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Not all exercise is created equal (and "I am on my feet all day" does not count an exercise), which is why a construction laborer is at great risk. They are doing heavy labor everyday, fully exposed to the elements, with no time for repair and rejuvenation. Unlike bone crushing physical labor that tears you down, exercise program that build you up are based on the principles of overload, specificity, repetition, rest, and reversibility. 

Overload means that a certain level of stimulus is necessary for adaptation to occur. 

Specificity of training means that a specific stimulus for adaptation results in very specific structural, metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes in targeted elements of your body. Different regimens have varying results on your skeletal, muscular, or cardiovascular systems.

Repetition means just that you have to go through the same motions again and again (but not to the point of damage).

Rest is essential step in the building process and without it, any fitness gains can turn to losses.

Finally, reversibility means that, if you discontinue training, you may lose the benefits you have gained.

Sorry, folks, but once we have come back to that unpleasant truth: use it or lose it, which will expand to "use it right or lose it": Doing any old exercise any old way is likely to do as much harms as good. To get the benefit and to avoid the harm, you have to do it correctly.

Top 7 mistakes done by listening to the RUMOURS


  1. Always stretch before exercise - The bit of truth hidden in this bad idea is that stretching is essential. But the classic (erroneous) idea that became popular in the 1970s is that you have to stretch before your workout to prevent injury. (stretching cold is more likely to cause an injury. The right idea is to slowly work up to a sweat before you stretch. For instance, if you are a runner, start out with a walk, then a slow jog until you warm up. 
  2. Go Hard or Go Home - Allen Iverson has been the toughest athlete in USA and he tried to tough it out anytime, no matter what. The worry then was he had pushed himself too hard, and eventually it caught up with him. His career ended too early. Toughness can look ugly 10 years later - just like North Dallas Forty. You don't want to be so tough that you put yourself on bottles of painkillers or an aluminium walker someday.
  3. Believing on Mirror Muscles - This is for many innocent or misguided male youngsters. Focussing too narrowly on limited objectives can create anatomical imbalances. Millions of guys spend billions of hours doing endless bench presses curls and curls to build up "mirror muscles," the ones they see as they workout in front of those mirrored walls in the weight room. This creates an imbalanced tightness in the front of the shoulders, which is just asking for rotator cuffs problems. Too often unorganised exercise programs are like a movie producer who spends all of his budget on the lead actor but forgets to hire a good supporting cast. Everyone seems concerned about their abdominal muscles, for another example, but not enough people pay attention to the back extensors that work in opposition to those abs. That's how you get the guys with six-pack abs and lower back problems.
  4. Stupid "Harley Effect" - The fixation on mirror muscles, along with being too tough for your own good, combine into what is called "Harley Effect" (At the gym in USA back in 1990s, there guys all have their Harleys parked outside). A lot of such guys with or without Harley, have been pumping iron since they were teenagers. It seems like they spend more of their time in demonstrating their strength, throwing the weights around, rather than building strength through slow, steady, and controlled movement. And they are certainly not looking for the advice. They think, "Coach showed me how to do this back in 8th grade, I now how to do it. I do not need any help." Trouble is, coach may not have known what he was talking about. And we have learned a lot about exercise physiology since 1982. I come across with such people everyday. The pity is that such people has now become trainers in the gym and the most pitty thing people believe in them in India. "Baahubali does not know how to fix the scoliosis." You should never sacrifice proper form for added weight.
  5. Big Dosages - "if a little is good, more is better". Another aspect of "Harley Effect" is that the same Harleys are parked outside the gym almost everyday, with the same guys working the same muscles. Unfortunately, when it comes to muscle growth, more is not better. Muscles always respond to overload, then rest. Too much training can cause muscle breakdown and loss. In general, you should never do the same or similar workout two days in a row. However, walking, stretching,yoga, core workout, and other lower intensity activities can be done safely every day. Still you need to approach qualified and knowledgeable trainer before claiming your self from The Arnold's genetics.
  6. Love or Obsession - Just do what you love to do. Those trainers or your friends guide you like this declare them moron. For example, If you all do is run, you are going to have classic, predictable imbalances like patellofemoral syndrome or runner's knee and also IT Band syndrome.  Swimming, biking, yoga - you can pick any activity, and I can tell you what's great about it, but also the risks it poses and the work it leaves undone. That's why there is no perfect single activity.
  7. Women can gain muscles - "Women need to avoid heavier weights to avoid becoming bulky." This is the advice given by husbands, husbands' friends, jealous woman, illiterate trainers and sometimes a corrupt and incapable doctors. Indians are famous in having such mindsets. The average woman, with her very differences hormonal make up than males, almost never has to worry about becoming "The Incredible HULK", no matter how much she lifts until and unless inject those hormones. A woman has 15 mg/dl to 74 mg/dl of Testosterone (muscle building hormone) and on the other hand a man has 200 mg/dl to 1200 mg/dl of testosterone (TE) in their blood. Hence, minimum 200 mg/dl of TE is required in females. But yes, for females doing weight training can make their muscles visible because of fat loss and toning does not confuse with gaining muscles like men.

