WHile vending is a great way to reach fans and customers stores are where the massive sells happen. Since the Mainstream owns the main distributor to most comic book outlets....the indie Black Age needs to locate legal, well run honest store options in the community of its primary market. ONLI STUDIOS has been about this since the late 1980s. The challenge is overcoming the poor business practices in those circles.
Thousands of years ago, light years away from Earth on the star Sirius the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon lived in total harmony. They were ruled by the Habesha, who flourished on the star Sirius B, the twin star of Sirius. The people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon would travel back and forth from Sirius and Sirius B in spaceships that spouted fire and thunder when they took off and landed.
Also, on the star Sirius the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon erected statues obelisks and rock art depicting the creation story of the Habesha.
The Habesha were the first living creatures created by the sky goddess Shu; she created the Habesha then, they mutated into to three twins one for each group of people, the Ra, Moors and Dogon. Subsequently, one twin rebelled against Shu and tried to seize power and rule over all the twins; so to suppress the rebellion, Shu killed one of the twins and his or her body parts were dispersed throughout Sirius and Sirius B and everywhere they were placed shrines were erected where the Dogon, the Moors and Ra people made offerings and worshiped their ancestors; they would bring flowers and burn frankincense and myrrh in enormous brass bowls ( the smoke from the incense would rise in a large , gray cloud and it was intoxicating and brought a feeling of peace and tranquility to all those who were near it) placed on ancestral shrines and chant Aum Peace Om…….Om Mani Padme…….Oh ancestors of mine; then, they would call out ancestor’s names from the oldest to the youngest; these chanting ceremonies would last for hours, then after chanting they would sit and meditate in a trance in the lotus position swaying back and forth and bowing their heads down to the floor; then they would begin to chant again Aum Peace Om….Om Mani Padme…….. And ring a tiny bell three time and the ceremony would be complete. There were many of the Ra, Moors and the Dogon at a given time who performed this ritual; so, the sound would take on the effect of many bees buzzing and swarming in unison and it was soothing to the people at the shrines and anyone who happened to be passing. Most of the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon did this ritual at least once a month; especially, at full.
There were also shrines for the goddess Shu and the Ra, Moors and the Dogon people would sometimes go to her shrines burn incense, and place flowers calatheas (prayer plants) near her statues. They could be heard paying homage to her…………” Mother God maker of the food we eat grown from our crops (vegetables), the many fruits and fish in the rivers and streams; please continue to bless all our family members and heal all our illnesses mental and physical……..heal every cell, vein, artery, lymph node, lymph gland every organ in our bodies strengthen our immune systems and open up our charkas and keep the negative forces away from our family and us now and forever Mother God Shu creator of the Habesha and all the living beings on the star Sirius”.
Another prayer they would recite was princes and princesses come out of Kemet; Abyssinia shall stretch forth her hand to Shu: oh goddess of Abyssinia you who are a goddess of divine majesty and may your spirit come into our hearts with righteousness.
The Habesha who lived on the star Sirius B had to live in a water environment; since, they were part man and part fish; they were hermaphroditic fish beings that had a human upper body, legs feet and a tail much like a mermaid. The Dogon, people of Ra and the Moors called them the Caretakers of water, Advisors and Guides. The Dogon, Moors and the people of Ra had to rely on water that the Habesha provided for drinking and for irrigating their crops; they taught them to drink the water to sustain their community and how to water the crops they grew to feed their people and the Habesha filled the rivers, lakes and canals with water. The Habesha had already taught them the other skills needed for agriculture. For example, they instructed them to plow the rich dirt then, place each plant or seedling in rows putting each one in a hole and evenly spacing them apart.
