46 New (2018) Non-Warming Graphs AffirmNothing Climatically Unusual Is Happening
During 2017, there were 150 graphs from 122 scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals indicating modern temperatures are not unprecedented, unusual, or hockey-stick-shaped — nor do they fall outside the range of natural variability.
We are less than 3 months into the new publication year. Already 46 new graphs from 40+ scientific papers undermine claims that modern era warming — or, in some regions, modern cooling — is climatically unusual.
Polovodova Asteman et al., 2018
“The record demonstrates a warming during the Roman Warm Period (~350 BCE – 450 CE), variable bottom water temperatures during the Dark Ages (~450 – 850 CE), positive bottom water temperature anomalies during the Viking Age/Medieval Climate Anomaly (~850 – 1350 CE) and a long-term cooling with distinct multidecadal variability during the Little Ice Age (~1350 – 1850 CE). The fjord BWT [bottom water temperatures] record also picks up the contemporary warming of the 20th century, which does not stand out in the 2500-year perspective and is of the same magnitude as the Roman Warm Period and the Medieval Climate Anomaly.”
McGowan et al., 2018
“Our reconstructed Tmax [temperature maximum] for these warmer conditions peaks around 1390 CE at + 0.8 °C above the 1961–90 mean, similar to the peak Tmax during the RWP [Roman Warm Period]. These results are aligned with the findings that show the period from 1150 to 1350 CE to be the warmest pre-industrial chronzone of the past 1000 yrs for southeast Australia.”
Hanna et al., 2018
“Reconstructed temperatures are generally coolest between 300 and 800 CE (Tavg = 2.24 ± 0.98°C), displaying three temperature minima centered at 410 CE (1.34 ± 0.72°C), 545 CE (1.91 ± 0.69°C), and 705 CE (1.49 ± 0.69°C). Temperatures then rapidly increased, reaching the warmest interval (800–1000 CE) in the approximately 1700-year record. During this interval, average temperatures were 3.31 ± 0.65°C, with a maximum temperature of 3.98°C.”
Li et al., 2018
“There are also other studies that suggest that the recent climate warming over the southeastern TP actually began in the 1820s (Shi et al., 2015). However, a few reconstructions from the west and northwest parts of Sichuan or from the southeastern TP indicate that there were no obvious increase of temperature during the past decades (Li et al., 2015b; Zhu et al., 2016).”
Qin et al., 2018
“Three quasi-oscillations with cycles of 31–22, 22–18, and 12–8 years may reflect the joint influence of PDO, southern oscillation, and solar activity on climate variation in the Qinling Mountains. … [T]he third cycle of 12–8 years exhibited 18 distinct cold-hot events, which were approximately equivalent to the changes of solar activity and sunspot activity and corresponded to the 11-year cycle of drought in northwestern China (Cai and Liu. 2007).”
Allen et al., 2018
“The longest sustained period of relatively high temperatures in the reconstructions is the post 1950 CE period although there are clearly individual years much earlier that were warmer than any in the post-1950 period.”
Oppedal et al., 2018
“This advance was documented by historical evidence (Hayward, 1983), showing that many glaciers advanced in the twentieth century. Cirque and valley glaciers were at its most advanced position in the 1930s, while larger valley and tidewater glaciers reached their maximum glacier extent in the 1970s. Such a glacier advance is also documented for the Hamberg glacier by Van Der Bilt et al. (2017). Furthermore, during the recession phase after the twentieth century advance, many cirque glaciers deposited annual moraines (Gordon and Timmis, 1992), such as the ones observed in the innermost moraine cluster. Thus, Diamond glacier followed a similar pattern to that observed for small glaciers (0.1–4.0 km2) on South Georgia during the late Holocene, with a Little Ice Age advance, a period of recession, a twentieth century advance and a recent recession (Gordon and Timmis, 1992).”
Blundell et al., 2018
“Energy carried by warm tropical water, transported via the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), plays a vital role in regulating the climate of regions bordering the North Atlantic Ocean. Previous phases of elevated freshwater input to areas of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production in the early to mid-Holocene have been linked with slow-downs in the AMOC and changes in regional climate.”
Badino et al., 2018“Between ca. 8.4-4 ka cal BP [8,400 to 4,000 years before present], our site [Italian Alps] experienced a mean TJuly of ca. 12.4 °C, i.e. 3.1 °C warmer than today [9.3 °C]. … Between 7400 and 3600 yrs cal BP, an higher-than-today forest line position persisted under favorable growing conditions (i.e. TJuly at ca. 12 °C).”
Levy et al., 2018
“The three historical moraine crests indicate that there were at least three ice-margin stillstands or advances during historical time. Summer temperature records from North lake (Axford et al. 2013) and Lake N3 (Thomas et al. 2016) broadly register cooling in the past 200 years in western Greenland, which likely influenced the advance to the historical moraines.”
