Water is one of the most insidious enemies of paper documents. Damage from water is not limited to catastrophic floods, even high humidity can be ruinous. When I was living in Argentina, all of my leather goods started to grow mold. This problem was even worse when we lived in the Republic of Panama in the jungle. But you don't have to live in a jungle to have a mold problem. Here is an example of a document I found at the Maryland State Archives. Even if you are diligent in storing and protecting your documents, they are not always immune to mold damage.
Because this infestation is along a fold in the document, it probably originated before the document was archived. The black, sort of fuzzy, material is an active infestation. Here is another example.
Mold: Mold is a type of fungus that can and will grow on anything, as long as it can find a food source and the appropriate humidity for its development. It can develop in patches of threads, thick spider-webs or fuzzy spots, and it appears most often on natural, porous surfaces such as cotton, linen, silk, wool, leather, and paper. It reproduces by sending out clouds of spores, hence it's ability to “leap” from book to book. You probably have mold growth on your book if you observe any of the following problems:
the presence of fuzzy growth, in just about any color you can imagine
stringy, white filaments stretching across porous surfaces
evidence of past water damage
strange spots or stains
Not all spots or stains are mold, but almost all of them are. The word "mold" (or "mould" in some countries) is a generic term for microbes found in the taxonomic divisions of Zygomycota and Ascomycota. In the past, most molds were classified within the Deuteromycota. See Wikipedia: Mold. Mold is ubiquitous. I have even had a severe fungal disease known as "Valley Fever" or Coccidioidomycosis.
Since both direct contact with water and high humidity combined with warm temperatures create fertile growing conditions for mold, there are some rather simple things you can do to prevent infestations. Here is a list of suggestions from the Biblio.com website article.
Humidity is the number one condition for the growth of mold and mildew. It is the moisture in still, quiet air that allows mold spores to grow and spread. Think of dank basements, musty attics, or clothes left in the washer too long – these are prime mildew-growing habitats.
Keep your books on a shelf that gets a decent air flow, not in a closet, basement, or against an outside wall of the house.
Maintain good air circulation by using fans. If possible, use an air conditioner during the hot summer months and a heater during the cold winter to maintain a temperature around 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius).
A dehumidifier should help to keep the humidity under 60 percent, but only when necessary. Books that are too dry can be damaged and crack.
While houseplants are a lovely addition to a room, your library might be better off without them; or at least keep them away from the bookshelves.
Dust the tops of your books regularly, as a clean surface is less attractive to spores.
Some book collectors swear by the light use of lavender essential oil directly on the bookshelf as it is an anti-fungal, but this will scent the books and may cause discoloration.
It is also suggested to keep a small, electric light burning in your bookcase, but this can also cause discoloration to your books over time.
I do not agree with any solution that involves light. I will address the damage caused by light in a future post. I also do not agree with using any type of oil or any other substance to "prevent" mold. They may work or not, but they will cause additional damage to the paper documents or books.
When handling documents or books that are infested with mold, it may be wise to use a filtered face mask and gloves. But in the cases of small infestations, washing your hands may be sufficient. You can really get into mold. Several years ago, there was a large lawsuit in Texas over a mold infestation that resulted in a very high jury verdict in favor of the Plaintiff. This case set off a national flood of mold cases. Within a year or so, as a trial attorney, I was handing dozens of potential mold claims. However, the insurance companies began eliminating mold coverage from their policies and the cases simply stopped being filed. There is still a residual amount of litigation, but from our perspective as genealogists, we are more concerned with preservation and remediation than litigation.
I am listing several articles on mold remediation that will help to understand this issue. However, be careful to filter out the scare tactics used by some remediation companies that will want to charge you to decontaminate your home and duct system. In some cases, where there are people with respiratory conditions, such as asthma, air purification and other extreme measures may be warranted. Here is a statement from the Harvard Library about the human health risks.
Human Health Risks Some molds that grow on library collections pose a health hazard to people. Mold spores are introduced to the human body by inhalation and through small breaks in the skin. Although serious consequences are rare, active mold can cause respiratory problems, skin and eye irritation, and infections. Such reactions may result from short-term exposure to high concentrations of mold or long-term exposure to low concentrations. Mold poses the same potential health hazard whether active or dormant. The degree of risk from exposure to mold is determined by a person's general health and pre-existing sensitivity to mold, as well as the concentration of the mold bloom. Staff members with compromised immune systems or known sensitivity to mold (e.g., allergy to penicillin) should not have contact with active mold.
