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There's a big push these days for in-the-moment feedback. This means that instead of a boss offering a critique of a worker's performance once a year, he or she will offer an immediate assessment after a worker takes action or completes a task.

For example, the boss might commend a worker's report on projected sales revenues, but then advise the employee that he needs to work on not getting defensive when asked questions about those figures by other team members.

That seems simple enough, and the worker can then take immediate steps to offer better responses when questioned by the team.

But sometimes things can go really wrong with this immediate feedback, especially if the manager hasn't really thought about what he is saying to the worker. Without some thought about what to say and how to say it, these in-the-moment feedback talks can become demoralizing and hurt creativity and productivity -- just the opposite of what a manager needs to achieve.

Here are things that managers need to think about:

1. Avoid comparisons. Those of us with siblings will understand that it was no fun when mom or dad said something like, "Your brother Jimmy understands the importance of taking care of his things and never would have left his bike in the rain." The same is true in the workplace: Don't compare one team member with another, such as "Janet is highly organized. When she did the same report last year, she didn't miss one deadline -- and that really helped the whole team."

2. Don't be a broken record. It doesn't help the employee if a manager only offers negative comments -- or only positive ones. Workers don't need a "good job!" every time they complete a full sentence, and they also don't need sighs and eye rolls every time they stumble. Managers need to work on striking the right balance: Always try to be fair and give the worker credit for making progress but don't shy away from pointing out what needs to be improved so the worker can experience greater success in his or her career.

3. Let the employee speak. Feedback isn't just about the manager offering assessments and then walking away. It also needs to be about engaging the worker to critique his own performance and thinking about ways to do things differently or to improve. Tell the worker you're not there to punish or threaten -- you're there to help him or her improve: "How did you feel about your presentation? Did you feel like it went as you planned or was there something you would like to have done differently?"

Finally, always try approach the feedback talk with the goal of solving a problem and not as a way to assess the other person's character or jump to conclusions about why he or she took a specific action.
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I spend a lot of time talking to business experts and leaders and the one thing I know for sure: No one knows for sure what the future will bring.

That’s not to say these very smart people don’t have a clue – but the marketplace is changing so fast sometimes that they’re not 100% confident that what worked in the past will continue to work – or if their company will even survive. (They don’t say that last bit, but enough big companies have died that you know they’re thinking about it.)

That’s why I thought some new researchwas so fascinating. In a nutshell, it says that companies that want to survive and thrive need to look for one key attribute in new hires: adaptability.

While companies like Zappos and Netflix have placed great emphasis on hiring workers who will be a cultural fit, they perhaps need to look deeper at how those job candidates will be able to adapt to a company.

Specifically, the authors of the study -- Sameer Srivastava of the University of California, Berkeley, and Govin Manian and Christopher Potts of Stanford University -- used linguistic analysis to look at more than 10 million internal emails sent from a technology company from 2009 to 2014. (This linguistic analysis is seen as a good indicator of cultural fit over time.)

The conclusion: The new hire that was able to recognize and internalize company standards was more successful over time. It’s not so much a new worker’s ability to initiallyadapt to a culture that matters – it’s how that worker absorbs the culture and adapts over time that matters the most, researchers say.

The key takeaway for employers may be that they need to stop screening out candidates who don’t seem to fit the company culture. If these candidates show adaptability – perhaps they’ve lived in another country or taken on diverse work roles – then that may be a better indicator that they’ll be able to adapt to a company culture and thrive over time.


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Recently I was talking to a young job seeker who went completely slack-jawed when I mentioned she needs to promote her accomplishments to others.

I was not surprised by her reaction, because I'd gotten the same one from another job seeker -- this one a bit older.

I get it. I remember the first time someone told me that my hard work would never pay off if I didn't let other people know about it -- often. I immediately dismissed the notion that I would go around "bragging" about myself.

So, I totally ignored the advice. Then, I saw someone I trained be promoted to my position when I left -- and be given a hefty raise even though she didn't have as much experience as I brought to the position. Then I saw someone with a lot less knowledge -- and loads of bad advice -- become popular with career advice sites.

When I wrote my second book, that's when I finally got it. My agent wasn't about to take me on unless I proved to her that I was worth it. She made me jump through a lot of hoops: who could help me promote my book, what was my standing in my field, why would anyone listen to me, etc. It was tough at first, but then I switched my thinking to this: I am a product.

Yep, that's right. Think of your career like a product, and this is whole idea of promoting yourself to others is going to be much easier. For example, if you were selling toothpaste, how much would you sell if you never mentioned how the product could save you from getting cavities? Would anyone be interested in having the toothpaste if you never talked about it, never explained its wonderful qualities and what a difference it can make?