Song et al., 2018
“[A] general warm to cold climate trend from the mid-Holocene to the present, which can be divided into two different stages: a warmer stage between 6842 and 1297 cal yr BP and a colder stage from 1297 cal yr BP to the present.”
Perner et al., 2018
“[W]e find evidence of distinct late Holocene millennial-scale phases of enhanced El Niño/La Niña development, which appear synchronous with northern hemispheric climatic variability. … Phases of dominant El Niño-like states occur parallel to North Atlantic cold phases: the ‘2800 years BP cooling event’, the ‘Dark Ages’ and the ‘Little Ice Age’, whereas the ‘Roman Warm Period’ and the ‘Medieval Climate Anomaly’parallel periods of a predominant La Niña-like state.”
Magyari et al., 2018
“…its climatic tolerance limits were used to infer July mean temperatures exceeding modern values by 2.8°C at this time [8200-6700 cal yr BP] (Magyari et al., 2012).”
Papadomanolaki et al., 2018 (Baltic Sea)
“A large fraction of the Baltic Proper became hypoxic again between 1.4 and 0.7 ka BP, during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), when mean air temperatures were 0.9–1.4 °C higher than temperatures recorded in the period 1961–1990 (e.g. Mann et al., 2009; Jilbert and Slomp, 2013).”
Leonard et al., 2018 (Great Barrier Reef, Australia)
“Coral derived sea surface temperature (SST-Sr/Ca) reconstructions demonstrate conditions ∼1 ◦C warmer than present at ∼6200 (recalibrated 14C) and 4700 yr BP, with a suggested increase in salinity range (δ18O) associated with amplified seasonal flood events, suggestive of La Niña (Gagan et al., 1998; Roche et al., 2014).”
Suvorov and Kitov, 2018 (Eastern Sayan, Siberia)
“The authors examined the variability of activity of modern glaciation and variation of natural conditions of the periglacial zone on climate and on dendrochronological data. Results of larch and Siberian stone pine growth data were revealed at the higher border of forest communities. … It is believed that the temperature could be 3.5 °C warmer at the Holocene optimum than at the present time (Vaganov and Shiyatov 2005). … Since 2000, there has been growth of trees instability associated with a decrease in average monthly summer temperatures. … Since the beginning of 2000, decrease in summer temperatures was marked.”
20th/21st Centuries Non-WarmingPartridge et al., 2018
“We present a novel approach to characterize the spatiotemporal evolution of regional cooling across the eastern U.S. (commonly called the U.S. warming hole), by defining a spatially explicit boundary around the region of most persistent cooling. The warming hole emerges after a regime shift in 1958 where annual maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures decreased by 0.46°C and 0.83°C respectively. … [T]he seasonal modes also vary in causation. Winter temperatures in the warming hole are significantly correlated with the Meridional Circulation Index (MCI), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). … We select only stations in the contiguous U.S. that have an 80% complete record from 1901-2015, resulting in 1407 temperature stations.”
Payomrat et al., 2018
“During the third segment (1870–2001), the maximum temperature pattern seemed to be constant compared to the changing rate (+0.004 °C/decade). … The short fourth segment, which occurred from 2002 to 2013, showed a deceasing trend at a rate of -0.12 °C/decade.”
Westergaard-Nielsen et al., 2018
“Here we quantify trends in satellite-derived land surface temperatures and modelled air temperatures, validated against observations, across the entire ice-free Greenland. … Warming trends observed from 1986–2016 across the ice-free Greenland is mainly related to warming in the 1990’s. The most recent and detailed trends based on MODIS (2001–2015) shows contrasting trends across Greenland, and if any general trend it is mostly a cooling. The MODIS dataset provides a unique detailed picture of spatiotemporally distributed changes during the last 15 years. … Figure 3 shows that on an annual basis, less than 36% of the ice-free Greenland has experienced a significant trend and, if any, a cooling is observed during the last 15 years (<0.15 °C change per year).”
Eck, 2018“[A] majority (12/14) of the regions within the SAM [Southern Appalachian Mountains] have experienced a long-term decline in mean winter temperatures since 1910. Even after removing the highly anomalous 2009-2010 winter season, which was more than two standard deviations away from the long-term mean, the cooling of mean winter temperatures is still evident. … Higher winter temperatures dominated the early 20th century in the SAM [Southern Appalachian Mountains] with nine of the ten warmest winter seasons on record in the region having occurred before 1960. The 1931-1932 winter season, the warmest on record, averaged 8.0°C for DJF [December-February], nearly 4.7°C higher than the 1987-2017 normal mean winter temperature of 3.3°C. … Despite the 2016-2017 winter season finishing with the highest mean temperatures (5.7ºC) observed in the SAM [Southern Appalachian Mountains] since 1956-1957, there have been several years of anomalous negative temperature anomalies, with the 2009-2010 (0.3ºC) and 2010-2011 (1.2ºC) winter seasons finishing as two of the coldest on record for all regions.”