It seems obvious that since genealogists are primarily researchers, they would use online resources for their research. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. Many genealogists find themselves on the disadvantaged side of the digital divide. From the genealogical perspective, this division is caused by demographics: people who, for a variety of reasons but primarily age, motivation, and access, have not taken advantage of modern technology. This lack of technological ability can be as simple as discomfort with all things electronic to a rejection of everything having to do with technology from smartphones to the internet. I have friends who are interested in genealogy, who can't type, do not have a smartphone, will not look at a computer and do not have an internet connection. I am not writing this series for these people.
If you have adequate computer skills and a desire to do genealogical research, I am writing to you. You may even have attended classes on using technology for genealogical research. But classes on the subject of online research usually focus on websites and resources rather than methodology. This series is not exclusively about Google or any other specific website. It is about learning how to use online resources in a way that materially assists you in finding your ancestors and other relatives.
Of course, Google Search and all the other Google programs are an important and vital part of the online research process. But research online involves more than familiarity with a few websites, it involves a major adjustment in the way genealogical research is conducted. Some classes that focus on using Google Search and other online programs for genealogical research go into great detail about complex and often arcane ways to optimize searching using formulas and boolean algebraic functions and other specialized programs but neglect the important factors that make searching online productive. The Internet is more than just using Google and genealogy programs and genealogists need to adapt to the methodology that produces successful online research.
This is not a new topic for me. I have written a number of blog posts and have several widely watched videos about using Google and other online resources for genealogy. However, technology changes constantly. The tools and programs I have today and vastly different than those I had ten or so years ago when I started writing this blog online. This series is my attempt to articulate what I have learned over the years and update it with information I have accumulated since my previous posts.
Despite the dangers of repetition, it occurs to me that the topic needs to be given more intensive coverage with very specific examples.This continuing series is going to focus on augmenting the current genealogical methodology in a way that reasonably and exhaustively includes the sophisticated use of online resources, including a large dose of Google, to achieve genealogical research success. We are well into the information age and it is tragic how little of the vast online resources available are used by most genealogists.
I might suggest, right up front, that what I have to write about will challenge some of the well accepted and traditionally comfortable ways genealogy is being taught and practiced by nearly everyone. The whole point of this series will be to move forward into genealogy based on information technology.
Let's get down to basics
To take advantage of the vast amount of online information that is presently available and constantly increasing, we need to readjust our way of viewing genealogical research. Before getting too much further into this topic, I need to acknowledge the constant genealogical response to any reference about online resources that not everything is online and that you have to do "traditional" genealogy sitting in a library or archive to find much of the information that has yet to be digitized. As I have said many times before, that is likely true, but the people who use that as an excuse to ignore online sources cannot articulate what is and what is not online in any meaningful way. I am painfully aware of the amount of information that is still locked up on paper, but I also recognize the vast amount of information that can be accessed online. I suggest that almost all genealogists can add significant amounts of information using online sources and if there are sources that are still only on paper, the existing online resources give you the ability to locate and gain access to those records.
One of the important things I have learned from my time digitizing records at the Maryland State Archives is the vast amount of information that exists about people who lived in the United States. I am also learning home much of that information is being digitized every day, day after day. It will still be many years before all the Maryland probate records are digitized, but this is only one project by one entity, in this case, FamilySearch, digitizing records around the world. Another thing that has impressed me since I have been here is that so many of the people I talk to about genealogy are totally unaware of the freely accessible records on FamilySearch.org. Just two nights ago, I was helping a friend find records for a family from Mexico. We were unsuccessful in finding information about the parents but had been adding information about the children in the family. We did some additional searches on Ancestry.com and found the parents' marriage record with the names of both sets of grandparents. This experience illustrates part of the methodology I will be writing about.
