complex has been associated with infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Infection can be localized or disseminated, affecting skin and soft tissues, the respiratory system, bones and joints, the circulatory system and especially the central nervous system. Ocular infections such as keratitis, scleritis, conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, orbital cellulitis and endophthalmitis due to
spp. are infrequently reported, and usually described after penetrating corneal trauma or ocular contact with plants and soils.
Case presentation. An immunocompetent male presented with a history of penetrating ocular trauma that had evolved to infectious endophthalmitis, which was refractory to different antibiotic treatments. No micro-organisms were isolated from repeated conjunctival smear and corneal scraping cultures between the ocular trauma (August 2014) and the endophthalmitis diagnosis (November 2015). After this period,
sensu stricto was isolated in aqueous humour aspirate. Treatment was adjusted and clinical improvement was obtained after an adequate microbiological procedure, including an optimal sampling and an antimicrobial-susceptibility testing report.
identification to the species level and performance of antimicrobial-susceptibility tests are both essential tools for treatment adjustment and clinical improvement.
Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of knee pain in older adults. OA is primarily caused by deterioration of cartilage in the knee, which decreases the ability of synovial fluid to absorb shock and increases the opportunity for bones of the joint to rub together. Hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc-One) is a compound that can be injected directly into the knee to help combat the pain associated with OA by lubricating and cushioning the joint.
Case presentation. A 92-year-old male reported to his primary care provider with complaints of pain due to OA. An ultrasound-guided injection of Hylan G-F 20 was administered without complication; however, the patient presented to an emergency department approximately 10 h after the injection complaining of stabbing pain and swelling in the same knee. Specimens submitted for culture 12 h post-injection yielded a
spp. that was identified following biochemical testing, MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight) MS analysis and bacterial sequencing. Interestingly, symptoms began to subside following aspiration of synovial fluid, and new cultures of synovial fluid collected 24 h post-Hylan G-F 20 injection were negative for the presence of
. The patient’s knee returned to baseline with diminished pain due to OA approximately 1 week after the initial injection without antibiotic treatment.
Conclusion. We report short-term complications following treatment of OA with a
-contaminated lot of Hylan G-F 20.
Enterococcus faecium is a commensal organism commonly colonizing the human gastrointestinal tract. Although it is generally a non-virulent organism, E. faecium can cause significant morbidity and mortality due to its inherent and acquired resistances to commonly used antimicrobials. Patients who are immunosuppressed are particularly vulnerable.
Case presentation. A 65–75-year-old patient with a history of an orthotopic liver transplant for hepatitis C infection and diabetes was re-admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain and fever. The patient had several recent admissions related to the presentation reported here, which included treatment with a prolonged course of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The patient was found to have a recurrent liver abscess and blood cultures grew vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, non-susceptible to all tested agents: ampicillin, penicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. The patient was started initially on chloramphenicol intravenously while awaiting additional susceptibility testing, which ultimately revealed chloramphenicol non-susceptibility. Tigecycline was started but the patient ultimately decided to pursue hospice care.
Conclusion. Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly being recognized and are associated with poorer outcomes, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a particularly resistant organism and discuss potential therapeutic options.
Vibrio cholerae O1 strains are responsible for pandemics of cholera and major epidemics in the world. All the remaining V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains are less virulent and are responsible for sporadic cases of gastroenteritis. These non-O1/non-O139 serogroups have more than 200 somatic antigens, and mostly lack cholera toxin and toxin co-regulated pilus encoding genes. Toxigenic and non-toxigenic non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae have caused several diarrhoeal outbreaks in India and other countries. Acute gastroenteritis is the typical clinical sign and symptom of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae infection for both periodical and outbreak cases; in contrast, these V. cholerae are rarely associated with extraintestinal infections.