Purich et al., 2018
“Observed Southern Ocean changes over recent decades include a surface freshening (Durack and Wijffels 2010; Durack et al. 2012; de Lavergne et al. 2014), surface cooling (Fan et al. 2014; Marshall et al. 2014; Armour et al. 2016; Purich et al. 2016a) and circumpolar increase in Antarctic sea ice (Cavalieri and Parkinson 2008; Comiso and Nishio 2008; Parkinson and Cavalieri 2012). … Our results suggest that recent multi-decadal trends in large-scale surface salinity over the Southern Ocean have played a role in the observed surface cooling seen in this region. … The majority of CMIP5 models do not simulate a surface cooling and increase in sea ice, as seen in observations.”
Clem et al., 2018
“This study finds recent (post-1979) surface cooling of East Antarctica during austral autumn to also be tied to tropical forcing, namely, an increase in La Niña events. … The South Atlantic anticyclone is associated with cold air advection, weakened northerlies, and increased sea ice concentrations across the western East Antarctic coast, which has increased the rate of cooling at Novolazarevskaya and Syowa stations after 1979. This enhanced cooling over western East Antarctica is tied more broadly to a zonally asymmetric temperature trend pattern across East Antarctica during autumn that is consistent with a tropically forced Rossby wave rather than a SAM pattern; the positive SAM pattern is associated with ubiquitous cooling across East Antarctica.”
Kim et al., 2018
“Recent surface cooling in the Yellow and East China Seas and the associated North Pacific climate regime shift … The Yellow and East China Seas (YECS) are widely believed to have experienced robust, basin-scale warming over the last few decades...
German scientists Dr. Sebastian Lüning (geology) and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt (chemistry) say recent sea level rise paper “alarmist” and based on sloppy, “faulty” science.
By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt
(Text translated/edited by P. Gosselin)
In mid February a frightening report made the rounds through the mainstream media, and also the German evening news Tagesschau warned: Sea level is not rising linearly, but rather exponentially and thus we should expect a sea level rise of 65 cm by the end of the century! At linear sea level rise rate at today’s 3 mm/year, 25 cm would be only manageable. So what’s behind the story?
The urgent report is traced back to a study led by Robert S. Nerem of the University of Boulder/Colorado. In it the authors should have filtered out the ENSO sea level fluctuations. An El Nino results in much greater rainfall in the East Pacific, which leads to a temporary rise in global sea level. Vice versa, a La Nina results in much rain falling on land (especially Australia) where it is temporarily stored and so leads to less water in the ocean, and this is clearly detectable globally.
Fig. 6: Plot of the Nino3,4 index since 1980. Currently it is showing a moderate La Nina. Source here.
As it is clear to see in Figure 6, near the beginning of the satellite measurements in 1998 there was a surplus water amount. After 2010 there was a deficit of water and in 2017 too much. The authors of the study, however, did not adequately remove these natural fluctuations, as was later discovered shortly later. As a result the recent El Nino got partially used in the calculation and impacted the trend result, as did the 2011/12 La Nina and the 1997/98 El Nino. This resulted in a growing trend and allowed Nerem et al (2018) to use a quadratic fit, which was then extrapolated out to the year 2100.
Such an approach resembles the error of a beginner, which one calls over-fitting. The data basis of 1993 to 2017 is much too small, and also fraught with error and so does not allow a credible trend going out to 2100.
And because no data were included with the study, it was necessary to invest two or three hours to uncover the shortcoming. Perhaps the peer-reviewers could not be bothered to check it adequately and so allowed the scientific sloppiness to find its way into a journal. From there, the media turned it into headlines.
A total false alarm!
The conclusion is clear: a faulty paper that bordered on alarmism ended up making its way into the German evening news.
Findings on the temperature trend-dampening factors such as the AMO and the PDO don’t even get mentioned in our science media. This is how politics gets done using science selection. We will see over the coming years exactly how things develop. Both major ocean indices are pointing negative and the solar activity is below normal, which are major counter-warming factors.
The sunspot number for February 2018 was 10.6 and thus was some 30% below the meanfor this time into the cycle. At the moment solar activity is close to quiet.
Solar cycle no. 24 (red) compared to the mean of the previous 23 solar cycles (blue) and to the very similar solar cycle no. 5 ( black).