On the star Sirius there were numerous tropical flowers: orchids, hibiscus, amaryllis, amazon lilies, African tulips, alphinia, angel wing begonia, bitter gourds, African moons, bleeding heartwine , blood lily, blue dawn flower, blue jacaranda and caladium, calatheas, bottle brush, catasetum, calleya, cautlega, day lily frans hal, encyclia, etlingera, flame of the forest, frangipani, grass of the dew, heliconia, koutruk lei, laelia, lotus, macillaria, musa, sampaguita, sophornitella, and sophronitis. And to see all them blooming was a vision from heaven and these flowers bloomed all the time not just in the dry season. However, during the rainy season their beauty could not be seen as well as in the dry season and the earth was flooded with water from the monsoon rain. Also, the children would pick the flowers to bring home to their mothers and display them at mealtime at the compound and the men, boys and women would pick them for special occasions. There were also palm and coconut trees all over the star Sirius; and the children and young adults would climb the coconut trees to play and to gather the coconuts for coconut water and milk; the coconuts were picked when they were green for the coconut water though; also the coconut meat was used for some of the dishes that were prepared; and when the coconut meat was taken out of the shells it was used as a bowls or it was carved into works of art.
There were all kinds of tropical animals on Sirius like monkeys (spider, howler, capuchin and squirrel); chimpanzees, gorillas, mandrills and bush babies. In addition, there were reptiles: anacondas, bushmasters, caimans rock pythons, Nile crocodiles and mambas; then, there were amphibians: poison dart frogs and the fish were: piranha and tiger in the rivers. The birds were the harpy, crowned and black eagle, macaws (scarlet and hyacinth) the gray parrot and the cockatoo. And living in some of the fruit trees was the flying fox (fruit eating bat). The insects were leaf- cutter ants, termites and grasshoppers. Also, there were large animals; for instance, the leopard, tigers, elephants and the okapi; all these animals were in different locations on star Sirius and their noises ,sometimes, were deafening to the Ra, Moors and the Dogon people. Most important, the people of Ra, the Moors and Dogon had to be careful of the piranhas the Nile crocodile, the poison dart frogs and the many snakes when they went fishing, swimming and washed clothes in the rivers and canals.
All the people of Sirius and Sirius B were Black or Nubian people and looked like the people of Abyssinia; they were all tall and statuesque. The women were gorgeous and ranged from a beautiful dark chocolate to reddish brown, brown with yellow under tones and a light bronze with huge, expressive eyes with long lashes, perfectly shaped eyebrows and prominent noses; they wore long flowing gowns of soft fabric that looked like cotton, in colors of gold, yellow, red, green, blue, purple and white; the garments were worn off one shoulder so one of their breast was exposed; their breast were exquisite and perfectly sculpted; so, they felt no shame with them exposed and their black and brown hair was braided in elaborate cornrow styles; while some had dreadlocks and others had huge afros; then there were those women who wore beautiful fabric tied around their heads in the tignon, “Gele” or Ichafu style of West African women. The women also wore gold and many other kinds of metal jewelry consisting of rings, necklaces, armbands, anklets, bracelets; plus, beads around their waist that were given to them as young girls when they reached the age of 13 and they kept for all their lives; the beads told if a young girl was available and her status in the community; and when she married she could tell if she was gaining weight; therefore this was the first indication that she could be pregnant.
The men were handsome and tall and they had the same skin colors of the women, dark chocolate, reddish brown and brown with yellow undertones. But very few of the men were light bronze and they had large luminous eyes, long lashes, arched eyebrows and long angular noses; and they wore long flowing robes in the same fabric as the women; however they wore loose fitting pants underneath. The men wore their hair in many elaborate braided hairstyles: cornrows, twist, dreadlocks and afros. The children of Sirius were the most beautiful, carefree children; they played games with the toys that their parentsmade for them like small drums and bow and arrows without a sharp point and they played group games like Mbobo Mbobo…. the object of the game was to help a lion (mbobo) find its prey; they would stand in a circle with two of the children with their eyes covered. One of them was the lion and the other was the prey; both players were turned in a circle; the other players in the group yelled mbobo mbobo. As the prey got closer to the lion the players shouted louder and faster and if the lion was far from the prey the other players spoke softer. If the lion didn’t capture the prey then the children chose a new lion and if the prey was caught they chose a new prey. Another game they played was Kukoka where the first player threw a small rock in the air, but not too high, then the player tried to pick up as many rocks as possible before catching the rock that was thrown in the air. Then, after each child had a turn and all rocks were picked up the player with the most won.