Nope.

The same is true for your career. If you don't make the effort to tell others about your skill and your ability to make a difference, then they're going to skip over you and move onto the next toothpaste, er, person.

Now that you understand why it's so important, here are some ways to make yourself known to others without feeling like an idiot:


  • Remember that your boss doesn't know everything. You may assume that because she's your boss, she's aware of all your accomplishments. Wrong. Bosses are busy people. Find a way to periodically check in with your boss (in person is best), just to update her. "Wow, I had such a great meeting with Sharon the other day. I was able to help her solve some production line problems, and I think it really made a difference in our monthly goals," you might say. 
  • Keep your network informed. LinkedIn is a great way to let your network know of promotions (they will automatically send "new job" alerts to others), but you also want to continue to show your increasing knowledge or expertise. Try blogging on Linked or some other professional site -- they often accept guest authors. Tackle a timely subject and provide some smart solutions or insight.
  • Always keep your elevator pitch fresh. When you hop on the elevator at work and run into a senior vice-president from another department, what is your reaction? A brief head nod? A smile? If so, you're wasting a golden opportunity. While you don't want to be obnoxious about it, you can always say something like, "Hey Jim! It's nice to see you! I was just thinking about your department the other day when I was working on my new app that will shorten delivery times. I'm hoping it will be something other departments can use, also." Maybe you don't always have something super-exciting to convey, but never waste the opportunity to show others you're on the ball. "Hi, Jim! That was a great article you wrote in the company newsletter. It really inspired me to think about ways to be more efficient this quarter -- I plan to submit some ideas to my department head by next week."
Remember, no one is going to care about your career like you. That means you've got to nurture it and help it grow -- or it will wither and die.
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If you're one of those people who end up clocking in 65 hours or more or week --  hoping that it will help your career --  you can forget about it.

In a new book, "Great at Work: How Top Performers Do Less, Work better and Achieve More," author Morten T. Hansen finds in a study of 5,000 managers and employees that working a lot of hours can help your performance, but only to a certain point. Specifically, if you work between 30 to 50 hours a week, adding more hours can boost your performance. But after working 65 hours or more, it's time to go home because your performance will decline.

This result if part of Hansen's effort to more fully understand what makes some people top performers. Among his findings:


  • It's the boss's fault. Twenty-four percent of respondents say they can't focus because the boss lacks direction or there is a broader organizational complexity in their company. But Hansen says you can learn to "manage up" and just say "no" when you need to be great in certain areas. In other words, your path to greatness isn't just about always pleasing your boss all the time.
  • Purpose matters. It makes sense that about 40% of the respondents from the health care fields say they believe they are contributing to society. Still, there were those in the dataset who didn't work in those fields and still found meaning in their work. For example, 28% of people working in the construction industry completely agree with the statement "You can find meaning in your job no matter what sector it's in."
  • High achievers don't lose focus. While other people might be piling on tasks because they say "yes" to everything, high performers are more selective. They aren't afraid to say "no" to things that won't let them devote proper attention to their tasks and do excellent work.
  • Challenges are important. While many people just follow a job description, top performers challenge the job description. Instead of focusing on how to do the job description well, they think about how they can create the most value out of the role. This means they may change part of the work to add more value. For example, a factory worker in the study who was responsible for his machine output did that -- but he also went to other people and asked how his output could help them do better. They told him the one thing that he then implemented, taking him beyond his job description.
  • Don't let passion lead you down the wrong road. While you don't want to totally ignore your passion, you need to understand that top performers don't just chase a passion no matter where it leads. They learn to match their passion with a strong sense of purpose, doing work that contributes value. They focus on the benefits they bring others and doing it well, which makes people value their work. That's what leads to a good career.
  • Create a learning loop. Getting in a rut and working on autopilot can kill a career. Look at things you do automatically -- such as the way you lead meetings -- and find ways to improve. Then, get feedback on your changes. Make necessary modifications until you've made it better. If you take this one skill at a time, you will be able to focus until you improve.
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On college campuses around the country, job fairs are popping up like groundhogs looking for a place to wait out the winter.

Companies load up their banners and swag (A free pen! A free stress reduction ball!) and stake out a table. Then, the college students -- wearing nice clothes that make them squirm -- start the trek from table to table to table, ready to hand out their resumes.

The only problem is that sometimes recruiters shake them off. "No," they say. "We don't need your resume. Just apply online."

There are various reasons for this (lazy recruiters, company policy, etc.) but the bottom line is that it throws off the student. Now what are they supposed to do?