"It's better to believe in science rather than believing on those who are like those books which has a good and attractive cover page but the content is risky or dangerous."
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In my previous post I have discussed the general definition of metabolism. It is the only tool to keep your muscle qualitative, less body fat and keep you away from any metabolic disorder. Here are 10 best tips to improve your metabolism:

1. Negative Calorie Food -  Negative calorie food is a bit of a misnomer. There is no food in existence that contains negative calories; every food has some caloric content, however minute it may be. However, certain foods, when eaten, require more energy from your body to digest than the calories that they contain. Negative calorie food offers great nutrition, as well as the possibility of helping you lose weight simply by eating.



2. Highly Nutritious Breakfast -  Many study showed that the young people who neglected to eat breakfast or ate a poor breakfast had a 68 per cent higher incidence of metabolic syndrome as adults, compared with those who had eaten more substantial breakfasts in their youth. Include every nutrient in breakfast in high quality like high quality protein (lean meat)/eggs/protein shakes/low fat milk, Carbohydrates full of dark colored vegetables and fruits also include oatmeal with dried cranberries, Omega - 3 and MCTs in fat portion including peanut butter; Anti-oxidants like green tea, strawberries, or cranberries etc. and after 30 min to the breakfast drink at least 500 ml to 700 ml water. Further, Lunch must be half of your breakfast and dinner shall be 1/4th of your breakfast. (calculated in terms of calories)











3. Water - Researchers in Germany report that water consumption increases the rate at which people burn calories. The impact is modest and the findings are preliminary, but the researchers say their study could have important implications for weight-control programs.

Despite the fact that most diets call for drinking at least eight, 8-ounce glasses of water a day, few studies have been done to determine if the practice actually speeds weight loss. In an effort to answer this question, Michael Boschmann, MD, and colleagues from Berlin's Franz-Volhard Clinical Research Center tracked energy expenditures among seven men and seven women who were healthy and not overweight.
After drinking approximately 17 ounces of water, the subjects' metabolic rates -- or the rate at which calories are burned -- increased by 30% for both men and women. The increases occurred within 10 minutes of water consumption and reached a maximum after about 30 to 40 minutes.
The study also showed that the increase in metabolic rate differed in men and women. In men, burning more fat fueled the increase in metabolism, whereas in women, an increased breakdown of carbohydrates caused the increase in metabolism seen. - WebMD.








4. Resistance Training - Doing weight training in the hypertrophy zone can really improve your metabolism as this zone increases both muscle quality and muscle fiber size (in men only; & very little in females due to different TE level). Additionally, after recovery and repairing of muscle fibre from a single hypertrophy zone workout increases the demand of pumping more blood into the muscle to take away lactate from there. When above both mechanism occur with good coordination, the body's metabolic rate improves. 





5. Avoid Overtraining - Overtraining, to put it simply, is exercising faster or more than your body can recover from in a given time. You see, exercising depletes supplies of various chemicals, such as ATP, in your body. Once you deplete chemicals and food stores, it takes time to refill the supplies and prepare your body for exercise again.
photo credit : http://slideplayer.com/slide/7930867/
Over-training can have a lot of negative consequences for your body. Many of those consequences can make it much harder for you to lose weight and some might even cause you to gain it.
  • Make it impossible for the body to heal small muscular tears as fast as they’re created.
  • Elevate the heart rate while resting.
  • Make you more likely to get infections.
  • Make you more prone to injuries.
  • Cause you to become protein deficient.
  • Release excess stress hormones and cause irritability and/or depression and finally weight gain.
  • Some vice-verse effects like weight gain for weight loss seekers and weight loss for weight seekers.
  • Last but not the least, it activates catabolism more than anabolism and creates a dis-balance in metabolic activities and hence, metabolic disorder.