The first basic principle here is to think of genealogical research as a web. The tree analogy is pervasive in genealogy but it is really much more complicated than a tree structure. In fact, the tree structure is both misleading and outdated. For example, my parents are second cousins, more specifically, they have the same ancestor. He is my mother's maternal great-grandfather and also my father's maternal great-grandfather. How do you represent that on a standard tree structured pedigree chart? That same individual, the common ancestor appears in two entirely unrelated places. If I go to the FamilySearch.org Family Tree and click on the link to show my relationship to that common ancestor, Jens Christensen, I will see the following:
This does not tell me that my father is also a descendant of Jens Christensen. In this instance, my parents knew about their relationship. On the other hand, let's suppose that I was researching further back in my family line. How would I know whether or not individual ancestors were marrying relatives? In fact, there is a well-developed genealogical principle called "pedigree collapse" that illustrates the fact the not only is it possible that our ancestors married cousins, it is for all practical purposes inevitable even if it is not always demonstrable. There is a program that illustrates this principle called Relative Finder. That program uses the data in FamilySearch.org Family Tree to search for possible ancestral connections and then shows possible shared relationships. A recent study done by MyHeritage.com's Science Team and reported in an article published in the journal "Science," found the following:
The team found that industrialization profoundly altered family life. Before 1750, most Americans found a spouse within six miles of their birthplace, but for those born in 1950, that distance had stretched to about 60 miles. Before 1850, marrying in the family was common — on average, fourth cousins married each other, compared to seventh cousins today. Curiously, they found that between 1800 and 1850, people traveled farther than ever to find a mate — nearly 12 miles on average — but were more likely to marry a fourth cousin or closer. Their hypothesis is that changing social norms, rather than rising mobility, may have led people to shun close kin as marriage partners. See "MyHeritage Science Team’s Research Featured in the Prestigious Journal Science."
What is the point I am making with these examples? The point is that genealogy has traditionally been a linear pursuit based on extremely limited information. It is now changing into a loosely organized web-like pursuit based on an overwhelmingly large amount of information and there is a direct relationship between the explosion in the availability of information and the breakdown in the traditional viewpoint of genealogical research.
In the past, some genealogists have been involved in what has been called "cluster research." The idea of cluster research is that more information can be obtained from researching the family members, relatives, friends, and surrounding neighbors of our ancestral families and in many cases the research that results is more accurate. But cluster research was extremely difficult and time-consuming. It also seemed pointless to most researchers since they weren't obviously related to the people being researched.
How has that changed? We now have the ability to search vast databases of basic information about our the places where our families lived. We can extract information that gives us the ability to bring our family into sharp focus. This series is about that process.
Since my wife and I are currently serving as volunteer FamilySearch Record Preservation Specialists at the Maryland State Archives, it follows that I am interested in all of the aspects of the operation of the Archives as well as the resources available. The Maryland State Archives has a very detailed and extremely valuable website that provides an in-depth explanation of the records as well as a major introduction to the history of Maryland.
I am only part way through reading all of the articles and explanations on this very detailed website.
As the first screenshot from the National Archives shows, there are Archives in every state of the United States. There comes a time in the life and learning of genealogists when they realize the vast number of records that they have never looked at or attempted to research. This is when the genealogist visits a state archive.
Here in Maryland, for example, as we have been digitizing records, I am just now beginning to see that nearly every person who lived in this state in the 1800s could be found in the records we have seen so far. The number of people in the probate records is staggering. I may have mentioned before that the volunteers here in the Archives will digitize somewhere between 1.5 and 2 million records this year and the project is expected to continue for 6 to 8 more years or so.
Many of the state archives have substantial online, searchable databases. However, entering the world of the archives can be a daunting and complicated process. Many of the archives have access restrictions that include registering and complying with strict use procedures. Here is an example from a video about the Maryland State Archives.
Planning a visit to the Maryland State Archives - YouTube
Some of the state archives are closely associated with a state library and/or a state historical society. Genealogically important records may be located in any one or all of these additional repositories. Perhaps it is time that you began this expanded aspect of your genealogical research efforts.
At RootsTech 2018, MyHeritage announced a program to supply free DNA testing kits to adoptees seeking their birth parents. I wrote about this program in a post entitled, "Free DNA Testing for Adoptees from MyHeritage.com." Now, that fabulous offer has been expanded. Here is the announcement of the expansion from the MyHeritage.com blog post entitled, "DNA Quest Goes Global."
Last month we launched DNA Quest, a new pro bono initiative to help adoptees and their birth families reunite through genetic testing.