Confused, they shuffle off to the next table to be told something similar. Recruiters seem more interested in taking selfies of themselves at their booths, then posting it online. "Wow! Meeting great people at the XYZ job fair! Come by and see us and get free M&Ms!" they tweet.

And this, my friends, is why so many people hate job fairs. Millennials see them as a colossal waste of time, and they're right.

Sort of.

I agree that you're probably not going to make any great contacts at a job fair, and probably not going to get a job just by going to a job fair. Job fairs are indeed outdated and need to be revamped.

In the meantime, you've got to use every opportunity to get yourself ready for a job interview or networking event that will really help you get a job. So, why not use these job fairs as your own personal testing ground?

Here's what you do:


  • Dress professionally. Of course you know not to wear your grubby shorts and t-shirt, but until you've really moved around in a suit or heels or stiff leather shoes, you're not going to really experience how clothes play an important part in getting a job. Do you feel so uncomfortable that you can't hold a conversation? Is your suit jacket so big -- or so small -- that you feel ridiculous? Are your shoes killing you? This is the time to test drive your interview clothes. You want something that looks as good at the end of the day as it does in the beginning. You want to feel confident in these clothes, and not worry about how your shirt is beginning to wrinkle and show sweat stains.
  • Practice your handshake. A professional handshake isn't one where you do some weird slap, pump, high five or other gesture developed with your fraternity brothers. You want to shake hands professionally -- and do it a lot. Get a feel for what feels too tight or too aggressive or too wimpy. Be willing to stick your hand out first. Learn how to make eye contact with a solid handshake. By the time you leave the job fair, shaking hands should be natural.
  • Learn to juggle. This may not sound like a big deal, but it can be hard to handle your coat, your backpack, your resume, various company swag and a pen and paper without looking like a kindergartner on your first day of school. Part of being seen as a good fit for a company is presenting yourself as a calm, capable person. So, how are you going to handle all this stuff and still take some notes from recruiters? By the time you leave, determine what you need at a job interview or networking event, then leave the rest at home. You want to be focused on getting a job, not tripping on your coat falling out of your backpack.
  • Hone your elevator pitch. To me, this is probably the most important thing you can get out of a job fair. You're probably never going to see most of these recruiters again, so use them as your personal training staff. Once you stick your hand out and get a good, solid handshake, then it's time to give your elevator pitch so the recruiters can get back to tweeting about M&Ms. "Hi, Lisa. It's nice to meet you. I'm Laura, a junior majoring in journalism. I work on the school newspaper, and recently won a state award for my investigation into city worker fraud. I also have developed an online app to make it easier for student to find news that pertains to their home town." BOOM! Right then, you've separated yourself from the rest of the crazed pack of college students roaming the job fair. 
  • Ask questions. Even if you believe that a job fair is mostly a waste of your time, use it to practice asking questions about a company. By doing a bit of research beforehand, look for ways to ask questions that will make an employer think that you're someone who has a real interest in the company and industry. "How to do think AI (artificial intelligence) will affect the way you develop products in the next 10 years?" you might ask.
The bottom line is that while job fairs are an outdated, inefficient and unproductive way for companies to find employees, that doesn't mean you can't use them to your advantage. Use them to become more comfortable with your "professional" self so that when real opportunities come along, you're ready.
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"Where do you see yourself in five years?"

This is a pretty standard interview question, but it's also often asked during performance reviews.

Many people are a bit stumped by this, since they're not sure what they're doing this weekend, let alone five years from now.

But one of the most important things you can do for your career is to always be prepared for such standard inquires. If not, then others -- such as a hiring manager or your boss -- may think you're not serious about a job. That's enough to prevent you from being hired or invested in by your company.

And for heaven't sake, don't say something like: "In five years I plan to be backpacking across Europe. I'm only interested in a job now so that I can save money for my trip."

While employers will understand that you may want to be running your own company (that makes you sound ambitious and energetic), they won't likely hire someone who will cut ties at the first opportunity.

Certainly, don't lie about your intentions. Lying to your boss or to a potential employer puts a work relationship on the wrong foot, and can set up a disastrous outcome when it becomes apparent down the line that you weren't being truthful. (You know the truth will come out, just like your mom always told you.)

So, here are some ways to answer that question of "Where do you see yourself in five years?"

1. Talk about the industry's future. No employer is naive enough to believe that every employee will stick around for 10 years or more. They are well aware that people may move on after several years, especially if they are young and trying to build their careers. But you don't have to focus on the fact you may leave. Instead, zero in on what you find exciting about your industry and how you hope to play a part in it's growth. Try something like,  "I think project management is going to be an integral part of this industry becoming more competitive worldwide, and I hope to continue achieving key certifications and deepen my knowledge so that I can be a part of the industry's evolution." This shows that you're committed to improvement and are thinking about long-term issues, which any employer will love.

