understand how that really translates into the relationship they have with their customers, how they compete with others in the marketplace and how they position themselves in the industry. This will give you a stronger standing as a job candidate as it shows greater passion, interest and motivation to work at that company. Hiring managers always appreciate those attributes in a candidate.

3. Be a learner. If you want an employer to believe that you're going to seize the day and grow to fit a job, then show them you're already on that track. Listen to TED talks that increase your understanding of the job or industry, start following company leaders on Twitter or LinkedIn and even take online classes if possible. All those things show the employer that you're proactive and really want to learn and develop your skills. 

Finally, show that you've got soft skills that often are more difficult to learn: good communication, problem-solving skills, a solid work ethic, adaptability and teamwork. Employers are often willing to teach hard skills, so finding a candidate with good soft skills is considered a real plus.
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With a low unemployment rate, some employers are pulling out all the stops when it comes to recruiting workers, such as offering perks and higher salaries.

But sometimes the hiring manager goes a bit further -- and doesn't present a realistic picture of what you'll really be doing if you take the job.

So, on the first day when you show up and expect to begin working on exciting projects, you're told that those projects are sort of on hold. Instead, you'll be doing some routine work. OK, you think, I can do that. I can hold on until the real work begins.

Only the real work that you were expecting never seems to materialize. Instead, you're given constant excuses about it's delay and instead take on more and more tasks that you hate.

Then, it dawns on you: You hate your new job.

Now what?

First, don't panic and head for the nearest pub to drown your sorrows for the next week. Second, don't quit. Third, take a deep breath.

Now, it's time to:

1. Take stock. Think about the company culture, the people you work with, the new contacts you've made and the new skills you've learned. Have you been given a chance to travel more, which you love? Have you been offered cross-training in other departments? Are you learning new skills to add to your resume? When you make an honest assessment, you may come to realize that you're learning something valuable, and the job isn't a total bust.

2. Speak up. If you're not getting to do the things you were promised in a job interview, then you need to get to the bottom of what is happening. Meet with your manager and explain how you were told you would be doing X, but you're really doing Y and Z. The boss may or may not be aware of what you were promised, but you need to explain that you want to do well but you are confused as to why you're not doing the job as it was explained to you in the hiring process.

3. Have a plan. If you're really doing something that isn't in your career plan -- and you just don't like it -- then you're going to need to make a game plan about how long you'll stay and give your boss a chance to make it right. If you were lied to about the job -- or somehow the hiring manager was less than transparent -- the company may try to fix the problem and hang onto you. If, however, you believe they don't really care about you or fixing the problem, it may be time to start looking around.

You may be nervous about leaving a job after a short time, but you can explain in future job interviews that the employer was not transparent about your real duties, and the job wasn't what you were told. That puts the next employer on notice that they need to be honest with you -- and will remind you to do your due diligence to truly understand the parameters of another job offer.
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Many people talk about their dream job, but do a majority of people achieve it?

According to a recent survey by TollFree Forwarding, no.

Respondents were asked if they managed to achieve their childhood dream and make it to their ideal job. The results: 76 percent never made it.

Many of these respondents lived to regret it: 39 percent say they wish they had pursued their aspirations further, but the majority felt they didn't have the right skills or knowledge.

There was a bright spot in the survey as 24 percent reached their ideal job at some point in their career and 10 percent are in that job right now. Nearly two-thirds of those who said they managed to get their ideal job said it lived up to the expectations they had in childhood. (The top job for men was a professional sports start, musician and engineer, while women chose teacher, doctor/nurse and veterinarian).

I think something we can all learn is that we need to do more realistic planning in our careers. Here are some tips to get the job your heart truly desires:

1.  Do your homework. Whether you want to be a museum curator or a rocket scientist, you have to do some research on what it realistically takes to reach that level. Don't just rely on teachers or your friends (or Google) to give you a clue. You're going to have to dig deeper and find people actually in those jobs and ask what it takes to get to that job. Just getting a degree or certification may not be enough for a job -- you've got to figure out the key skills you need to get hired.

2. Get experience. Maybe no one will hire you right now as a marketing professional because you're employed at a local bakery. But there's nothing stopping you from setting up your own consulting business and starting to be a freelance marketer. Build your accounts and marketing campaigns and soon you'll have something to show in the "experience" section of your resume. That will help open doors.