The initiative, initially launched in the USA only, received an amazing response. More than 10,000 applications were submitted so far to receive free DNA kits, from the quota of 15,000 free DNA kits pledged by MyHeritage, worth more than one million dollars.
Being that the deadline for submissions is the end of April 2018 and there are still about 3 more weeks to go, and in light of the many requests we received from the community to expand DNA Quest worldwide, we decided to increase the scope of the project, as of today, from USA-only to global. This means that people are now eligible to participate in DNA Quest regardless of their place of residence and regardless of where the adoption took place.
DNA Quest is brought to you by MyHeritage, in collaboration with a top-notch advisory board, which includes top experts in the fields of genetic genealogy and adoption.
Information about the DNA Quest initiative including a detailed FAQ and an application form are available on the project website, https://www.dnaquest.org/.
You can also view this video by Aaron Godfrey from MyHeritage on YouTube.com.
MyHeritage Announces DNA Quest at RootsTech2018 - YouTube
This is pretty much a never-ending series. But I only post to it when I think about Latin, which only happens when I am looking at old documents. But since that is what I am doing right now all day long every day, I am back to Latin.
Here we go with the Latin words and phrases. You might want to remember the rules of this series which are that I am only selecting terms that I have actually heard used at some time in my 39-year career or phrases that have passed into English and no longer sound like Latin.
nudum pactum - literally "naked promise" We spent an entire year in a Contracts course in law school and I can say that I still did not understand contracts until I had been practicing law for a number of years. Technically this term refers to an unenforceable promise due to lack of consideration. The phrase "lack of consideration" is the one that takes a long time to understand. Obviously, having made these statements, I will not try to summarize years of contract law in one or two paragraphs. The key here is the idea that the contract is unenforceable because one of the parties didn't get anything out of the deal. Sort of.
nota bene - literally "consider or note well" Do people really think that using these phrases impresses anyone? Anyway, people (attorneys) use this phrase occasionally when they are concerned that their most important argument will be ignored. But when the judge sees this used, he or she will automatically assume that what the attorney is trying to say is that the argument has no support.
non obstante verdicto - literally "notwithstanding the verdict" This phrase has been shortened to nonobstante (pronounced non-ob-stan-tay) and it has nearly passed into English. It means that the judge is about to overrule the jury's decision or verdict in the case. As a side note, civil juries now make decisions not verdicts and the term verdict is more commonly used only in criminal cases.
non faciat malum, ut inde veniat bonum - literally "not to do evil that good may come" This is another phrase that has been shortened. The short form is "non faciat malum." This phrase is actully used in the context of arguments that some reprehensible act really promotes a good result. The phrase essentially means that the good does not justify the bad act. The argument does work on occasion.
non est factum - literally "It is not [my] deed"
This is used in a defense when a party is claiming that his or her signature to a contract or document is not valid because he or she did not know what they were signing. This argument also works if there are substantiating and supporting facts that would make the execution of the contract subject to some factual dispute.
non compos mentis - literally "not in possession of [one's] mind"
Yes, people do say these things and write them in legal briefs. It is more polite than saying that your client is crazy.
nolo contendere - literally "I do not wish to dispute"
This is another phrase that has been shortened to "nolo" and has long since passed into English as in a "nolo plea." You also hear questions such as "Is your client going to plead nolo?" It means that the person will not dispute the claim or charge against him or her.
nolle prosequi - literally "not to prosecute"
This phrase gets confused with "nolo." But this is the state or government representative informing the court that the case will not proceed to prosecution.
nisi prius - literally "unless first" This is actually the phrase and it is not same as "nisi" variously pronounced as "nicey" or "neesy." It also does not have anything to do with the Toyota car of the same name. But it might be considered a compliment if said to the driver of such a car. This phrase refers to the court that has original jurisdiction in a matter. The word "jurisdiction" here is something many attorneys never understand during their entire careers.
OK, so here is the short version of what this phrase means when used without the "prius" from the Legal Dictionary:
NISI. This word is frequently used in legal proceedings to denote that something has been done, which is to be valid unless something else shall be done within a certain time to defeat it. For example, an order may be made that if on the day appointed to show cause, none be shown, an injunction will be dissolved of course, on motion, and production of an affidavitof service of the order. This is called an order nisi. Ch. Pr. 547. Under the compulsory arbitration law of Pennsylvania, on the filing of the award, judgment nisi is to be entered: which judgment is to be as valid as if it had been rendered on the verdict of a jury, unless an appeal be entered within the time required by the law.