2. Focus on being a better employee. When you're in a job interview or performance evaluation, you're keen to focus on what a stellar worker you are, not on your weaknesses or mistakes. But since no one but your Nana thinks you're perfect, now is the time to show you're ready to address your deficiencies and the employer will be the beneficiary. Say something like, "In five years I would like to be taking on more leadership roles, as I plan to continue to develop my interpersonal skills. I think collaboration is important in any position, and that's a skill I know I can always build upon." This response shows you are aware of the importance of teamwork, whether as an employee or a boss.

3. Admit it's a tough question. You're not the first person to be asked this question, and chances are the job interviewer or your boss have had to struggle with the same question. In a world where change is happening so rapidly, they are going to understand that it's even more difficult to answer such a query. You can say, "This is a tough question, and something I've thought about. This industry/job is changing much more rapidly than ever before, so I think in five years I want to be the person who embraces change, who is flexible enough to react quickly to market dynamics so that I can be of the most value to an organization." Any employer will appreciate the idea that you're willing to make necessary adjustments as quickly as possible in a marketplace that demands constant change.
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It can be very exciting when you get a call from an employer inviting you for a job interview. But that feeling can quickly disappear when you don't get a call for the second interview.

If this happens more than once, you may need to make some adjustments because it might not be "them" -- but you.

If you fail to get a second interview, you need to consider:


  • You're making rookie mistakes. By the time you've been invited for an interview, the employer believes you've got most of the necessary hard skills for the job. A first interview is when the employer is looking to see if you've got the necessary interpersonal skills. If you can't hold a professional face-to-face conversation with your interviewer, you're going to be weeded out of the lineup. It's important that you show up on time, dress professionally, speak clearly, make eye contact and avoid nervous fidgeting. Also, never, never, never talk trash about a former employer, boss or colleague. Any interviewer will immediately think you will do the same about her company or personnel, and avoid hiring you.
  • You're unprepared. If you don't know the company's leadership team by name, can't identify key competitors or can't give examples of how your abilities will benefit the company, you're going to be passed over for a second interview. You need to do your homework on the company and the industry so that you're able to have a conversation with the interviewer about key topics.
  • You're rude. This is not something that you set out to do, but it may happen because you're not prepared. For example, if you don't even say "good morning" to the receptionist, look uninterested when the interviewer is talking about the company or fail to ask any questions to show your interest -- that's rude. 
  • You're too friendly. "So I was reading your son's Facebook page and I see you guys went to the Poconos on vacation -- did you have a good time?" This is not something that will make an interviewer feel good about you. In fact, she will probably think it's a bit creepy. You want to remain in the professional arena with comments about awards the company has won, or industry events that are scheduled. Stretching into anything personal can make interviewers nervous and eliminate you from job contention.
Getting a second interview isn't easy and takes hard work.

Look at it this way: If you were a golfer or tennis player or even an online gamer, would you enter a big tournament without practicing beforehand? Of course not. You know that it takes discipline, hard work and focus to be successful in these arenas. The same is true of getting a job. In order to avoid elimination, put some real effort into it and you'll find more success.
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When I appeared on the Today show many years ago, one of the female newscasters and I were chatting before my interview. At the time, she told me that she had recently had a disagreement with a high-powered female business executive over whether it hurt a woman's career to cry at work.

"I've cried many times (at work) to get what I want," the newscaster told me. "It always works. I just go into my boss's office and start crying."

I didn't say anything.  To be honest, I was shocked and annoyed.

I'll admit there have been a few times early in my career when I cried at work. Usually it was because I was frustrated with my performance or felt I was being unfairly treated. I remember  breaking into tears while talking to a male boss one time, and he offered me some advice. "You are burning the candle at both ends," he told me. "You cannot keep up this pace in your career without burning out. You've got to have more of a personal life and stop spending all your time at work."

Those were very wise words, and I appreciated them. Once I learned to have more balance, I was able to keep my emotions under better control and was able to deal with frustrating situations in a more professional manner.

A new study by Prof. Kimberly Elsbach of the Graduate School of Management at the University of California, Davis, finds that there are four stressful situations that can cause women to cry at work: personal issues, response to feedback, daily work stress or heated office meetings.

Elsbach, who did the research with Beth Bechky of the Stern School of Business at New York University, says that some crying is OK.  But it can get tricky when women don't behave as others believe they should, or stick to a "script" of how others see them. If they don't, then they are seen as emotional, weak, unprofessional or even manipulative. And those are the kinds of attributes that tank careers, she says.

