We’re currently having a cold/flu season in Germany which is why I got sick and thought of making a vocabulary list for you all! Everyone please stay healthy, drink tea and wear something warm during this season! :)
I’ll put the gender of the noun in brackets (f / m / n) and pl. for plural.
For words that have a * behind them, I will talk about those at the end of the list :)
Sentences - Sätze
Ich bin erkältet. - I have a cold
Ich habe mich erkältet. - I’ve caught a cold
Ich habe eine Erkältung. - I have a cold
Ich habe die Grippe. - I have the flu
Mein Hals tut weh. - My throat hurts
Ich habe Halsschmerzen. - I have a sore throat
Meine Nase läuft. - I have a runny nose
Meine Nase ist verstopft. - My nose is stuffy
Ich habe Kopfschmerzen. - I have a headache
Ich habe Fieber. - I have a fever
Ich habe Schüttelfrost. - I have chills
Mir geht es nicht gut. - I don’t feel well
Mir ist kalt. - I feel cold
Mir ist warm. - I feel warm
Tee trinken hilft! - Drinking tea helps!
Zieh dich warm an. - Wear something warm.
Nouns - Nomen
Die Erkältung (f) - the cold
Die Grippe (f) - the flu
Der Hals (m) - the throat
Die Halsschmerzen (f. pl.) - soare throat
Die Schmerzen (f)* - the pain
Das Fieber (n) - the fever
Der Schüttelfrost (n) - the chills
Der Tee (m) - the tea
Verbs - Verben
sich erkälten - to catch a cold
Halsschmerzen haben - to have a sore throat
Eine laufende Nase haben - to have a runny nose
Eine verstopfte Nase haben - to have a stuffy nose
sich nicht gut fühlen - to feel unwell
Tee trinken - to drink tea
sich warm anziehen - to wear something warm
Good to know - Gut zu wissen:
*(A/N): In general, words that have -schmerz (Der Schmerz (m) attached to it become masculine and words that have -schmerzen (Die Schmerzen (f. pl.)) attached to it become feminine. For example:
Der Hals (m) - the throat
…Der Halsschmerz (m) - the sore throat
…Die Halsschmerzen (f.pl.) - the sore throat
Der Rücken (m)- the back (of the body)
…Der Rückenschmerz (m) - the back pain, backache
…Die Rückenschmerzen (f.pl.) - the back pain, backache
Das Ohr (n)- the ear
…Der Ohrenschmerz (m) - the earache
…Die Ohrenschmerzen (f.pl) - the earache
and so on…
BUT: The singular masculine form isn’t used in basic conversation though. It’s common to use the feminine plural form: Ich habe Halsschmerzen, Ich habe Ohrenschmerzen, Ich habe Rückenschmerzen, etc.
Hello! I’m honestly not the best person to ask for grammatical explanations, I’m terrible at it due to not studying this at school/uni. I see this all the time but I can’t explain Can anyone help this lovely anon?
Since I just took a speaking exam and I have another next week I thought i would write some advice for language speaking exams. I find the speaking exams the hardest part of learning a language and I got very stressed before my German speaking which affected my performance. Some of the advice will be general whilst other parts might be focused on GCSE level.
1. Before the Exam
- you have to get to the exam at least 15 before, use this time to recite your presentation to yourself and any key phrases you want to remember. The quiet conditions will help.
-if you have a roleplay section, look over the card and come up with what you want to say and make sure you understand what is being asked and what you must do.
-keep calm! This is very important (and also very difficult) but can really help you. Take deep breaths and focus - my teacher allowed us to bring a stress ball or soft toy to help relax us, but ask your teacher beforehand whether that is okay.
- the roleplay can be the easiest part of the exam.
- read the top of the roleplay card very carefully, it will include details of what the roleplay is about and the information could be needed later in the roleplay.
- the words in the questions can often be recycled in your answer!
- you can get all 3 marks by answering the question in short incomplete sentences, you don’t need to use perfect language, for example replying by just saying ‘2 people’ can get you all the marks!
2. Presentation/ Speech
- talk slowly and make the words clear but get into a natural flow.
- if you are allowed a memo card with words on it, make them the start of each sentence or paragraph so they can prompt you.
- the teacher will ask you questions about the topic afterwards so prepare before and come up with some questions they could ask you. Phrases which can be adapted to different questions work well.
4. General conversation
-you will usually cover 2-3 topics (gcse)
- the teacher should announce the topic of conversation before they ask you a question, so listen carefully to what they are saying.
- learn set phrases which can be used in any topic and also sentence started which can play for time while you think of an answer.
-Learn how to say ‘sorry, I don’t understand the question’ and ‘please can you repeat that’. These phrases are very good so you can have the question asked again and you will get marks for asking in the correct language.
- even saying 'I don’t know’ in the language is better than saying nothing at all.
Once the exam is over, however it went, just remember that it’s done and you won’t have to do it again!
It’s only 10-15 minutes of your life and will be over very quickly.
Your teacher is on your side and they want you to do well. They will try to stretch you to get a good grade but talk to them if you are nervous and they will help you.