And the children were very obedient to their elders and the older children watched and taught the younger children when the women tended the crops did other chores and had to go get water for the households. The children were small replicas of the adults; but they wore short tunics instead of long robes or gowns. And they had the same striking skin tones; the dark chocolate, reddish brown, brown with yellow undertones and light bronze and their eyes were large curious and glowing with lengthy eyelashes. They wore their hair in cornrows, twist, locks or short afros.
The people of Sirius passed down the creation story of the Habesha to each generation in oral traditional; they could be seen sitting around fires and the elder(s) would tell the creation story and other stories about the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon, how they all traveled from planet to planet and ended up living on the star Sirius. At this time, the elders also taught them about astrology and all the twelve zodiac signs and their significance to everyday life. They could be heard speaking in a loud booming voices……In the beginning everything was black then Shu created light, the plants, trees, rivers and streams and all the animals on Sirius and Sirius B and on the last day Shu formed the Habesha; she made three sets of twins, one for each group of people, the Ra, Moors and the Dogon. Then, one of the twins got angry and revolted and tried to get the other twins to join in the rebellion; but Shu found out about it and killed the twin and spread the body parts all around Sirius and anywhere you see an ancestral shrine is where Shu put one of the body parts……
More importantly, the women of Sirius made terra cotta pottery and weaved baskets, rugs, mats for sleeping and practicing yoga, capoeira and other exercises including tai chi and dancing.
On the star Sirius, there was every fruit imaginable mango, papaya, starfruit, ganippe, avocado, coconut, guava, pineapple, breadfruit, banana, passion fruit, oranges, lemons, limes, kiwi, ackee, guanabana (soursop) paw paw and jackfruit; the reason tropical fruits grew in such abundance was the star Sirius’ climate was tropical; there was a rainy season when the area flooded and a dry season when there was no relief from the heat except for when the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon went to swim in the many lakes, canals and rivers on Sirius.
Besides all the fruit on the planet Sirius, the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon had the crops they grew and the fish in the lakes they could catch; so, their diet consisted of fruit the crops they grew and fish; all the meals were cooked in a large area called the compound and everyone participated in the cooking of the meals, the men, women and the children who were old enough to help and not get in the way or injury themselves. So, every time meals were prepared you could smell the aroma for miles and those who weren’t participating in the preparation would wait in anticipation for the meal; the serving of the meals were done by a committee of men, women and older children; and they made sure that all the people; the people of Ra, the Moors and the Dogon all were served equal portions according to their age and size. The women who had babies nursed them during this time and throughout the day in public; there was no reason for them to feed their babies in private because breastfeeding a baby was seen as natural and no one on Sirius would be offended by it. The bodies of the people of Ra, the Moors and Dogon were not viewed as indecent in their natural state.
More importantly, when one of the residents of Sirius had a disagreement with another resident; he or she would go to the Council of Elders to settle the problem; they would listen to each party’s side of the story; the kind of disagreements they settled were if a fruit tree bordered two people’s place of residence and the fruit fell on both of their sides, who had right to the most fruit; or if two people worked in the community garden who had the right to more of the harvest if one person worked more hours; then, the Elders would go into caucus and discuss the issues of both parties. And after deliberating for hours they would come out with their ruling. Most of the time, the elder’s decision was made in the best interest of both of the people with the dispute and everyone walked away satisfied. The Council of Elders met once a month unless they had an emergency; then, they would meet that day or the next day.
On Sundays, all the people of Sirius would meet for a game of futbol (soccer) and they would have relay races according to age; or they would play other games like kickball. Then, after the festivities they all would go to the compound for Sunday dinner. Afterwards, when all of the people were well fed and feeling tired some of them would take an afternoon nap or just go for long walks . . ..and some people got together and danced; they would be called with the talking drum, you could hear the distinct sound, then the jimbe would begin to play; next, the dancers would join in jumping high twirling around and doing the intricate steps and following the rhythm of the drums. This drumming and dancing went on for hours and women, men and children took part in both drumming and dancing; there was also drumming and dancing at young women and men’s joining ceremonies and at memorial services.