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Most people who want to bulk up believe that the best way to gain muscle mass is to lift weights(true) and eat a very high protein diet(false). Although, you do want to eat adequate protein, your body does not store excess protein as bulging muscle. The pound of steak just does not convert into bigger biceps. You need extra calories and those calories should come primarily from extra carbohydrates rather than extra protein. Carbohydrates fuel your muscles so they can perform intense muscle building exercise. By overloading the muscle not with protein but with weight lifting and resistance exercise, the muscle fiber increase in size.

The trick to gaining weight is to eat larger than normal portions consistently for 3 meals per day and 1 or 2 snacks. to take in the extra calories needed to gain weight, you should eat frequently throughout the day, if that fits your lifestyle. 

Plan to have food on hand for every eating opportunity, or try these tips; eat an extra snack, such as a bedtime peanut butter sandwich with a glass of milk, and eat higher caloric foods.

Here are some bed-time snacks:


One Banana - A sleep inducing snack as it contains tryptophan and also contain sleep promoting potassium plus a good source of carbohydrates.
Oatmeal -  Carbohydrates help rid the blood of amino acids that compete with tryptophan, allowing more of the sedative to enter the brain and helps in combating insomnia. Remember, sound sleep helps in better growth.

Cottage cheese -  It contains casein protein, which releases slowly into the body, warding off hunger. Cottage cheese also offers a steady supply of amino acids through the night, which aid in muscle building and recovery

Low fat milk - It's true a milky drink can help to avoid low blood sugar and stave off hunger-driven tummy rumbles during the night, both of which could interfere with length and quality of sleep.




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Exercise in the current time means lifting weight and building biceps, everything goes for a toss. It is disheartening to see the people walk into the gym and head straight for the weights, hold your horses friends. There is something called aerobic exercises and it is the foundation for your physical fitness. 

Aerobic exercises are tiring, and this is precisely why most tend to avoid it, you are working out and sweating, and your body is pumping blood, your lungs are getting tired, and you cannot handle it anymore. But you push, you push yourself to the edge of it, and this is what aerobic exercise are all about. There is so much of goodness involve in aerobic exercises, running . walking, swimming, cycling; they tone your body and makes you tough. Here are some benefits of aerobic exercises.

Heart health

Your heart health get immensely benefited with aerobic exercises. Your heart pumps more blood and get stronger with each beat,it has larger stroke volume. Professional athletes just by virtue of the aerobic exercises they do have stroke volumes larger that are as twice as the average individuals. Also, your heart muscle get bigger as you do aerobic exercises and they pump more efficiently to allow greater filling time. This is good as it means that more blood fills the chambers of the heart before they pump so as to allow more blood to pump with each beat.

Obesity and Weight control

If you are obese or if you have any extra weight hanging on you then aerobic exercises will take care of this situation. Aerobic exercises are believed to be the single best predictor of weight maintenance. You can very easily lose weight without exercising and just by reducing your calories intake so that you burn more than you lose, and so trying consuming lesser calories along with doing aerobic exercise. The level of exercise that you should do depends on your physical needs and requirement and therefore you should be well aware of how much weight you want to lose.

Helping Diabetes

People have time and again been asked to do aerobic exercise in order to cure or prevent diabetes, like brisk walk or jogging. Studies have shown that by doing aerobic exercises you reduce the risk of diabetes by 58%, which is a very good news. By doing aerobic exercise you improve your insulin resistance, which is the condition in which the body does not use insulin properly. This condition unfortunately can happen to any individual irrespective of the fact whether they have or do not have diabetes. Insulin is basically a hormone in your body which helps the cells to convert glucose into energy.

Increases Stamina

So much of the aerobic exercises lead to build your stamina and endurance, and you can push yourself harder to a greater extent. Regular exercise makes you stronger and tougher, do you often feel so tired at the end of the day, that you do not even have time to give to your family? You need aerobic exercise and in the beginning it will be very difficult, but slowly and steadily you will start having greater stamina and endurance. Over the long term there can be nothing better than aerobic exercise, try it to believe it.

Depression

It is a proven fact that exercise can elevate our mood and there have been a number of studies on the same. It is however not a substitute for a therapy in a case of depression, it is merely a way to make things better and elevates ones spirit. 