3. Network. If you want to be a graphic designer, then try to be around other graphic designers. Join a graphic desinger's association. Read industry publications. Make connections to other graphic designers via social media. The more people you get to know in the industry, the better. These people will start to see the value of your passion for graphic design, see you striving to get the right skills and help you with advice. They are also the ones the most likely to help point you to available jobs or provide a recommendation.
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I've known people in my life who are so into cleanliness and order that you could eat off their garage floor, surrounded by gardening tools that stand at attention like little soldiers. I've also known people whose surrounding environment -- whether at home or at work -- that I wouldn't touch without wearing a hazmat suit and knowing avalanche procedures in case a mountain of junk fell on my head.

Gretchen Rubin, who I have interviewed many times about happiness in the workplace, has a new book, "Outer Order, Inner Calm." In it, she writes how an orderly, peaceful environment will lead to inner peace and happiness. Need to write a tough email? Rubin says it will be much easier with a neat desk.

Rubin's research into happiness has shown that there's no one-size-fits-all approach to organization, but rather using some strategies to reach out own personal state of inner calm. (I don't need an immaculate garage to feel calm, thank you very much.)

Here are some of her ideas:

  • Never label anything "miscallaneous." "I once created a file called 'active useful documents' and then never looked in it again," Rubin writes. Also, Rubin says you can't use a term that's a synonym for "miscellaneous."
  • Do you need more than one? You probably don't really need two tape dispensers, two pairs of scissors and three pen cups on your desk.
  • Cut out doodads. I once knew an editor who had a desk full of snow globes. Every time someone went on a vacation, they brought him a snow globe from their destination. I once counted 40 snow globes before I gave up. You really only need a couple of meaningful mementos at work, and keep them small, Rubin says.
  • Allow technology to clear clutter. You probably don't need a dictionary, thesaurus, maps or a fax machine if you can do that work online. Get rid of them.
  • Protect your desk. A desk is what Rubin refers to as "extremely valuable real estate." She advises being very selective about what's on its surface, as well as any shelves, drawers or cabinets that are within easy reach. "Unless you're consulting a book every day, don't leave it on your desk. If you have three boxes of your favorite brand of pen, don't store them in your top drawer."
  • Beware of conference swag and freebies. "The best way to deal with clutter is never to accept these freebies in the first place. Something free can end up costing a lot of time, energy and space," she says.
  • Don't own it. It can be very stressful to look at a messy desk and say "I need to get organized!" Instead, your first instinct should be to get rid of stuff. "If you don't own it, you don't have to organize it," she says.

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When you get called back for a second interview, it can be pretty exciting. You are obviously on the short list for the position.

But, wait. If you do an internal gut check, you realize you're not super excited about the job or the company. Oh, well, you think, just get that second interview because you're close to desperation to get a new job.

When the job offer does come, you might get a momentary spark of joy, but it's nothing on the scale of a Marie Kondo spark of joy. In fact, it's already fizzled and you're left with the reality that you really don't want the job.

Now what? Should you take the job and hate it from Day 1? Or, do you want to turn it down and keep trying?

A lot depends on your financial situation and where you feel you need to go next in your career. This is a good time to make a list of the pros and cons and speak with trusted mentors or family. If you do decide that you just can't take the job because of various reasons, how you decline the position may be one of the most critical tightropes you will walk in your career.

That's because hiring managers often know other hiring managers and well, they talk. They talk about job candidates and if you blow off the job offer with a rude "no" then they will be talking about you. That could seriously impact your ability to get interviews or offers from other companies.

If you get a job offer that you don't want, then you need to:


  • Be honest. You don't have to be brutally honest, such as saying "I realized I'd be dying a slow death if I took the job because it just sounds so boring." But you can say something like: "The more I thought about the job, the more I realized that it just wasn't the direction I wanted to take my career. I really want to do more field work, rather than analysis in the office." 
  • Be appreciative. You can probably never begin to appreciate the time and energy is takes to post a job, go through resumes, interview candidates, check references and get approval to make a job offer. Not to mention the money it costs. The hiring manager deserves appreciation for spending all that time and energy on you, and you need to also show an awareness of all the other people who may have spent time talking to you or answering questions.
  • Keep communication open. If you genuinely liked the hiring manager, then feel free to say something like, "I enjoyed getting to know you and if I can ever be of help to you in the future, please let me know." Then, you can send a LinkedIn request that will let the hiring manager know you're not just empty words.
Finally, let the experience be a lesson to you that you need to do some careful consideration when you're called for a second interview. If you're truly not interested in the company or the position, then don't waste everyone's time and politely tell the hiring manager you've decided to go in another direction.