Case presentation. Here, we present a case of a 27-year-old female with underlying kidney disease (lupus nephritis) presenting with loose stools, vomiting and fever. V. cholerae O6 was isolated from a faecal sample, which was positive for hlyA and the type III secretion system. The present case is, to the best of our knowledge, the first such case to be reported from South India.
Conclusion. The V. cholerae O6 associated with autoimmune disease in the present study demonstrates the role of this pathogen in acute gastroenteritis, and if it is left undiagnosed it can lead to septicaemia and other complications. The pathogenic mechanisms of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae are multivariate, virulence factors being naturally present in these strains. Therefore, further epidemiological studies are necessary to determine the virulence factors and their pathogenic mechanisms. Non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae can undoubtedly be the cause of diarrhoea and it would be important to extend bacteriological identification in this line as well as in all cases of gastroenteritis of unknown aetiology.
Introduction. We describe a case of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) and disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) with development of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 62-year-old man of Bangladeshi origin living in the UK.
Case presentation. The patient had a background of ulcerative colitis for which he took prednisolone and azathioprine. He presented with fever, lethargy, cough, weight loss and skin redness, and was initially treated for bacterial cellulitis and investigated for underlying malignancy. He developed multiple progressive erythematous skin lesions, sepsis and colitis requiring management on intensive care. A skin biopsy showed yeasts in the dermis and sub-cutaneous fat, which were confirmed as Histoplasma capsulatum by PCR. Disseminated CMV with evidence of end organ gastrointestinal disease was also diagnosed. Despite anti-viral and anti-fungal treatment, the patient deteriorated with evidence of bone marrow suppression and a diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was made.
Conclusion. PDH is classically seen in patients with significant immunosuppression, e.g. those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or on anti-TNF therapy; however, we present a case of reactivation of Histoplasma in a non-HIV patient. We consider the importance of contemplating reactivation of endemic mycoses and CMV in critically unwell and deteriorating patients.
Introduction. Cryptococcosis in immunocompetent adults is a rare disease in Europe, mostly induced by members of the Cryptococcus gattii species complex. The diagnosis can be challenging due to its rarity, unspecific symptoms and long symptomless latency.
Case presentation. A 49-year-old woman with a three weeks history of headache was admitted to the hospital due to discrete ataxia and impaired vision. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a contrast-enhancing mass in the cerebellum. Further investigations detected a slight leukocytosis and a single subpleural nodule in the right inferior lung lobe. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed, and a direct frozen section only showed an unspecific inflammation. In the course of her admission she developed non-treatable cerebral edema and died ten days after surgical intervention. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen and postmortem evaluation of the lung and the cerebrum demonstrated fungal elements. Molecular identification of the fungal elements in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue lead to the diagnosis of cryptococcosis induced by C. gattii sensu lato. Molecular genetic analysis identified the involved cryptococcal species as genotype AFLP6/VGII, recently described as Cryptococcus deuterogattii, which is known to be endemic to the west-coast of Canada and the USA. Additional heteroanamnestic information revealed that she had spent her holidays on Vancouver Island, Canada, two years before disease onset, indicating that infection during this stay seems to be plausible.
Conclusion. Cryptococcosis due to C. deuterogattii is a rarely encountered fungal disease in Europe, not particularly associated with immunodeficiency, and infection is likely to be contracted in endemic areas. Due to its rarity, long symptomless latency, unspecific symptoms and misleading radiological features the diagnosis can be challenging. Physicians need to be aware of this differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients, as early adequate therapy can be lifesaving.
Introduction. LPS-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) protein deficiency is a disease of immune dysregulation with autoimmunity affecting various systems.
Case Presentation. Two male siblings with a novel LRBA mutation had different primary findings at admission: the younger sibling had chronic early-onset diarrhoea and the elder one had autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. During long-term follow-up for IPEX phenotype, both developed hypogammaglobulinaemia, enteropathy and lung involvement. The patients partially responded to immunosuppressive therapies. A homozygous c.2496C>A, p.Cys832Ter (p.C832*) mutation in the LRBA gene causing a premature stop codon was detected. After molecular diagnosis, abatacept, as a target-specific molecule, was used with promising results.