Is that clear? This is why attorneys can charge money for what they do.
nemo plus iuris ad alium transferre potest quam ipse habet - literally "no one can transfer a greater right than he himself has."
Are you going to guess that this phrase also has a short form? Yes, it does. The short form is "ad alium." The phrase is sometimes used to refer to the fact that a purchaser of stolen goods cannot obtain ownership as against the rightful owner. By the way, the phrase has nothing to do with the captain of the Nautilus. This is why some police departments have piles of bikes.
I still have a huge number of these wonderful sayings to look at. See you sometime.
As I mentioned in the previous post in this series, the enemies of paper are water, mold, insects and time. The example above is typical of an old piece of paper that has water, mold and chemical decomposition due to the passage of time. Even under the best of conditions, most of the paper documents of the world will simply disintegrate. I am guessing that few people outside of archivists, librarians, some genealogists, and other historical researchers have ever seen or had to deal with paper as damaged as the image shows above. The blue discolored areas are mold and chemical decomposition.
I have acquired thousands of documents over the years and some have been in even worse condition than the image. I also have a collection of thousands of books and so I have seen paper in all stages of destruction. I remember one inexpensive paperback book that I acquired when I was a teenager. Many years later, I decided to read the book again and found it had decomposed into small tatters of what was formerly paper. On the other hand, I have handled books hundreds of years old and found them in almost perfect condition. This illustrates the fact that the quality of the paper and the conditions in which the paper has been stored can drastically affect the rate of decay.
Here are some observations on the various factors and causes of damage to paper including books, of course.
One of the most common insect enemies to paper and books is the common silverfish or Thermobia domestica. Here is a photo of a silverfish.
By Jscottkelley - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6636519 High-resolution photograph of a Silverfish-related (insect) with ruler (metric) for scale. Found in my house in Dallas, TX, USA. This is a Ctenolepismatinae, very probably Thermobia domestica
Silverfish eat the lignocellulose found in wood and therefore paper. They are almost impossible to eradicate entirely. But they can be controlled by keeping the area where paper or books are stored dust free and dry. Here is a quote from the South Australia Community History website article entitled, "Managing pests in the collection: Integrated Pest Management (IPM)" that talks about what to look for to determine if you have an insect pest problem.
What is at risk from pests?
Organic materials are most at risk from pest infestation – paper, textiles, and objects made of materials such as wood, plant materials and fur. Some pests are attracted to materials made of cellulose – paper, starch adhesives and sizing – and others to protein-based materials, such as wool, feathers and fur. Some pests eat anything.
While not often directly consumed by most pests, inorganic objects (eg stone, metals and ceramics) can be damaged by general dirt and staining caused by pests.
What to look out for
Some signs that you may have a pest problem include:
Holes, surface grazing or bite marks in objects. Borer holes are usually perfectly round, while moth holes are more irregular. Small piles of fresh dust often accompany borer holes.
Droppings. (The polite term for insect poo is “frass”).
Eggs. Insect eggs often look similar to pale poppy seeds.
Some insects leave webbing from their larval stages.
Some insects leave cases and cocoons from their larval stages. These can often be difficult to spot as they may be made from the object itself.
Live insects, dead insects, and cast skins.
Some pests, such as termites, can be heard chewing.
Some pests, such as termites and rodents, can leave distinctive odours.
A few years ago, we had some documents stored on shelves in our garage. They were old business documents and not particularly important. We found that we had a termite infestation and they had chewed their way up the wall into the shelves and eating into the documents. We had to go through the entire termite eradication routine with holes drilled in the walls and floors and poison all around the house in holes. The treatment apparently worked because yearly inspections showed no further damage, but many of the old documents were ruined.
Here is a photo of some common termite of the infraorder isoptera.
Termites are a worldwide problem. They live on every continent except Antartica. They are voracious eaters of anything made of wood or wood products. A termite queen can live up to 50 years. Good luck if you find termites.
There are a huge number of other insects that eat wood products. One you probably have not seen is booklice. Again quoting from the South Australia Community History website article:
Booklice graze on microscopic moulds that grow on the surface of paper-based material, leaving surface damage similar to that caused by silverfish. They are also attracted to glues, binders and paper sizing.