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It seems like every few years someone comes out with a new idea for how to have more productive meetings. But then they get shot down by those who think those ideas are dumb:


  • Standing meetings. The complaint: "I'm not standing! I have a bad back! Someone get me a chair!"
  • Walking meetings. The complaint. "I'm wearing 5-inch heels! I'm not walking a mile in 5-inch heels over broken sidewalk! Someone get me a chair!"
  • Impromptu meetings. The complaint: "I'm not ready for a meeting! I need time to prepare my notes! Someone get me a chair!"
Before you know it, the entire team has grouped around a table and a chairs like wildebeests who have just found the last good watering hole for 100 miles. Just like that you're in a traditional meeting with all the traditional problems. ("This chair is so uncomfortable!" "Why aren't there snacks?" "Why am I in this meeting -- I don't even know you people!")

Now it's time that science steps in and figures out what human beings cannot: How to have productive meetings.

Steven Rogelberg, professor of organizational science, management and philosophy at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has some suggestions in his new book, "The Surprising Science of Meetings."

His findings:

1. Forget an agenda. It really doesn't do anything in terms of meeting effectiveness despite all the advice that You. Must. Have. An. Agenda.

2. Stop holding people hostage. Do you have a weekly meeting that is pretty much the same every week? Instead of the wash, rinse, repeat cycle, try sending out information to everyone to consider then giving five minutes to answering any questions about it. 

3. Remote meetings suck. Those in remote locations can be forgotten like Kevin in "Home Alone." Nobody really notices that the remote worker is fading into the background, so it's up to the meeting leader to make sure no one leaves him or her out of the discussion.

4. Don't let a calendar dictate. Just because Google or Outlook blocks out 30 minutes or 60 minutes for a meeting doesn't mean you have to follow it. Try to estimate how long the meeting will really take -- 56 minutes or 18 minutes. Then, try to cut that meeting time by 5 minutes. Science shows that when people are under pressure, they tend to focus more and be more productive.

5. Brainstorm in silence. When people are allowed to write their ideas on paper, you're likely to get many more ideas -- and the time won't be hogged by one person elaborating on one idea or everyone just following the boss's idea.

6. Get lean. Try to trim the number of participants in a meeting to as few as possible. The more people, the more time likely to be wasted -- for everyone.

7. Be a good host. If you're in charge of a meeting, be aware that people hate you. Well, maybe hate is a strong word. But you've called the meeting, so you're the reason they've been pulled away from getting other stuff done and that makes them cranky. So, if you want a productive meeting, you're going to have to be a good host and make it enjoyable. Be welcoming and express appreciation to those attending. 
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I'm not sure I know many people who get up every morning and say, "Gee, I can't wait to fail today!"

Fail. Failure. Failing. Any of those words are drilled into us from childhood to avoid. No teacher or parent wants us to fail. We don't want to fail in front of friends or coworkers.

So it makes sense that when we fail, we feel terrible.



But what if we could feel good about failure -- or at least better? Could feeling better about failure mean that we are less likely to dwell on thoughts that get us nowhere? Could failing become something that energizes us instead of depresses us?

Here's some things to consider about failing:

1. What did you learn? I remember the time I climbed up on the bed to hang curtains, forgetting that the ceiling fan was on. Yep. The ceiling fan clipped me in the head and I did an Olympic-caliber flip off the bed. Sure, I had a headache, but I also learned from it (always check whether the fan is on before climbing on a bed to hang curtains). Sounds obvious, but sometimes we do the dumbest thing at work that we need to stop doing. Or, it can be a much bigger lesson about trusting the wrong person or not listening to our gut. If you frame failure in terms of it being a teaching tool, you're more likely to see it in positive terms.

2. Take baby steps. If you are taking on something that is out of the norm for you or something you consider risky, don't feel you have to jump in with both feet. For example, if you want to start your own business, try to keep your regular job (with health benefits, ahem) while you test the waters and try out your idea. If you're trying to change positions within your company, build a safety net with mentors and cross-departmental training. If you fail at your new venture, you haven't risked everything and can make some adjustments to boost your chances of success. Failure then becomes a minor setback as opposed to a colossal screw-up.

3. Ask questions. This can be one of the most difficult steps, because many people find it hard to ask others why something failed. Look at it this way: If you went to a restaurant and vowed never to go back because you had a snotty waitress who got your order wrong, don't you think it would be helpful for the restaurant manager to know that? Or, should the manager just "guess" at what was wrong and come to the conclusion that the menu needed to be changed. That doesn't make sense, and it also doesn't make sense to "guess" why you failed. Try to get some specific feedback on what went wrong so that you can better understand how to fix the problem and succeed in the future.
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Everyone has heard the expression "work smarter, not harder."

If you're like me, that's often easier said than done. When you're under pressure from your boss, or you're trying to juggle multiple projects, you might forget all about such advice, and find yourself working 12-hour days.