"If you have time then do at least one aerobic exercise walk, run, swim or go cycling, the most important thing is to have fun while doing it."
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It would be lovely if people could determine where they most want to lose weight and simply work or diet for those specific areas. Weight loss, unless targeted by a plastic surgeon performing Liposuction(Liposuction is the process of surgically removing fat from one's body using a suction pump), is not that specific. If a person wants to lose weight in the face without such measures, this means simply losing weight until the desired degree of thinness is achieved for the whole body.


When people do lose weight, they may or may not show this in the face at first. There are some exercises that some people advocate for toning facial muscles. Yet as proven by wrinkle accumulation around the face, most already get plenty of tone through normal facial movement. Doing some head lifts upwards and downwards might tone muscles in the neck and improve appearance of the chin area, but most people don’t need to work cheeks, forehead or mouth in order to lose weight there, and it won’t be effective in any case.
There are several supposed “proven” diets that are said to help lose weight in the face and elsewhere. These advocate avoiding certain foods, like giving up all simple carbohydrates. In reality, dieting comes down to the simple step of eating fewer calories than the body expends. This often means that cutting down on calories and getting a little exercise will help promote weight loss at a slow pace. Yet it’s important not to cut down too much, as this can slow the metabolism and make it consume calories at a much slower rate.


Even when people are eating a healthy diet and exercising, there are some who appear to retain weight in the face, and this could be from several causes. Genetics and bone structure mean some people will have fuller and rounder facers than others do. This isn’t so much fat accumulation, but it can make a person’s face appear less thin than it truly is. Certain medications may also cause rounding of the face or even swelling of it. People who take prednisone for various conditions may get swollen round cheeks, and usually taking the medication is too valuable to sacrifice for appearance. Water retention may also make the face look fuller; making sure to reduce salt in the diet and drinking at least eight to ten glasses of water of day may slim the look of the face slightly.
For those who would like to have a slimmer face, it’s important to reflect that a small amount of extra weight in the face can be desirable too. Both women and men pay to have fat injected into the face to puff up lips or reduce wrinkles. This means that people should work to lose weight in healthy amounts. Overdoing it can make people look less youthful, and if the f a3.  ce looks too thin, dieters may want to conclude that they should add a few more calories to their diets instead of continuing to lose weight.
Here are some tips to reduce face fat :

1. Weight Training : Weight training is very good for toning up any part of the body, weight training helps you develop muscle and muscles help you burn calories even when sleeping.

2. Chew Gum : Make sure you chew gum every time, apart from the fact that it prevent hunger, it also help you tone up your face.

3. Reduce salt intake : Try and reduce your salt intake because salt encourage the body to store water, therefore its important to avoid to much of food like pizza, burger chips and other junk food because they are full of sodium which make you thirsty and water which make your body store water. Also control the amount of food seasoning you use while cooking your meal.

4. Reduce alcohol intake : Drinking alcohol is a bad idea generally because alcohol has many calories and also poisons to the body, also, don’t eat while drinking because the body will not digest it and it will store as fat.

5. Don’t drink water before bedtime : If you want to know if this is true, then drink at least two glass of water before going to bed, and I assure you that by the time you wake up, you check will be puffier , apart from the fact that its make you uncomfortable an disturb your sleep, it also make your check puffier.

6. Diet : Reduce the amount of food you normally eat, eat a lot of fresh vegetable, fruits and also take some multivitamins.

7. Drink plenty of water : Besides keeping you hydrated, drinking lots of water regularly will help flush toxins from your body and leave you feeling healthier and happier. Dehydration can cause the face to get bloated, so staying hydrated will keep your face looking trimmer.

8. Reduce your fat intake : Build a diet around healthy options, and try to reduce your consumption of fat as much as possible.

9. Eat breakfast : Starting your day with a healthy breakfast can get your metabolism working harder, which will help you burn more calories throughout the day. Eat whole grains and fruits for good, low-fat energy.

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The best Mediterranean diet plan is one that emphasizes the consumption of healthy foods for the maintenance of overall health. This diet should include calorie reduction in order to facilitate weight loss, but allow for enough calorie intake for good body function. The best Mediterranean diet plan usually focuses on plant food sources, whole grains, and lower amounts of animal proteins. Dessert choices are usually fruit, while monounsaturated fat is the main fat source for those on this type of diet plan.
The diets of those who live in the Mediterranean vary. This is because there are many countries in the area around the Mediterranean Sea. Though the people who live in this area may not eat exactly the same diet, their choices do follow the same basic pattern, including plenty of plant foods, monounsaturated fat as the primary fat choice, and low-to-moderate amounts of meat, fish, and poultry. As no one Mediterranean diet is better than another for all people, many opt to follow a general Mediterranean diet that incorporates these food choices. If weight loss is the goal, an individual may choose to eat smaller meals, consume fewer calories, and exercise daily to meet his weight loss goals.
An effective, healthy Mediterranean diet plan should have a firm basis in plant food sources. An individual on this diet will usually eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and seeds. Legumes and potatoes also make the list of menu items for someone on the Mediterranean diet.