Booklice are usually very tiny (less than 1mm in length) and are a slightly transparent brown colour. They do not have wings.
Here is a photo of some booklice or Liposcelis sp.
Crickets also eat paper and so do many other insects. The best conservations procedures include isolating the paper products in clean, controlled areas. As I learned with my documents stored in my garage, that type of storage puts the documents at risk. It may seem almost impossible to avoid insects infestations, especially if you live in a warm, humid climate area. When we lived in the Republic of Panama, we lost many organic items to mold and insects. In Mesa, Arizona, where we lived for years, papers and documents kept indoors and in dry, dark areas such as interior closets were not affected by insects.
The variety and number of genealogically valuable records available can be overwhelming to a researcher. British and Irish Workhouse Records are some of the lesser known and lesser used records that are really quite readily available. Findmypast.com sends out email notices to me every week and these notices highlight classes of records that remind me of where I need to go to find my English, Scottish and Irish ancestors.
You can get a good introduction to these workhouse or poorhouse records on the FamilySearch.org Research Wiki. See England and Wales Poor Law Records 1834-1948. You can search these records on the Findmypast.com website. You will need a subscription to the website or you can search it for free in FamilySearch Family History Centers around the world. On the Findmypast.com website, you can see a list of all the records available when you do a search of the A-Z of record sets.
The link to the list of records is on the "Search all Records" page of Findmypast.com. Here is a screenshot of the beginning of the list of workhouse or poorhouse records.
What is WalkingArizona? I am WalkingArizona. It is also a blog of my photographs that are semi-biographical and taken as I make my way through life. You can tell where I have been and you can see what I have seen by looking at thousands of photos from my WalkingArizona. WalkingArizona is not a place. I currently live in Annapolis, Maryland but will return to my home in Provo, Utah. Even though I live in Utah or Maryland, I am still WalkingArizona. My other blogs, including this one, reflect my life as a genealogist. WalkingArizona reflects my life as a photographer. Get the whole picture by WalkingArizona from my photography blog.
"He who does not know his past cannot make the best of his present and future, for it is from the past that we learn." Shaikh Zayed
Genealogy can appear to be a trivial pursuit of names and dates. But when we learn about our past, as the quote above indicates, we learn how to make the best of our present and our future. As my wife and I serve as Senior Missionaries for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, we are daily involved in history. We are called to serve as Record Preservation Specialists to serve in the Maryland State Archives in Annapolis, Maryland. We are digitizing probate records for the Archives. Copies of these important historical records will be made available on FamilySearch.org. I have been chronicling our experiences on my other blog, Rejoice, and Be Exceeding Glad... Yesterday, for example, in preparing documents for digitization, my wife Ann, found some documents signed by our first president, George Washington.
With this constant and very immediate contact with history, we can't help be reflect on our own personal histories and those of our ancestors. Fortunately, we have a lot of assistance from FamilySearch and from the Church, in general, helping us to learn about our history. For example, my direct line ancestor, Sidney Tanner, who was my Great-great-grandfather has the following connections in the FamilySearch.org Family Tree provided by FamilySearch.
These historical links show that he crossed the Plains three times (at least) and also lived in Nauvoo, Illinois. For me, after having done genealogical research for years, this is not new news. But for many others, these connections may open up a whole world of family history that they were not previously aware of. There is also a Life Sketch of Sidney Tanner.
Of course, these entries and all this information did not just magically appear in the program. It came from the diligent research of generations of genealogists. But the FamilySearch.org Family Tree is more than a place to park your genealogy. It can be and should become a vast resource for historical information about all of your ancestors.
It has been some time since I started this series. I will begin with details by looking at the issue of book preservation. The book above is a good example of what happens when books are used over time and not carefully curated. But first, a look at paper.
Paper is a white material primarily used for writing. Although contemporary precursors such as papyrus and amate existed in the Mediterranean world and pre-Columbian Americas, respectively, these materials are not defined as true paper. The first papermaking process was documented in China during the Eastern Han period (25–220 C.E.), traditionally attributed to the court official Cai Lun. During the 8th century, Chinese papermaking spread to the Islamic world, where pulp mills and paper mills were used for money making. By the 11th century, papermaking was brought to medieval Europe, where it was refined with the earliest known paper mills utilizing waterwheels. Later Western improvements to the papermaking process came in the 19th century with the invention of wood-based papers.