Of course, you're not really clear about what you're getting done -- but you did answer 100 emails, send 100 emails and create a paperwork blizzard on your desk. Yes, indeedy! Your boss will be impressed with your productivity, right?

Wrong. Your boss is wondering why you are working so many hours, seem to be buried under paper and still haven't made progress on that key project.

Here's where you need to stop and repeat after me: Work smarter. Not harder.

Let's look at some ways to do that before your paperwork buries you like a late-season snowstorm:

1. The boss's goals are your goals. Sure, you'd like to answer emails and send emails, but is that what your boss wants done? The best way to work smart is to always say to yourself: "What is the boss's priority? Am I working on that?" Only when you've got the boss's goals taken care of can you move onto something else.

2. Clearly communicate. If someone comes to you and wants your help, clearly state why you can or cannot help. "I can help you tomorrow if I get the boss's request done. There is the chance she'll ask me to do something else, and that takes priority. If you want to wait, I'm happy to let you know when I'm done." No one is going to argue with that reasoning, and it clearly shows why you can't jump to another task. If the boss comes to you with another request (or several), get a clear indication from her about how she would like your energies directed -- the task she wants done first, second, third, etc.

3. Be intentional. If using Facebook or Twitter or Instagram isn't a part of your job, don't even look at it during work hours. Save it for break times, and then only allot a certain amount of time. You're really better off recharging your batteries -- and working smarter -- if you use your break times to take a walk or eat something nutritious. When you set parameters about how to use your time during work hours, you will stay in your lane and stop drifting to "busy" work or tasks not related to the job at hand.

You may believe that you are a good worker because you're always busy, busy, busy! But if you're hiding behind meaningless work, the boss will not see you as a valuable member of her team. Only when you're directly contributing to helping her meet her goals and contributing to the success of the organization will you truly be working smart.
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When my children were babies, I knew exactly what I would do if I won the lottery: Hire a nighttime nanny.

That's because my kids couldn't seem to get the hang of sleeping through the night, and I was beyond exhausted. I could have tried out for the "Walking Dead" and won a part based on how I felt -- and how I looked.

Things got a bit easier once my kids decided to start sleeping, but that led to a host of other stresses as they grew: baseball and music practice, school projects, friends' birthday parties, etc. At the same time, my career was becoming busier and busier and I was taking on bigger projects.

That led to a bad spate of insomnia as I struggled with thoughts of schedules and science projects and work commitments. It was a tough time, and not the first or the last of tough times trying to figure out a personal life and a career. There just felt like there weren't enough hours in the day to get it all done.

That's why research from Ashley Whillans at Harvard University really struck a chord with me: Having enough time, or "time affluence" is now at a record low in this country -- and we're really in a "famine" when it comes to effectively managing our time.

But here's the surprise: Despite the perception that people today work longer hours, the data shows that most of us have more discretionary time than ever before.

What Whillans and her team have discovered is that we spend our time trying to get money -- taking on bigger jobs for more money. We believe that money will make us happier in the long run.

Nope.

It turns out that the happiest people use their money to buy time. Whether it's working fewer hours or paying someone else to do disliked tasks, we experience more fulfilling relationships and careers when we use our money to buy time.

But even Whillans admits that making better choices for our happiness isn't easy. Sending emails while on the beach, making phone calls during a commute and giving up exercise time to talk to a colleague all sabotage her efforts.

Still, she says there are ways to shift such a mindset. Among her suggestions:

1. Forget spontaneity. Our brains don't like it, and it leads you to check your email instead of going our with friends. So, plan ahead. Plan what you want to do on your weekend or after work and then stick to it.

2. Get moving. Try to build in activities that require you to be physically active, whether it's volunteering at a food bank or walking the dog. Research shows you'll be happier if you engage in more active, rather than passive, activities.

3. Enjoy a meal. Don't eat in front of the television or the computer. Savor your food -- enjoying your food reduces your stress.

4. Be open. Don't be afraid to strike up a conversation with someone in line as research shows that casual social interactions with strangers "significantly boosts happiness," she says. At the same time, volunteering also increases your happiness and makes you feel like you have more time.
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More people are expected to test the job waters this year as more than 12,500 U.S. employers are looking for new workers and unemployment remains low. This comes as good news for workers who are ready to take the leap to a new job or industry, including those federal workers who are looking for steadier paychecks after government shutdown uncertainty.
Still, those seeking to change industries in their job search will need a strategy to overcome blockades. Computers may weed them out in an initial screening, and employers may be wary of hiring an industry newbie.
That’s why it’s key to craft your resume and cover letter in a way that highlights transferable skills. Here are some things (see more here)
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