As the following comparison chart shows for 111 months into the cycle, the current cycle is the weakest we’ve seen in close to 200 years, and has been only some 55% as active as the mean cycle so far:
Low solar activity linked to cool global temperatures
As the figure above shows, solar cycle activity progresses in decades-long waves comprising above normal activity and below normal activity.
Low activity periods are associated with cool global temperatures and high activity periods with warmer temperatures. Many scientists believe that the earth is now entering a period of cooler temperatures as the next solar cycles 25 and 26 will be weak should the overall the pattern continue.
There are are hundreds of scientific papers showing a link between climate and solar activity worldwide. A number of papers show that dry and wet periods at different regions are closely related to solar cycle activity as well.
Arctic sea ice surprise – volume rebounds
Just 10 years ago, all the talk was about the Arctic sea ice “death spiral”, with some of scientists hysterically predicting the sea ice would soon disappear altogether in the summertime. Ten years later the scientists are now scratching their heads as sea ice has stabilized and is showing some clear signs of a rebound.
Japanese skeptic climate blogger Kirye at Twitter posted a message showing how March sea ice volume has made a remarkable comeback in terms of volume (which is what really counts) compared to 2018 – despite the very warm Arctic surface temperatures seen this past winter.
Arctic ice cap has grown significantly in volume. Chart source: DMI
Kirye tweets: “The real #Arctic sea ice thickness is much higher than in 2008. We have not even once seen climate alarmists’ predictions come true, and it is unlikely to happen in the future.”
“Volume highest in several years”
Tony Heller (who blogs under the Steve Goddard name) also commented on the ice volume growth at Twitter here: “In fact, Arctic sea ice is growing very rapidly and volume is highest in several years.”
Arctic temperatures plummet
The following chart shows how Arctic surface temperatures above 80°N latitude have plummeted over the past two weeks after a mild winter:
Robust recovery in the Antarctic
Sea ice expansion in the Antarctic also has seen a robust recovery in terms of sea ice area, according the the latest chart by the University of Bremen.
Although global temperatures spiked from 2015 to 2017, the spike was due to the El Nino phenomenon. The following chart depicts the sea surface temperature anomalies from the mean:
Sea surface temperature anomalies from Reynolds (NOAA).
Sea surface temperatures have since fallen back to near normal levels and it remains to be seen if a new higher plateau will be established after the 1998 El Nino event. In summary, most of the globe is not behaving as climate scientists expected.
In the last 10 years, overseers of the NASA GISS global temperature data set have been busy utilizing cool-the-past-and-warm-the-present adjustment techniques to alter the slope of the overall warming trend.
For example, as the climate4you graph illustrates above, there was a +0.45°C difference between the 1910 temperature anomaly and the 2000 temperature anomaly as of May, 2008.
Today (March, 2018), NASA GISS has tendentiously adjusted up the difference between 1910 and 2000 to +0.69°C, a 53% increase.
The +0.5°C Warming Between 1880-1950 Has Been Erased
Changes to past data consistently serve to cool down the past and warm up the present.
As recently as 1987, for example, NASA GISS reported a warming trend of +0.5°C between 1880 and 1950.
If NASA GISS temperature adjustments can maintain pace with the changes made in the last 10 years, perhaps a decade from now the temperature divergence between 1910 and 2000 will reach a monumental +1.0°C.
Or perhaps NASA GISS will discover there was a cooling trend of -0.3°C between 1880 to 1950 at some point in the next ten years.
We’ll just have to wait and see what temperature data changes NASA GISS will uncover for us next.
A documentary dubbed “The Weather Machine” produced in 1975 – long before NASA fiddled with the data – warned of an impending ice age (10:35), and maintained that the globe is cooling. Hat-tip: reader The Indomitable Snowman.
The documentary attempted and succeeded at presenting the latest on climate change at the time.
Changing climate accepted as normal
It is true that back in 1975 climatologists already knew that the climate behaved cyclically, as evidenced by the ice cores and tree ring sets extracted from the American Southwest.
Climate change back then was known to be a normal, natural phenomenon. Moreover, after 3 decades of temperature decline, scientists indeed were concerned that the globe was cooling at a worrisome rate.
Part 1: Weather Machine. Exiled Czech climate scientist Dr. George Kukla said in the 1970s: “The ice age is now due any time.”
Also, contrary to what was suggested by Michael Mann”s notorious hockey stick chart, the little Ice Age did in fact exist and was clearly evidenced by old historical records from ships, The Weather Machine documentary tells us.
And note that the documentary stated that the Jet Stream also changed its course naturally, just as it does today, and that there was much more to it than just Arctic sea ice extent, on which today some scientists are trying to blame for the frigid winter we are now witnessing.