Paper is made by pressing moist fibers of cellulose together under pressure and sometimes heat. The cellulose comes from ground up wood, rags, or grasses. As is mentioned in the above quote, the wood-based paper did not make its appearance until the 19th Century. Earlier paper products made from linen or cotton cloth were and still are more stable than more modern paper. Wood-based paper is composed primarily of two polymers: cellulose and lignin. The lignin is what makes paper turn yellow from oxidation when exposed to sunlight and air as it breaks down into phenolic acids which are yellow. The acid in the paper also eventually destroys its structure and becomes brittle and breaks into flakes.
More modern (expensive) paper has a high rag content or is made acid free. Newsprint is the cheapest form of paper and as I have observed in past writing and speaking, can yellow in one day if left out in strong sunlight.
The point here is that paper and all paper-based products such as books will disintegrate over time. Hence, the need to preserve the paper books as long as possible but also a major incentive for digitizing paper records as soon as possible.
The main resource for information about preservation in all its forms for all types of records and objects, is the Library of Congress, Preservation Directorate. The Preservation Directorate has specific recommendations concerning the Care, Handling, and Storage of Books. As with all preservation efforts, there is a basic decision level deciding which books or other paper documents are candidates for preservation. Preservation takes time and it could involve some expense, so plan ahead, learn about the processes involved and choose wisely what you preserve.
At the basic level books contain information and can be preserved by making a digital copy. An institution, such as the Library of Congress, preserves books as books. Books as books become valuable due to age, scarcity, condition, or inscriptions. For example, a rare first edition of a book by a famous author could be valuable, but it would be more valuable if it had a verified inscription from the author or a famous person who owned the book. Unless you are an experienced book collector, you probably cannot tell the value of a book without doing a lot of research. The age of a book is only one factor in establishing its value. When I was working with a law firm, we changed law offices and had a sizable library of old law books. We were going to use online legal services and no longer needed the books. No one else did either. Most of them ended up in the trash because there were no buyers and we couldn't give them away.
Genealogists are likely to have a rare book and not know that it is rare. Many family or individual published "surname" books are extremely limited editions. There may be only a few copies of the book in existence because the author self-published the book and only produced a limited number of copies. But surname books are a good example of books that have valuable information but may not be worth much as books. Another type of book that may be in the possession of a genealogist is an old family bible. These books are almost always worth preserving. If you do feel that you want to spend the time or effort to preserve an old book, consider donating it to a university special collections library. If a university library declines to accept a book, it does not mean that the book has no value, it may only mean that the library already has a copy of the book or that the book is not something they are collecting.
To determine the value of a book, you should search for used copies online. Google Books is a good place to start your search. Start searching just as if you were going to purchase the book and see how much you might have to spend to buy a copy of the book.
Having clean hands and a clean area to use the book
Keeping food and drink away
Removing the book from the shelf by gripping on both sides of the spine at the middle of the book (push in the neighboring book on both sides to get a good grip), instead of tugging at the top of the spine
Not forcing a book to lie open to 180 degrees; instead, prop up the covers of an opened book to decrease the opening angle
Not using paper clips, "dog ear" folding, or acidic inserts to bookmark pages
Not using rubber bands, self-adhesive tape, any kind of "leather dressing," and/or glue on books
Good storage significantly prolongs the life and usability of books and includes:
A cool (room temperature or below), relatively dry (about 35% relative humidity), clean, and stable environment (avoid attics, basements, and other locations with high risk of leaks and environmental extremes)
Minimal exposure to all kinds of light; no exposure to direct or intense light
Distance from radiators and vents
Regular dusting and housekeeping
Shelving books of similar size together, so that the face of the covers are maximally supported by the neighbors on each side
Keeping upright shelved books straight and not leaning (storing books lying flat is also good)
If a book is very valuable or in very poor condition or both, you may wish to investigate boxes, book jackets, and other storage methods. The Library of Congress has a list of suppliers but you can search for preservation supplies online. Be prepared to pay a premium for archive level supplies.
This series is going to be quite detailed and long. So stay tuned and I will get to your preservation questions eventually.