When young girls and boys reached the age of 12 they would go through a “Rites of Passage” ceremony to make their transition from childhood to manhood or womanhood. The boy’s initiation was: he had to dive off one of the highest cliffs into the deepest part of the river; the young man tied a bamboo vine to one of his ankles and one of the rocks, jumped in the water and the dive had to be perfect. Of course, the vine snapped off; so, the initiate had a souvenir of his induction into manhood. When he jumped he was supposed to cut through the water in a straight line like a dolphin without injuring himself to be successful; so, if this was accomplished; he was then declared a man. And all the men present made the whooping sound to show their approval and the young man would dance around moving his arms up in down whooping too as if to say I know I’m bad…..now I’m a man.
And the girl’s initiation involved a young woman staying at home and taking care of the children and decorating the house and making a schedule of the meals to be prepared at the compound. Although, the meals were cooked by women, men and children, young girls had to learn how to plan the meals. In addition, they had to go to get water for the household for bathing, washing and to water the plants and crops that the family grew. Most important, a young girl was to stand outside of the birthing place so she could hear what the cries of a baby being born sounded like and hear the first wails of the child; this was believed to make a young woman ready for motherhood and running a household. So, this was how the Ra, Moors and the Dogon people of the star Sirius lived thousands of years ago, light years away from Earth.
The Talented Tenth Saga will be an 8 issue, limited run comic book series and film. This series is unique for many reasons.
First of all, it will feature real people versus hand drawn or CGI characters. This is why actors and actresses will be sought.
Secondly, the main characters in the world of The Talented Tenth Saga will be diverse as the world we live in.
And lastly, all 8 issues will be given out for free and can be read at beauty shops, barber shops, schools, libraries and other organizations in local communities starting in Madison County, Alabama and beyond. The film will be uploaded to YouTube and other platforms for free to enjoy and view.
NC A&T 59th Sit-In Celebration- Rev. Dr. William J. Barber II - YouTube
Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights
"Love, truth and justice must fight again." Rev. Dr. William J. Barber II
Note: For this month as last year, I started the posting with the title February One... depicting the significance of the day in Greensboro, NC A&T and this nation's history. The urgency of the crisis with Bennett defined every day as its own encapsulation of history, so it led to spelling out the dates for each post this year. Every day beyond February is a day in the nation's history.
I will also be taking a break after today until 4 April. I have to get ready for a conference in Florida, my Master's thesis defense and application to the doctoral program in Nanoengineering. It will be a minute...
This is an audio file of Dr. Barber's remarks at the 59th annual observance of the sit-in movement, February 1, 1960. The entire event was live-streamed on Facebook, which encompassed excellent choir performances, comments and civic awards. Dr. Barber made these remarks without notes, or as millennials say, "straight off the dome." He was impressive, humorous, passionate, cogent and powerful. I used his portrait from NC A&T's website as an intro to this month and this audio reproduction. This admittedly imperfect audio provides what I hope is an appropriate outtro.
This month started at a stated crisis of funding for Bennett College. They exceeded their stated public goal of 5 million dollars, raising 8.2 million dollars. Despite that, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools headquartered in Georgia, where Stacey Abrams lost her bid for governor by theft, decided to revoke their accreditation prompting an appropriate lawsuit by Bennett. I hope for their continued success and accreditation with either SACS or from another agency.
This crisis then became a curiosity: how many HBCUs are there? Having attended one doesn't mean I have this info "at the ready." I found a website that listed the total at 107, some of them sadly for previous funding crises like Bennett just recently encountered, now closed. Rather than just give a single link and call it a day, I decided to give whatever history the schools made public. I published the history of the ones closed as well, as precious jewels lost. A classmate in California coordinates as part of an HBCU college fair and displays A&T to a lot of African American youth that for the fair probably would not have heard of Aggie Land or any others. Once upon a time due to De Jure segregation, these were our only options. Now with the Internet literally in our hip pockets, we're more focused on other things and being a part of other cliques versus connection with legacies. Anonymity and apathy can lead to future funding crises and closures. We cannot allow ignorance and neglect to self-foreclose our own legacies.
The list of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) had striking similarities:
1. Many were started or headed by African American women - many during a time when American women as a whole didn't have the right to vote.
