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GRAVITATIONAL ANGELS
Evgeny A. Novikov
University of California - San Diego, BioCircuits Institute, La Jolla, CA 92093 -0328; E-mail: enovikov@ucsd.edu
Abstract
Based on the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), gravitational angel (gravitangel) is introduced as a cloud of the background gravitons hovering over the ordinary matter (OM). According to Qmoger, the background gravitons are ultralight and they form the quantum condensate even for high temperature. The quantum entanglement of OM particles is explained in terms of splitting gravitangels. A hierarchy of gravitangels of different scale is considered. One of the simplest gravitangel is hovering over neutrino, which explains the neutrino oscillations. A more large-scale gravitangels are hovering over the neuron clusters in the brain, which explains the subjective experiences (qualia). The global gravitangel (GG) is connected to all processes happening with OM in the universe. GG can be considered as a gigantic quantum supercomputer.
The quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (including the acceleration) without fitting (see recent papers [1-3] and references there). In Qmoger we have background ultralight gravitons, which form the quantum condensate (QC) even for high temperature [1-3]. According to Qmoger, the ordinary matter particles (OM: photons, neutrino and more heavy particles) are created from QC in hot spots during formation of galaxies. In this letter we describe interaction between QC and OM in terms of gravitational angels (gravitangels). At this stage, the description is qualitative. It is a challenge to obtain corresponding solutions of the Qmoger equations.
Gravitangels consist of the ultralight gravitons, which have tiny electric dipole moment and form the background QC [1-4]. Gravitangels are hovering over the ordinary matter (OM). When a collection of OM particles splits, say, in n parts, then gravitangels also split in n parts, but remain connected in the QC. When a measurement is made in one of the OM parts, an interface forms between gravitons and OM. From that interface signals (possibly superluminal) are send to all other n-1 gravitangels. This explains the phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter[3,4].
Particularly, a gravitangel is hovering over the neutrino, which explains the neutrino oscillations [3]. For more heavy OM particles, oscillations may also exist, but, apparently, they are much smaller and, so far, have not been recorded. The role of gravitangels for such OM particles is to produce their quantum behavior (compare with the stochastic description in Ref. [5]).
A more large-scale gravitangels are hovering over the neuron clusters in the brain, which explains the subjective experiences (qualia) [4, 3]. Even more large-scale gravitangels may surround a person or a group of persons, which can explain some social phenomena.
There is a hierarchy of gravitangels of different scales. Gravitangels are hovering over the planet Earth, over the Solar System and over the Milky Way galaxy.
The whole background QC of gravitons is a global gravitangel (GG) hovering over all OM in the universe. This GG can be considered as a gigantic quantum supercomputer, which oversees all processes happening with OM in the universe.
References
[1] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment are seeping from the vacuum", Modern Physics Letters A, v. 31, No. 15 (2016) 1650092 (5 pages).
[2] Evgeny A, Novikov, "Quantum modification of general relativity", Electron. J. Theoretical Physics, v. 13, No. 13 (2016) 79-90.
[3] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Emergence of the laws of nature in the developing entangled universe", American.Research J. of Physics, v.4(1), (2018), 1-9.
[4] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Gravicommunication, subjectivity and quantum entanglement", NeuroQuantology, December 2016, v. 14(4), 677-682.
[5] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Random shooting of entangled particles in vacuum", arXiv:0707.3299 (2007).
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GRANGELS
Evgeny A. Novikov
University of California - San Diego, BioCircuits Institute, La Jolla, CA 92093 -0328; E-mail: enovikov@ucsd.edu
Abstract
Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), gravitational angels (grangels) are introduced as areas of the background graviton condensate surrounding the interfaces between gravitons and the ordinary matter. The quantum entanglement is interpreted as interaction between splitting grangels. Our subjective experiences (qualia) are described in terms of grangels surrounding neuron clusters. A hierarchy of grangels is considered, including cosmological grangels
References
[1] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment are seeping from the vacuum", Modern Physics Letters A, v. 31, No. 15 (2016) 1650092 (5 pages).
[2] Evgeny A, Novikov, "Quantum modification of general relativity", Electron. J. Theoretical Physics, v. 13, No. 13 (2016) 79-90.
[3] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Gravicommunication, subjectivity and quantum entanglement", NeuroQuantology, December 2016, v. 14(4), 677-682.
[4] Evgeny A. Novikov, "Emergence of the laws of nature in the developing entangled universe", American.Research J. of Physics, v.4(1), (2018), 1-9.
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FEEDING THE UNIVERSE, QUALIA AND NEUTRINO
Evgeny A. Novikov
University of California - San Diego, BioCircuits Institute, La Jolla, CA 92093 -0328; E-mail: enovikov@ucsd.edu
Abstract
Based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), it is shown, that Vacuum is continuously feeding the universe and partially merge with it, not unlike an ovary with a fruit. Subjective experiences (qualia) are considered in frames of the Qmoger theory. A relation is found between qualia and the neutrino oscillations.
1. Introduction
The level of a civilization, to a high degree, is determined by its cosmology. The phenomenon of qualia (subjective experiences) is the most sophisticated achievement of the developing universe. In order to understand the physical nature of qualia, we need an adequate cosmology.