In Part 2, viewers are told how the ocean cycles have a major impact on the weather cycles, something today that is ridiculously being blamed on trace gas CO2 from human activity.
Later into Part 2 Dr. Reid Bryson of the University of Wisconsin claims that man’s activity may be contributing to the cooling through the “Human Volcano” spewing aerosols into the atmosphere that “blots out” the sun.
What follows is one example why caution is absolutely essential when dealing with results and findings issued by (activist) government agencies.
Once popular diesel engines now public enemy no. 1
Nowhere in the world have the diesel engines enjoyed so much popularity as in Germany. Diesel engines had long been considered in Germany as being more environmentally friendly then the Otto type engines due to their much higher fuel mileage. Taxes on diesel fuel were and are today much lower.
But Germany has withdrawn its welcome mat for diesel engine. Like CO2, the government and environmental groups recently began waging full-scale war on diesel engines. The official reason for the crack down on diesel is the alleged high levels of dangerous emissions of nitrous oxides, and is what many suspect is mostly part of what is the overall war on the internal combustion engine and thus the effort to get people to switch to “clean” electric cars.
Ministry of Environment’s, media’s absurd claims
To underscore the risks of diesel fumes and to spread fear of diesel engines, Germany’s Ministry of Environment (UBA) recently released “new findings” claiming diesel engines are responsible for 6000 premature deaths every year. Unsurprisingly: the German press and activist groups went bananas uncritically reporting the findings in the most spectacular ways they could imagine.
Also diseases such as diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, stroke and asthma are connected to irritant gas concentration. Eight percent of the diabetes mellitus illnesses in Germany in 2014 can be linked to nitrous oxide in the air outside: ‘That corresponds to some 437,000 cases,‘ said Myriam Tobollik, health researcher at the Ministry of Environment.”
“A political number” that “sounds like science”
Fortunately the hysteria and gross exaggerations did not escape the attention of the German press consumers, who have recently seen the value of their diesel engine vehicles plummet, and the few, still responsible journalists out there. It turns out the UBA report was based on exceptionally terrible science and the claims bordering on the absurd.
Every year 6000 premature deaths from nitrous oxide – that’s how the Environment Ministry panicked the German citizenry. What sounds like science in truth is a political number from a completely politicized government administration.”
In the Spiegel article Fleischauer asks why aren’t other devices not targets: “A gas cooking stove during reaches peak values of 4000 micrograms per cubic meter. Where’s the campaign against the gas stove?”
It is a fact that many workplaces see routinely far higher nitrous oxide concentrations than what is measured near streets.
Measurement station folly (again), fake crisis
Fleischhauer also reminds readers that the EU directives specify that limit values for exhaust concentrations be measured at a distance of 25 meters from a busy intersection. After having looked through the UBA report, the Spiegel journalist adds:
Now I read the the measurement instruments in Germany are placed directly next to the roadway. I have not verified that. But if it’s true, then it should not be a surprise we find ourselves in a state of a diesel alarm.”
Diesel study “botched”
That the 6000 deaths a year figure was a fraud came to the attention of German mass daily Bild from its own readers. Bild was compelled on March 11 to publish the following headline:
Bild daily headline: “Reader anger over the botched diesel study”
The European Institute for Environment and Climate (EIKE) here commented that the German Environment Ministry “irrevocably ruined the reputation of the 1500-employee large agency behemoth”.
“Politicians lying, playing games”
One Bild reader, Wolfgang Bügener of Oberhausen, wrote: “It is peculiar how our politicians are playing games with and lying to us.”
Another added: “The real scam not only happened in Wolfsburg [VW headquarters] but also at the environmental organizations and Ministries, who throw around false and unproven claims.”
By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt
(German text translated by P Gosselin)
Almost one year ago the Potsdam PIK Institute put out a press release, which warned of stalling Jet Stream waves. Due to man-made climate warming weather extremes would remain stuck in a position longer. Among the messengers of the alarm were Stefan Rahmstorf and hockey stich fabricator Michael E. Mann.
Next on February 20, 2018 the horror scenario suffered a setback at the University of Missouri. Using model simulations it was determined that the Jet Stream would also meander in the future as well. Climate alarm shut off once more. This is not the first time that Rahmstorf’s extreme claims have been dispelled in short order by his colleagues. See here, here, here, here, and here.
Weather should remain predictable despite climate change
Simulations of jet stream behavior in a warming climate suggest ranges of forecasts in the mid-century will be similar to those in present day.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, temperatures are expected to rise between 2.5 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century. This warming is expected to contribute to rising sea levels and the melting of glaciers and permafrost, as well as other climate-related effects. Now, research from the University of Missouri suggests that even as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere drive the climate toward warmer temperatures, the weather will remain predictable.