2. The institutions started somewhere around the Civil War, soon after or inspired by other examples before them.
3. Many were associated or affiliated with either a church or ministries, not interested in expanding "prosperity gospel," but emancipation and opportunity.
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.U.S. Constitution - Preamble
The very things a freed and exploited people would demand of the nation they had served ceaselessly without compensation or reparations, long overdue. That freedom - imperfect as it is - appears to be under assault by foreign actors and their installed puppet.
And mere years after the savagery of penal slavery, my ancestors wanted themselves and their posterity educated, something during slavery they were systematically denied. Full emancipation is the self-actualization of determining one's own future through one's own efforts, unimpeded by faux social barriers and bigotry.
The other commonality I've personally experienced is the comity of being an alumni. We wear the paraphernalia of our respective universities and identify each other as Aggies, Bison; Eagles, Rams (NC A&T, Howard, NC Central and Winston-Salem State University, respectively). We have greetings like "Aggie Pride" shared with each other publicly and openly. We feel the weight and pride of our ancestors and the history that came before us. We express our joy at homecoming games and tailgates. We are uncles and aunties to the children of close college friends: we are family.
The ONE true thing:
Humanity is one species descended originally from the African continent. Each of us has a measure of Carotene and Melanin, determined by where on the globe our ancestors encountered ultraviolet light and the chemical interactions it encouraged. "Race" is a political construct created by a kleptomaniacal few to manipulate the masses they openly disdain and steal from. It's being used here and overseas as the rise of right wing extremism is being exploited towards a dark end of expanding the old Russian empire. Here, they've done this since the Bacon's rebellion when so-called "white people" were created by the then 1%, as well as during and after the Civil War. I use the term in quotes because Titanium Dioxide is the die that is used in paint and dental fillings that upon absorption of all the colors of the spectrum reflect the color our eyes interpret as white. It's worked like a charm, so far.
A kleptomaniac has a mental disorder that compels the person to steal. Unlike a shoplifter, who will steal an item he or she wants or needs, a kleptomaniac steals for the thrill of stealing, often taking items that have little or no value.Vocabulary.com
I supplement this definition with one caveat: they are stealing something of significant value. They are stealing our wealth, our health and healthcare; the air we breath, the water we drink; the environment we'll leave our grandchildren. Wilber Ross during the contrived 35-day shutdown is a textbook case of how isolated and clueless he, and they are from the rest of humanity. His greenhouse footprint like most American oligarchs is probably more than anyone in his entire state combined. The sad part is, they feel entitled to "burn down the forest" while living in the bright sun and plentiful rain in the canopy of its trees. Eventually, karma has its say and the entire ecosystem fails, them included. Their very avarice is a slow motion, extinction-level event. T.S. Elliot's famous poem, "The Hollow Men" last lines - this is the way the world ends, not with a bang...but a whimper - become apropos, though there are many interpretations.
They did this during the 2016 elections that now see the "chickens coming home to roost" in taxes some of the MAGA enthusiasts are having to pay in. Tax cuts for kleptomaniacs work like that: when corporations are given 10-year tax breaks, it's the middle class property owners that pay for what would have been their fair share of taxes. If those same corporations and 1% receive a tax cut, it is all of us that pays that bill, meaning you may not get a refund this year as you are accustomed to, and many rudely found out. The kleptomaniacs are robbing us in plain sight, and using racial animus, sexism, homophobia and xenophobia to keep us divided because they KNOW if we grouped together, they would no longer have power over any of us. It's worked like a charm since the Bacon's rebellion, a history not taught and you ought to revisit. It's been passed down several generations now from one kleptomaniac sociopath to another, swallowed "hook, line and sinker" by one duped generation after another. Since no one seems to have caught on, why change a proven formula? It's probably through all his seemingly irrational word salad, what the Propecia Ferret wearing orange pumpkin head meant about "winning"... he wasn't talking about us: only his kind, which he's only marginally a part of in name only, as a peruse of his tax returns will likely reveal, along with huge loans from money-laundering Russia. That would compromise anyone, and we typically don't give a foreign asset the nuclear codes. I pray this madness ends soon, or the stress on our republic; body politics and ecosystems globally will result in catastrophic, unrecoverable failure, as predictable as the fall of Rome.