Well that’s about it. If you have anything to add, feel free. I hope everyone does well in all their language exams !!! 📚💪🏻
die Universität - university das Studium - (academic) studies der Studienplan (auch: das Curriculum) - degree programme (also: curriculum) das Bachelorstudium (auch: das Bakkelaureat) - bachelor’s degree das Masterstudium - master’s degree das Doktorat - degree to become PhD das Aufbaustudium - postgraduate das weiterführende Studium - postgraduate der akademische Grad / der Abschluss / das Diplom - degree der Campus - campus die Mensa - cafeteria der Kurs - course die Vorlesung - lecture die Notizen - notes das Hauptfach - major (subject) das Nebenfach - minor (subject) der Dozent / der Ausbildner - instructor der Professor - professor die Prüfung - exam das Stipendium - scholarship der Nebenjob - side job die Studentenverbindung - fraternity / sorority die Voraussetzung - prerequisite die Aufnahmeprüfung - entrance examination der Notendurchschnitt - GPA (=grade point average) das Semester - semester / term das Auslandssemester - term (or semester) abroad die Prüfungszeit - examination period/time
die Fakultät - faculty die Geisteswissenschaft - arts/humanities die Naturwissenschaft - science angewandte Wissenschaften - applied sciences die theologische Fakultät - theological faculty die Rechtswissenschaften - jurisprudence / law der Studienzweig - branch of study (some branches of study following - feel free to add yours if I missed it!) die Sprachwissenschaft / die Linguistik - linguistics die Mathematik - maths die Physik - physics die Chemie - chemistry die Biologie - biology die Theologie - theology die Geschichte - history das Lehramt - teaching degree die Wirtschaft - economy die Technik - technology / engineering die Ingenieurswissenschaft - engineering die Informatik - computer sciences die Philologie - philology die Philosophie - philosophy die Psychologie - psychology die Archäologie - archeology die Kunstgeschichte - art history die Soziologie - sociology die Ethnologie - ethnology
sich immatrikulieren - to matriculate (also: to enroll) sich exmatrikulieren - to exmatriculate (also: to leave university) im Ausland studieren - to study abroad das Studium abschließen - to complete one’s degree lernen - to study mitschreiben - to take notes eine Prüfung bestehen - to pass an exam eine Prüfung nicht bestehen - to fail an exam
The comparative forms of German adjectives are actually very similar to English.
There are three forms: The Positive: klein - small The Comparative: kleiner - smaller The Superlative: am kleinsten - the smallest
1. Mein Haus ist so groß wie dein Haus. - My house is as big as your house. 2. Mein Haus ist größer als dein Haus. - My house is bigger as your house. 3. Mein Haus ist das größte. - My house is the biggest.
The adjectives are in their basic form and don’t change. We use the comparison words “so … wie” around the adjective (as … as):
Anna läuft so schnell wie Max. - Anna runs as fast as Max.
Or we can use “genauso … wie”:
Mein Haus ist genauso groß wie dein Haus. - My house is as big as your house.
Other expressions that can be used for this kind of comparison:
nicht so … wie (not as … as) ~ Mein Haus ist nicht so groß wie dein Haus. - My house is not as big as your house. fast so … wie (almost as … as) ~ Mein Haus ist fast so groß wie dein Haus. - My house is almost as big as your house. halb so … wie (half as … as) ~ Mein Haus ist halb so groß wie dein Haus. - My house is half as big as your house.
The Comparative describes two things that are NOT the same.
Most adjectives form the comparative with the ending -er:
In English you often have “more” in front of adjectives in the
Comparative form: “more expensive”. In German you never do this!
The Superlative is the highest comparison form. It describes something that is unsurpassed.
There are two ways to form the Superlative:
1. The Superlative is formed with a definite article (der/die/das) before the adjective. The adjective gets the ending -ste:
Ich habe das kleinste Haus - I have the smallest house.
Or: 2. The adjective gets the ending -sten and the preposition -am before it.
dieses Haus ist am kleinsten. - This house is the smallest.
Note how the “am” is used when the noun comes before the adjective, while the “das” is used when the noun comes after the adjective! Basically it has something to do with the word order:
Das ist der schnellste Junge. - This is the fastest boy. Dieser Junge ist am schnellsten. - This boy is the fastest.
When you don’t form sentences, you’ll always use “am”: schnell - schneller - am schnellsten (quick - quicker - the quickest) klug - klüger - am klügsten (smart - smarter - the smartest)
The Superlative of adjectives that end in „d“, „t“ or „s“, „ß“, „x“, „z“ is constructed with „-est“
leicht - leichter - am leichtesten (easy - easier - the easiest)
One-syllable adjectives often change the vowel to one with an umlaut in both the Comparative and Superlative forms (The same adjectives that change the vowel in the Comparative form!):
groß - größer - am größten (big - bigger - the biggest)
There are adjectives, that don’t follow the rules above. Here are some of them:
gut - besser - am besten (good - better - the best) hoch - höher - am höchsten (high - higher - the highest) viel - mehr - am meisten (many - more - the most) bald - eher - am ehesten (soon - sooner - the soonest)
1. Build the Comparative and the Superlative forms of the following adjectives: - klein (small) - neu (new) - schön (beautiful) - voll (full) - süß (sweet) - groß (big) - warm (warm) - gut (good) - schlecht (bad) - hoch (high) - viel (many) - bald (soon)