As children, boys are socialized not to cry and so don't have to even think about it as adults. But for girls, they are socialized to cry and so find that crying at work later in life isn't something they can control, she says.

On the other hand, men in power often yell when under stress -- something that can even give them stature. However, such behavior is not seen as OK for women. Such differences between accepted behavior for men and women will take "generations and generations" to change, she says.

In the meantime, I'd advise any woman to think about the triggers listed above, and work to overcome them. Enlisting an ally to diffuse tense office meetings, being better at having discussions about performance and finding ways to have a more balanced life can give women more control over their tears. And, hopefully, never use them to manipulate anyone in the workplace.
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Take a minute and look at what you're wearing right now. Are they the same clothes you wore in college? Or similar enough that you could have worn them in college?

Now, take a look at your work area. Do you still have the beer mug you won in a chugging contest sitting on your desk -- along with your calendar of "Hottest Fire Fighters Ever?"

The reason I ask is because people often wonder why they're not getting ahead at work. They work hard, but don't seem to get chosen for the key projects. Or, they feel like the boss overlooks them when it comes time for promotions or new opportunities.

Sometimes, I think the reason is because these people are giving off the wrong signals. If you dress, act and look like you're still 21, then that's how others will see you. A kid. A lightweight. A novice. Someone who still has lots to learn and needs to still be reminded not to run with scissors.

You've probably heard the advice to dress for the job you want. But I think you also have to step up your game in other areas. Here are some ways you may be telling others you're still not ready for bigger opportunities:

1. You play beat the clock. You're watching the minutes tick by, texting your friends to confirm where everyone is meeting for happy hour. As soon as it's time, you nearly run to the door, backpack banging against your back in your haste. Your boss watches you go, wondering if you completed your work for the day, or plan to try and tackle it at home -- after happy hour. Perhaps this is why your manager doesn't consider you for projects that will require some self-direction and a more disciplined work approach.
2. You weasel out of meetings. No one likes meetings. No. One. While I don't think anyone needs to be in unnecessary meetings, I do think that some people are so intent on avoiding them that they miss real opportunities. You need to make the commitment to be involved in meetings where key decision-makers are attending. You need to make sure that when the top performers are pitching ideas, you're in those meetings to offer support or additional ideas. You need to be in the meetings where money is being discussed -- how to make it, save it or find new resources. These are the kinds of meetings that show your commitment to your boss, your company and your colleagues -- critical components if you want to get ahead.
3. You don't make hard decisions. We all knew those people in high school who waved off any discussions that might force them to make a decision. "Whatever you guys decide is fine with me," was a common response. "I'm easy." That doesn't work when you're a grown-up with a job. You're forced to make tough decisions every day, and failure to do so it the kind of behavior that hurts your career. The more you educate yourself about your company and your industry, the better prepared you will be to make decisions in your job that will let you be seen as a thoughtful professional.
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A recent survey by Accountemps finds that 93% of workers say that goal setting is important to their on-the-job performance.

Makes sense.

But here's the part that doesn't make sense: While 51% say they talk to their managers about their goals -- 11% never even bring up the subject.

I'm pretty sure that most managers are not mind readers (despite the fact they seem to know when to call a meeting at the exact minute you're trying to leave work early). So, how exactly is a manager supposed to help you meet your goals if you don't talk about it, or even broach the subject?

Maybe you feel your boss isn't interested in your goals, or that it's her job to bring is up. (Uh, no.) There really is no excuse for not having this discussion with your boss, and there is no one to blame but yourself if you constantly get passed over for promotions or don't get to work on great projects. 

It's time to get past whatever is preventing you from talking about what you want out of your career. Here are some ways suggested by Accountemps, with some additions from me:

1. Write them down. Don't attempt to talk to your boss about your goals if you're not clear about them. You can start more generally: "I'd like to get more interesting assignments," but try to drill down and come up with more concrete ideas: "I'd like to get more interesting assignments, and that means I'm going to need more training on the new software or would like transition from doing X to doing Y."

2. Set a deadline. Many career goals have been undermined by the daily grind of a "to do" list or the demands of a current project. You'll easily come up with excuses and not talk to the boss if you don't give yourself a deadline. In addition, it may take a couple of weeks for the boss to clear her calendar to have a meaningful, one-on-one conversation with you, so set deadlines and stick to them.

3. Dream big. If you're going to take the time to think about your career goals, don't limit yourself to the next six months or a year. Think about your dream job, and then work backwards. What would it take to get you there? You may not have all the answers, so look at those in your dream jobs (check our LinkedIn), and see how they moved into that position. 



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