Lupo and Andrew Jensen, who earned his doctorate at MU, used an existing climate model to simulate jet stream flow in the Northern Hemisphere. The simulation monitored a variable that responds to jet stream flow changes and can indicate global-scale weather instability. Researchers used this variable to determine when the jet stream altered its flow. Since meteorologists can only accurately predict weather within the 10 to 12 days between jet stream flow changes, a shift in this time frame would directly impact weather predictability.
Over the course of a simulated 31 years, their observations indicated the jet stream would change its character about 30 to 35 times per year, a number that is consistent with current jet stream patterns. As the time frame used to predict weather did not change, the researchers concluded that weather would likely remain as predictable in a warmer world as it is today. The results do not address the effects of climate change on the nature or frequency of weather events but instead focus on the range of predictability afforded by the jet stream. In addition, the researchers did not extend the simulation past the mid-century to ensure their data was as accurate as possible. “Climate change will continue to create a lot of ripple effects, but this experiment provides evidence that the range of forecasting will remain the same,” Lupo said.
Scientists (Krekel and Zerrahn, 2017 ) report that the installation of wind turbines near human populations “exerts significant negative external effects on residential well-being” and a “significant negative and sizable effect on life satisfaction” due to “unpleasant noise emissions” and “negative impacts on landscape aesthetics”.
“We show that the construction of wind turbines close to households exerts significant negative external effects on residential well-being … In fact, beyond unpleasant noise emissions (Bakker et al., 2012; McCunney et al., 2014) and impacts on wildlife (Pearce-Higgins et al., 2012; Schuster et al., 2015), most importantly, wind turbines have been found to have negative impacts on landscape aesthetics (Devine-Wright, 2005; Jobert et al., 2007; Wolsink, 2007). … We show that the construction of a wind turbine within a radius of 4,000 metres has a significant negative and sizeable effect on life satisfaction. For larger radii, no negative externalities can be detected.”
If human well-being and life satisfaction is seriously compromised by the nearby presence of a wind turbine, imagine the physiological effects on birds, bats, and land-dwelling mammals in general.
Six new papers expose the systematic destruction of natural wildlife habitats via the installation of wind turbines.
1. A 20-Fold Loss Of Bat Habitat At Wind Turbine Sites … A ‘Worldwide Phenomenon’
“Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use … Island bats represent 60% of bat species worldwide and the highest proportion of terrestrial mammals on isolated islands, including numerous endemic and threatened species (Fleming and Racey, 2009). … We present one of the first studies to quantify the indirect impact of wind farms on insectivorous bats in tropical hotspots of biodiversity. Bat activity [New Caledonia, Pacific Islands, which hosts nine species of bat] was compared between wind farm sites and control sites, via ultrasound recordings at stationary points [A bat pass is defined as a single or several echolocation calls during a five second interval.] The activity of bent winged bats (Miniopterus sp.) and wattled bats (Chalinolobus sp.) were both significantly lower at wind turbine sites. The result of the study demonstrates a large effect on bat habitat use at wind turbines sites compared to control sites. Bat activity was 20 times higher at control sites compared to wind turbine sites, which suggests that habitat loss is an important impact to consider in wind farm planning. … Here, we provide evidence showing that two genera of insectivorous bat species are alsothreatened by wind farms. … To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies quantifying the indirect negative impact of wind turbines on bat activity in the tropics. … The lower attractiveness of the foraging habitat under wind turbines, both in a tropical and in a temperate climate, indicates that the indirect impact of wind turbine is a worldwide phenomenon.”
2. A ‘Distinct Physiological Response’ (Stress) Caused by Wind Turbines’ ‘Disturbance Factors’
“Living in habitats affected by wind turbines may result in an increase in corticosterone levels in ground dwelling animals … Environmental changes and disturbance factors caused by wind turbines may act as potential stressors for natural populations of both flying and ground dwelling animal species. The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones. … The common vole showed a distinct physiological response − the individuals living near the wind turbines had a higher level of corticosterone [physiological stress affecting regulation of energy, immune reactions]. … This is the first study suggesting impact of wind farms on physiological stress reactions in wild rodent populations. Such knowledge may be helpful in making environmental decisions when planning the development of wind energy and may contribute to optimization of conservation actions for wildlife.”