We have sojourned in this land 400 years since the first slaves arrived (not "indentured servants," Governor "Black Face" Northam), in 1619. The nation of Ghana has graciously extended the offer of the "Year of Return" to the African diaspora. Some of us may take them up on it. I hope we don't have to. Though this union is imperfect, we helped build it and have stake in its success. That means fighting: at the ballet box and as citizens.
The kleptos in our current swamp - R or D variety - will keep running this game for 400 more years...if we have the luxury of that much time, and if we let them.
"Love, truth and justice must fight again." Rev. Dr. William J. Barber II
All together tirelessly, for the country, the planet and way of life we love.
Wilberforce University is a four-year, fully accredited liberal arts institution offering 20 academic concentrations in business, communications, computing and engineering sciences, humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. Wilberforce University also offers dual degree programs in architecture, aerospace, and nuclear engineering. Through the University’s Adult and Continuing Education Program, we offer Credentials for Leadership in Management and Business (CLIMB), for individuals interested in completing their bachelor of science degrees in organizational management, health care administration and information technology.
Early in 1856, the Methodist Episcopal Church purchased property for the new institution at Tawawa Springs, near Xenia, Ohio. For many years the institution operated with great success. The Civil War in 1862, shifted enrollment and financial support, unfortunately facilitating the closing of the original Wilberforce in 1862, for a year. In March of the 1863, Bishop Daniel A. Payne of the African Methodist Episcopal Church negotiated to purchase the University’s facilities. Payne, a member of the original 1856 corporation, secured the cooperation of John G. Mitchell, principal of the Eastern District Public School of Cincinnati, Ohio and James A. Shorter, pastor of the A.M.E. Church of Zanesville, Ohio. The property was soon turned over to them as agents of the church. The University was newly incorporated on July 10, 1863. In 1887 the State of Ohio began to fund the University by establishing a combined normal and industrial department. This department later became Central State University. Wilberforce also spawned another institution, Payne Theological Seminary. It was founded in 1891 as an outgrowth of the Theological Department at Wilberforce University. Today, Wilberforce University continues to build on its sacred traditions in the 21st Century.
In 1873, less than eight years after all hostilities were quieted from the Civil War, the Freedman’s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church founded Wiley College near Marshall, Texas for the purpose of allowing Negro youth the opportunity to pursue higher learning in the arts, sciences and other professions.
Named in honor of Bishop Isaac William Wiley, an outstanding minister, medical missionary and educator, Wiley College was founded during turbulent times for Blacks in America. Although African-American males were given the right to vote in 1870, intimidation of America’s newest citizens in the form of violence increased. The U.S. Supreme Court helped pave the way for segregation with the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision that approved of the “separate but equal” doctrine.
Bishop Wiley was born in Lewistown, Pennsylvania, on March 29, 1825. He became interested in the Christian ministry as a boy, joining the church at 14 years of age and became active in missionary work. At 18, he was authorized to preach under ministerial direction. Due to difficulties with his voice, he studied medicine and upon graduation from medical school became a medical and educational missionary in China. Wiley was elected bishop in 1864 and organized a Methodist conference in Japan. Bishop Wiley died on November 22, 1884 in his beloved China.
Winston-Salem State University was founded as Slater Industrial Academy on September 28, 1892. It began in a one-room frame structure with 25 pupils and one teacher. In 1895 the school was recognized by the State of North Carolina and in 1899 it was chartered by the state as Slater Industrial and State Normal School.
In 1925, the General Assembly of North Carolina recognized the school's curriculum above high school, changed its name to Winston-Salem Teachers College and empowered it under authority of the State Board of Education to confer appropriate degrees. Winston-Salem Teachers College thus became the first black institution in the nation to grant degrees for teaching in the elementary grades.