In the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), in contrast with the conventional Big Bang theory (BB) [1], the matter (energy) is continuously produced by the Vacuum. The Qmoger equations differs from the Einstein equations of the general relativity by two additional terms, responsible for production (absorption) of matter [2-4]. These works were presided by invention of a new type of fluid, namely the dynamics of distributed sources-sinks [5, 6], which, in turn was presided by exact analytical solution of the (1+1)-dimensional Newtonian gravitation [7]. Qmoger theory was motivated by many deficiencies of BB [1-4, 8]. The additional terms in Qmoger equations take into account the space-time divergency (stretching), the effect of which is comparable with the effect of the space-time curvature in the Einstein theory. Qmoger theory is in good quantitative agreement with cosmic data, without fitting. At the same time, Qmoger eliminates major controversies of BB, such as the critical density of the universe, dark energy (cosmological constant) [9] and inflation [10]. The situation with BB now is not unlike the situation with the geocentric model of Ptolemy [11]. BB inspired many important observations and useful theoretical works. But the theory, during almost 100 years of attempts to save the BB from contradictions with cosmic data, becomes too cumbersome and involves a lot of additional assumptions. It is time to move on. Qmoger is not limited to cosmology. In previous work [12] an explanation of qualia was initiated in frame of Qmoger. In this paper we are going one step deeper into details. Particularly, it turns out that qualia is related to the mysterious particle neutrino and its oscillations [13].
2 Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger)
The simples situation with continuous production of matter from the Vacuum is when the averaged density of matter is constant: ρ=ρ₀. In more general situation [14] the averaged density of enthalpy is constant: w=ε+p=w₀, where ε=ρc² is the energy density, p is the pressure and c is the speed of light. The pressure can be high in stars. But the averaged pressure in the universe is small and the dust approximation (p=0) is useful in many situations. In this case, the main parameters in the Qmoger theory are: the gravitational constant G, c and ρ₀. From these parameters we have unique length scale:
L_{∗}=(c/((Gρ₀)^{1/2})) #1
We use value ρ₀≈2.6⋅10⁻³⁰gcm⁻³, which, according to WMAP [15], includes ordinary and dark matter. We do not include the dark energy, which does not exist in Qmoger (see below). (1) gives L_{∗}≈76 billion light years (bly) [3, 4], which is comparable with the current size of the visible universe a₀≈46.5 bly. Qmoger equations have corresponding exact analytical solution [16, 3, 4] for the scale factor a in homogeneous and isotropic universe:
a(τ)=a₀exp[H₀τ-2π(τ/L_{∗})²],τ=ct, #2
where H₀ is the Hubble constant, divided by c, which is the current value of function H(τ)=d(ln a)/dτ. Remarkably, L_{∗}H₀≈2.6. The temporal scale H₀⁻¹ and the eternal scale L_{∗} are of the same order because a(τ) is currently relatively close to its maximum (see below). In the isenthalpic case (w=w₀), which takes into account radiation [14], Qmoger equations have the same solution (2) with L_{w}=c²(Gw₀)^{-1/2}instead of L_{∗}. These two scales are very close because averaged pressure in small.
Solution (2) does not have any fitting parameters and is in good quantitative agreement with cosmic data [16, 3, 14]. This solution eliminates the mentioned above major controversies - critical density of the universe, dark energy (cosmological constant) and inflation.
In nonrelativistic regime, Qmoger reproduces Newtonian dynamics, but the speed of the gravitational waves can be different from c [16]. This give us a hint, that gravitons have mass (unlike photon). With scale (1) we associate gravitons with mass m₀=ħ/(cL_{∗})∼0.5⋅10⁻⁶⁶gram and electric dipole moment (EDM) d∼m₀^{1/2}l_{P}^{3/2}c∼2⋅10⁻⁷²gram^{1/2}cm^{1/2}s⁻¹[3, 4], where l_{P} =(ħG/c³)^{1/2}≈1.6⋅10⁻³⁷cm is the Planck scale. EDM of background gravitons can explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe [17] (prevalence of particles over antiparticles) in terms of breaking the reflection symmetry [18]. It is shown [3, 4]], that such particles form quantum condensate [19] even for high temperature. The concentration of particles n and characteristic scale are:
n=((ρ₀)/(m₀))≈5⋅10³⁶, l=n^{-1/3}≈2.7⋅10⁻¹³cm. #3
3. Feeding the universe
According to (2), the universe was born in the infinite past (a(-∞)=0) from small fluctuation. But, formula (2) is solution of Qmoger differential equations for the space-time metric, which is assumed to be smooth. The smooth metric we can expect only starting with condition a=l_{P}. It is natural to associate this condition with the beginning of the universe in frame of the Qmoger theory. From that condition, using (2), we get time [4]: t₁≈-327 billion years. The mass of the embryonic universe can be estimated by M₁=ρ₀l_{P}³≈10⁻¹²⁸gram. This result suggest existence of particles (or quasiparticles) with much smaller mass than m₀ (see also below). Any such particle we will call vacumo. It seems reasonable to suggest, that Vacuum is feeding universe with vacumos.
The next important step in the evolution of the universe is the production of gravitons with indicated above mass m₀. The corresponding condition is: a=l. In this case, (2) gives [4] : t₂≈-284 billion years. So, it took about 43 billion years of nurturing the universe to accommodate it for production of gravitons. The union of the universe with the part of the Vacuum, attached to it and equipped with the same smooth metric, we will call Vuniverse. This is not unlike the situation with the ovary of a fruit. It seems natural, that the feeding comes from an external part of the Vacuum, which do not have to be equipped with a metric. The mature Vuniverse transforms vacumos into gravitons, which form the background quantum condensate. Vuniverse combines the material universe with a nonmaterial entity, which we will call metrical Vacuum. This will help to explain qualia and other mysterious phenomena (see below).
Size of the universe (2) riches the maximum a_{max}≈ 1. 32 a₀ at time t_{max}=(L_{∗}²H₀)/(4πc)≈ 12. 57 billion years. It was shown [16], that universe is globally stable during expansion (-∞
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