3. Wind Farms’ ‘Known Impacts’: Mortality Increase, Habitat Destruction, Enhanced Human Interference, Reduced Breeding Opportunities
“According to a review by Lovich and Ennen (2013), the construction and operation of wind farms have both potential and known impacts on terrestrial vertebrates, such as: (i) increase in direct mortality due to traffic collisions; (ii) destruction and modification of the habitat, including road development, habitat fragmentation and barriers to gene flow; (iii) noise effects, visual impacts, vibration and shadow flicker effects from turbines; (iv) electromagnetic field generation; (v) macro and microclimate change; (vi) predator attraction; and (vii) increase in fire risks. … Helldin et al. (2012) also highlighted that the development of road networks associated with wind farms could promote increased access for traffic related to recreation, forestry, agriculture and hunting. The consequence, particularly on remote places, is the increase in human presence, affecting large mammals via significant disturbance, habitat loss and habitat fragmentation. These negative effects are expected to be particularly relevant for species that are more sensitive to human presence and activities, such as large carnivores. Large carnivores, such as the wolf, bear, lynx or wolverine, tend to avoid areas that are regularly used by humans and—especially for breeding—show a preference for rugged and undisturbed areas (Theuerkauf et al. 2003; George and Crooks 2006; May et al. 2006; Elfstrom et al. 2008; Sazatornil et al. 2016), which are often chosen for wind power development (Passoni et al. 2017). … Results have shown that the main impact of wind farms on wolves is the induced reduction on breeding site fidelity and reproductive rates. These effects, particularly when breeding sites shift to more unsuitable areas, may imply decreasing survival and pack viability in the short term.”
4. Installation Of Wind Turbines Have ‘Population-Level Effects’ For Rare, Endangered Species
“The global potential for wind power generation is vast, and the number of installations is increasing rapidly. We review case studies from around the world of the effects on raptors of wind-energy development. Collision mortality, displacement, and habitat loss have the potential to cause population-level effects, especially for species that are rare or endangered.”
5. An ‘Urgent Concern’: ‘Wind Power Has Negative Effects On Proximate Wildlife’ (Collision Fatalities, Habitat Loss)
“While wind energy provides a viable solution for emission reductions, it comes at an environmental cost, particularly for birds. As wind energy grows in popularity, its environmental impacts are becoming more apparent. Recent studies indicate that wind power has negative effects on proximate wildlife. These impacts can be direct—collision fatalities—and indirect—habitat loss (Fargione et al. 2012; Glen et al. 2013). Negative impacts associated with operational wind farms include collision mortalities from towers or transmission lines and barotrauma for bats. Habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as avoidance behavior, are also consequences resulting from wind farm construction and related infrastructure. The potential harm towards protected and migratory bird species are an urgent concern, especially for wind farms located along migratory flyways. In terms of mortality, wind turbines kill an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 birds, annually (Smallwood 2013). The high speed at which the fan wings move and the concentration of turbines create a gauntlet of hazards for birds to fly through. … [T]he height of most wind turbines aligns with the altitude many bird species fly at (Bowden 2015). Birds of prey— raptors—are of particular concern because of their slow reproductive cycles and long lifespans relative to other bird species (Kuvlesky 2007).”
6.Wind Farms Negatively Affect Waterfowl Via Habitat Loss, Disturbance Displacement, Compromised Foraging Opportunities
“Results from our surface water extractions and aerial surveys suggest that the wind farm has negatively affected redheads through altered hydrology and disturbance displacement. Our surface water extraction analysis provides compelling evidence that the local hydrology has been greatly affected by the construction of the wind farm. … Our results suggest the occurrence of direct habitat loss and disturbance displacement of redheads from the wind farm along the lower Texas coast. Although our study was directed solely toward redheads, it is likely that this wind farm has affected other species that use these wetlands or migrate along the lower Texas coast (Contreras et al. 2017). Studies in Europe investigating the effects on waterfowl by wind turbines have reported similar results, showing that turbines have likely compromised foraging opportunities for waterfowl through disturbance displacement (Larsen and Madsen 2000).”
German skeptic and weather expert ‘Schneefan’ here writes how climate activist Mark C. Serreze recently announced this year’s sea ice extent was at the smallest all-time area. But since then Arctic temperatures have plummeted and sea ice area has grown to over 14 million square kilometers:
On March 103 2018 sea ice extent in the Arctic reached 14.55 million km² and so the end of Arctic sea ice growth had in fact not been reached.
The plunge in the mean temperature north of 80°N to -25°C can be seen in the plot by the DMI, and so a growth in sea ice was expected.
After an increase to about -10°C in February (due to a weather pattern) the average temperature above 80°N latitude has since fallen to -25°C. Source: DMI.
Naturally the German mainstream media such as ARD television pounced on the news and set off the climate catastrophe alarms, and thus ended up reporting totally falsely again on the real sea ice development in the Arctic: ARD: heat wave in Arctic.
A heat wave at a mean temperature of -10°C?