Animal food sources are not a main focus of meals for someone on an optimal Mediterranean diet plan. A person on this diet plan does eat fish and poultry, however, keeping consumption of these protein sources to a low-to-moderate level. Red meats are even less prevalent in this diet. A person following a healthy Mediterranean diet consumes red meats only occasionally. Eggs, another source of animal protein, are typically limited to four or fewer per week.
An individual on the best Mediterranean diet plan usually consumes a moderate amount of dairy products, drinks at least some wine, and avoids saturated fat. The mainstay fat choice of a healthy Mediterranean diet is olive oil, which is considered a heart healthy alternative to the harmful saturated fats most people eat. Olive oil is a monounsaturated fat and helps to lower a person’s cholesterol levels. Other monounsaturated fat sources include canola oil, nuts, and avocados. The consumption of wine is part of the Mediterranean diet plan, though it is typically consumed along with meals and in moderation.
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Human growth hormone (HGH) and testosterone are both anabolic steroids commonly used by bodybuilders to gain muscle mass. They have legitimate medical uses, but they are more commonly known for their use as bodybuilding supplements. Although both are used for the same purpose, they are in fact very different substances.
Testosterone is a hormone produced naturally by both men and women, although men produce much more than women do. The form used by bodybuilders is synthetic and is produced in a lab. Testosterone causes the body to produce more muscle and decrease body fat, which makes it ideal for bodybuilders. It is usually used alongside other anabolic steroids by bodybuilders because they are more effective when used together.
Bodybuilders almost always use testosterone in cycles. This is because testosterone will shut down the body's natural testosterone production; cycling the testosterone will prevent permanent shutdown. A typical testosterone cycle for a bodybuilder consists of about eight weeks of the steroid followed by four weeks of post-cycle therapy. Testosterone is available in patches, creams, pills, and through injections, but bodybuilders almost always inject it. It is most bio-available through injecting, and most compounds need to be injected only one to two times a week.
Human growth hormone is also produced naturally by the human body. It is produced by the pituitary gland to control growth during childhood. Bodybuilders use a synthetic form of this hormone because it promotes lean muscle mass gain and can heal damaged tissues. HGH will cause organs and bones to grow if used in doses that are too high, which deters many people from using it.
Bodybuilders will usually cycle human growth hormone for a period of six to eight weeks, with injections five to seven times a week. During this time, they can expect to gain large amounts of muscle mass and strength while gaining minimal fat. It is common to gain 10 to 20 pounds of muscle while on an HGH cycle.

Both human growth hormone and testosterone are effective muscle builders, but testosterone is more commonly used for a number of reasons. It is generally considered much safer than human growth hormone and has fewer negative side effects. It is also significantly cheaper. Some bodybuilders will use HGH and testosterone at the same time, but that practice can be very dangerous. Both steroids are illegal to possess in the United States without a valid prescription. Taking these steroids without any clinical observation can be fatal.
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There are many views in people's mind and that in many fitness experts' mind... is how to strengthen the lumbar portion of the back. A combination of several preventative measures, such as maintaining good posture and stretching, receiving proper pain relief treatment, and correct strength training exercises can result in a stronger and more stablized back. Here, I've provided you with these solutions to ensure that you're doing the correct activities to avoid any lower back problems. Follow these essential pointers and you'll feel the difference in flexibility and strength while preserving your spine so you can train hard for years


1. DO NOT DEADLIFT IN THE MORNING
A busy work schedule may make evening workouts a non-option, so if you choose to train in the early morning, keep your session light and avoid spine-compressing exercises like the deadlift. A study in the Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation found that subjects who avoided activities during which they had to bend over in the early morning significantly reduced the number of days they complained of back pain (as recorded in their journals). Spend at least 2-3 hours awake and moving around before doing exercises that have you picking things up from the floor.