Conclusion. LRBA deficiency is a recently defined defect, with variable presentations in different patients; a single, definitive treatment option is thus not yet available.
Introduction. Schistosomiasis, a travel-related trematode infection, can cause a range of symptoms with potentially life-threatening complications. In this report, we describe an outbreak of schistosomiasis in a Scottish school group that had travelled to Uganda. We discuss the requirement for robust and accurate pre-travel advice, and the importance of raising awareness in travellers, particularly due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. In addition, we highlight the need to submit a serum sample for laboratory testing on return from endemic regions where freshwater exposure has occurred.
Case presentation. A Scottish school group consisting of 19 individuals visited Uganda during July 2016 with one positive symptomatic case identified on return to the UK. As three of the individuals were not Scottish residents, their data were excluded from this report. Freshwater exposure was noted from taking part in activities which included swimming in the Nile. The Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory performed serology testing using sera from 16 Scottish residents to detect IgG towards Schistosoma egg antigens. Thirteen were positive despite only one case being symptomatic.
Conclusion. The high positivity rate raised several issues. These included the lack of a robust risk assessment by the travel company organizing the trip, the lack of awareness of schistosomiasis by some individuals, the lack of appropriate and accurate pre-travel advice, and the asymptomatic nature of the infection. This report provides supportive evidence to strengthen the need for improvements to prevent largely asymptomatic cases being missed in future.
Introduction. Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease with global prevalence. Under some cases of immune suppression (especially with corticosteroid administration), the nematode involved disseminates, leading to an amplified, possibly lethal hyper-infection syndrome.
Case presentation. A 56-year-old Nepalese man presenting with chief complaints of nausea, vomiting, joint pain and abdominal cramps was admitted to Sumeru Hospital. His past history revealed: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), systemic hypertension and previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had been treated with oral prednisolone (60 mg gl−1) for 8 days due to a presumed exacerbation of his COPD. Sequentially, he developed haemoptysis, chest tightness, frequent wheezing and worsening cough. Bronchoscopy showed severe diffuse alveolar haemorrhage; microbiological examination of broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was recommended. Examination of an acid fast bacilli stain preparation of BAL revealed filariform larvae of Strongyloides. Stool specimen examination revealed larvae of Strongyloides. The physical condition of the patient began to deteriorate; a few days after admission, vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium was isolated from a blood sample. He was treated with ivermectin and albendazole for strongyloides and linezolid plus vancomycin for E. faecium. However, the patient failed to recover from the illness and died.
Conclusion. The findings of our study suggest that corticosteroid administration in strongyloidiasis can lead to the development of fatal strongyloides hyper-infection syndrome. Hence our experience suggests the need for early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to avoid such an outcome. A deterioration of the patient's condition after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy in endemic areas should raise the possibility of strongyloidiasis.
Ehrlichia are obligate intracellular pathogens transmitted to vertebrates by ticks.
Case presentation. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented to the University of Kentucky Albert B. Chandler Medical Center (Lexington, KY, USA) after being found fallen down in the woods. A lumbar puncture revealed what appeared to be bacterial meningitis, yet cerebrospinal fluid cultures, Gram stains and a meningitis/encephalitis panel were inconclusive. However, an Ehrlichia DNA PCR of the blood resulted as being positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies. The patient received a 14 day course of doxycycline, and recovered from his multiple organ failure. The aetiology of the ehrlichial meningoencephalitis was likely transmission through a tick-bite, due to the patient’s outdoor exposure.
Conclusion. While it is rare to see Ehrlichia as a cause of meningitis, this illness can progress to severe multisystem disease with septic shock, meningoencephalitis or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Those with compromised immunity are at a higher risk of developing the more severe form of the disease and have higher case fatality rates.