Below is what the ARD fake “heat wave” really looks like in the Arctic for the entire 2017/18 winter, shown by a plot of the NOAA reanalysis using measured and computed mean temperatures:
The NOAA reanalysis shows the mean 2m-temperatures for the northern hemisphere in the winter of 2017/18. Source: NOAA reanalysis
Perhaps the editors at ARD should have been more careful in checking where this faulty Arctic information came from before coming out with such climate-alarmist fake news.
A check in the Internet shows that the ARD report quoted Mark C. Serreze, a known climate activist, IPCC author and the person who coined the term Arctic sea ice “death spiral”.
He worked earlier together with the now embarrassed Peter Wadhams, who over the past years falsely forecast the disappearance of Arctic sea ice on multiple occasions. What unfortunately has escaped the media, such as ARD, is the fact that the Arctic ice cap at the start of March 2018 is much thicker than it was 10 years ago, see the alternating charts that follow:
Impressive growth: sea ice volume (smaller chart, black curve) is greater in March 2018 than the two previous years and is near the average level (gray area) of the past years.
As everyone is aware, the multiple-year ice melts more slowly than the thinner one-year ice – and so we sill see how many Wadhams (1 Wadham = 1 million km²) will be left in September 2018.
This leads us to conclude that there is nothing left of the absurd, Al Gore envisioned, ice-free Arctic fantasies which were suppose to come true already in 2016.
Public opinion of wind energy in Germany, once unanimously high, has eroded considerably over the past years as more people begin to realize that the country’s once idyllic countryside is turning into a blighted industrial landscape.
The earlier visions of environmental purity are instead turning out to be illusions by con-artists. The reality is an environmental hell.
Wind energy is destroying the country more than any other industry.”
Blighted landscape…everything “blinking and rotating”
And the irony could not be more glaring. German environmentalists used to be devoted to all things that protected forests and rural countryside against the ravages of industrialization. But now, Büscher writes, “It’s the same activists who are blandishing the blighting of the landscape.”
Büscher describes the views of wind parks in Bavaria as “massively appalling”. While German industry once only ruined local areas of the country, such as the Ruhr industrial region, Büscher adds:
The wind industry is not satisfied with that. It wishes to subject the entire country to its moral galvanized industry. Whether it’s Magdeburg or Warburg Saxony Anhalt regions, whether it’s Holstein or the lower Harz region – everything is rotating and blinking, the further north you go, the worse it is.”
Büscher forgot to mention “whooshing” and “shredding”.
Germany’s march into environmental insanity
Yet, in the eyes of the wind industry, Büscher laments, “The wind industrialization of Germany is not only without alternative, it is an aesthetic benefit. The industry truly believes the entire country needs to by planted with turbines from border to border.”
As incredible as it may be that a country managed to get its citizens to march into the murderous folly of Nazism some 85 years ago, a similar phenomenon is happening today on the environmental front: there’s now the mad march into environmental murder. The collective German conscience still truly believes it’s all going to rescue the planet from a climate calamity which a group of (false) prophets foresee arriving in the year 2100. Environmental purity awaits!
Back on the eerie path of self-destruction
Of course wind industrialization cannot be compared to Nazism on the scales of murder and destruction, but the path and development stages of the two insanities are the eerily similar. Both proceeded as follows: 1) visions and promises of purification, 2) the mad, blind rush into the project 3) critics silenced, 4) signs of mounting failure ignored, 5) denial, retreat to the bunkers and 6) in evitable self-destruction. In both cases it’s all brought on by intoxicated leaders, one-sided media apparatus, crony industries, dogmatist institutions and scrupelous banks.
Once madness goes collective, it becomes very difficult to stop.
When Germany gets an obsession in its head, the only thing that is left to stop it is the act of letting it play out and until it destroys itself. We may soon be witnessing the Rise and Fall of The Environmental Reich. Currently we find ourselves somewhere between phases 4 and 5.
Fortunately there are shimmers of hope that leading politicians are beginning to understand, as the newly formed Merkel-led government seems to be in no hurry to keep promoting big wind at any cost.
Former federal minister: “high price to pay”
Not only is the environmental price mentioned by Büscher excruciatingly high, but so is the financial price of the Energiewende, this according to former German Transportation Minister, Peter Ramsauer, now Chairman of the Committee for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Ramsauer warned against the hasty shutdown of half of the country’s nuclear power plants in the wake of the Fukushima disaster back in 2011, “but no one wanted to listen”.
The PNP writes that it was “a fundamental mistake to believe that it would be possible to adequately replace the nuclear power”. Ramsauer told the PNP:
Germany is paying a high price for it and offers an object lesson to other countries.”
The PNP summarizes: “There’s no going back. The deadline for shutting down the remaining nuclear reactors is 2022. Ramsauer says that Germany will have to get used to high electricity prices and dependency on Russian gas. The folly will then be complete.”
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