2. WATCH YOUR TRAINING SETTING SYSTEM
Pairing up exercises and performing them back-to-back (a superset) helps save time in a workout, but not just any two exercises will work together. Lifts that compress the spine shouldn’t be superset because they place too much strain on the spinal disks. For instance, squats and overhead presses both squeeze the vertebrae together. Without time in between them, the back never gets a chance to recover. A better option is to pair a compressive movement with one that unloads the spine. For example, hanging leg raises, lat pulldowns, dips, and chinups all allow gravity to perform traction on the spine.


3. MAKE YOUR HIPS FLEXIBILE
I know stretching is boring but there’s no better way to prevent back pain. The hip flexors are muscles on the front of your hips that raise your legs; sitting at a desk for long periods makes them tighten up and lose range of motion. Since the hip flexors run from the top of the thigh bone back to the bottom of your spine, their tightening pulls on the spine, increasing the arch in your lower back and putting pressure on it. To stretch your hips, get into a lunge position on the floor and tuck your tailbone. Squeeze the glute on your rear leg and push your hips forward until you feel a stretch on the front of your hip on the trailing leg. Hold for at least 30 seconds, switch sides, and repeat for three sets each side.



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MYSTERY REVEALED ABOUT FAT OR FLAB!!


There are several definitions for the term "flab," but most agree that it is soft, fatty, hanging tissue on various parts of the body, particularly noticeable in the mid-body and on the arms. Possibly the main difference between fat and flab is that flab is the visible result of fat. On the other hand, some people view flab as the soft hanging skin that may result after people have lost significant weight. Loose skin is a problem for many people who lose a lot of weight, and there are disagreements on how best to correct this issue.
For the most part, loose, flabby skin contains fat, making it looser and more noticeable. Flab is also possibly an expression of poor muscle tone. When people do not have enough muscle mass, the surrounding tissue may look loose and untoned. Flabbiness can be a combination of the two, where extra body fat combined with poor muscle tone creates a saggy, and in many people’s estimation, unflattering appearance.When diet experts or fitness gurus discuss fat and flab, they typically state that people are less flabby when they have smaller underlying fat cells. In order to get rid of flab, the thing to do is reduce fat levels in the body and increase muscle tissue simultaneously. This strategy may work well, especially if people have only carried weight for a short time, such as during a pregnancy, and particularly when people are under 30.
If flab is due to skin that has been stretched out, particularly for long periods time, the medical community often suggests that even large and healthy amounts of fat loss will still leave residual flab or hanging skin. Some fitness experts believe that even in people with reduced collagen and elastin, this hanging skin can be reduced with additional fat loss and building of lean muscle mass. According to some, fat and flab can still be lost simultaneously. 
There is disagreement as to whether such methods may work, and many people opt for surgical removal of flabby areas, especially after pronounced weight loss. Many people opt for this remedy because the flab may remain despite the patient's best efforts, and may be unsightly and uncomfortable. Presently, there are few studies that account for how much of “flab” or loose skin removed contains actual fat, and if this type of fat reduction improves appearance. 
People have to keep in their mind not to follow, "too much, too soon" formula for their weight loss program as it can change the hormonal behavior and leave you with excess fat layer later. It would be better to start your fat loss program under proper guidance and not to believe in cardiovascular exercise only in losing fat. Resistance training tones up your body more. So focus on performance in every aspect of fitness like CVE, Muscular fitness, flexibility etc. at gym floor calories will automatically burn at optimum level.
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  1. Avoid training when you are tired
  2. Increase your consumption of carbohydrate during periods of heavy training
  3. Increase in training should be matched with increases in resting
  4. Any increase in training load should be preceded by an increase in strengthening
  5. Treat even seemingly minor injuries very carefully to prevent them becoming a big problem
  6. If you experience pain when training STOP your training session immediately
  7. Never train hard if you are stiff from the previous effort
  8. Pay attention to hydration and nutrition
  9. Use appropriate training surfaces
  10. Check training and competition areas are clear of hazards
  11. Check equipment is appropriate and safe to use
  12. Introduce new activities very gradually
  13. Allow lots of time for warming up and cooling off
  14. Check over training and competition courses beforehand
  15. Train on different surfaces, using the right footwear
  16. Shower and change immediately after the cool down
  17. Aim for maximum comfort when traveling
  18. Stay away from infectious areas when training or competing very hard
  19. Be extremely fussy about hygiene in hot weather
  20. Monitor daily for signs of fatigue, if in doubt ease off. 
  21. Have regular sports massage
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