The School of Nursing was established in 1953 and awards graduates the bachelor of science degree. In 1963 the North Carolina General Assembly authorized changing the name from Winston-Salem Teachers College to Winston-Salem State College. A statute designating Winston-Salem State College as Winston-Salem State University received legislative approval in 1969. On October 30, 1971, the General Assembly reorganized higher education in North Carolina. On July 1, 1972, Winston-Salem State University became one of 16 constituent institutions of the University of North Carolina subject to the control of a Board of Governors.
Katharine Drexel was born into great wealth in Philadelphia in 1858. Her father was Francis Anthony Drexel, head of the Drexel Banking Company and her mother was Hannah Langstroth Drexel. Her mother died within weeks of Katharine’s birth leaving Francis with sole responsibility not only for Katharine but also for her older sister Elizabeth. A few years later, their father married Emma Bouvier. A younger sister, Louise, was added to the family 3 years later.
Katharine and her sisters were privileged not only by wealth, but also by faith and love. Their lives were permeated by the word and example of their parents who stressed the primacy of faith and the necessity of good stewardship.
Both of their parents died when all three girls were in their 20’s. They were devastated by both deaths but they were determined to carry on the legacy of their parents.
At the time of Francis’ death, the Drexel’s had amassed a $15 million fortune that today would probably be worth close to $300 million. In his will, Francis had put the money in trust and indicated that the income from the trust was to be equally divided by his daughters and their offspring, not their husbands. His intent was to ward off suitors who might be looking for money. If at the death of the third daughter, there were no surviving offspring, the principal of the trust was to be divided among a group of Philadelphia area charities that he designated.
In order to identify Xavier’s founding mission we need to return to the year 1915. That year, Archbishop Blenk of New Orleans approached Mother Katharine about the lack of Catholic higher education for African Americans. With the guidance of the Josephites, Archbishop Blenk was able to offer a plan: Southern University that had been located uptown on Magazine St. in New Orleans had been moved to Baton Rouge in 1912 due to pressure from White neighbors. Their abandoned building which was well suited to higher education was about to be auctioned to the highest bidder.
After prayer, consultation and a personal visit to see the property, Mother Katharine purchased the building and surrounding property through a third party. Old Southern—became St. Francis Xavier, named after a great missionary.
Xavier flourished from the beginning. By 1925 a Teachers College and College of Arts and Sciences had been established and by 1927 a College of Pharmacy had been added. As the college thrived and the high school also expanded, it became clear that additional space was needed. Property on Washington and Pine was purchased in 1929 and the new buildings were dedicated in 1932.
Virginia State University was founded on March 6, 1882, when the legislature passed a bill to charter the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute. The bill was sponsored by Delegate Alfred W. Harris, a Black attorney whose offices were in Petersburg, but lived in and represented Dinwiddie County in the General Assembly.
The first person to bear the title of president, John Mercer Langston, was a well-known African-American of his day. Until 1992, he was the only African-American elected to the United States Congress from Virginia (elected in 1888); and he was the great-uncle of the famed writer Langston Hughes.
Researched by Raymond Hylton, Professor of History
Virginia Union University - History Header
Our mission at Virginia Union University was first put into operation shortly after April 3, 1865, the date when Richmond, Virginia was liberated by troops of the United States Army of the James. It was then that representatives from our founding organization, the American Baptist Home Mission Society, came to the former Confederate capital as teachers and missionaries. In that same month, eleven teachers were holding classes for former slaves at two missions in the city. By November 1865 the Mission Society had established, and was officially holding classes for, Richmond Theological School for Freedmen, one of the four institutions forming the “Union” that gives our University its name. Even though the Civil War had ended and that same year the 13th Amendment to the Constitution officially abolished slavery, many trials still lay ahead. It became more and more certain that freedom would not, of itself, be enough. It could not sufficiently address the problems of a large, newly-emancipated population that had been systematically kept down and denied training skills, opportunities, and even literacy itself. Some slaves had been severely punished for even trying to read the Bible.
Fortunately, there were many who cared, and who would try to impart the education and skills necessary for the full enjoyment of freedom and citizenship, to the newly-freed population. One such group of concerned individuals were the members of the American Baptist Home Mission Society (ABHMS). They proposed a “National Theological Institute” designed primarily at providing education and training for African-Americans to enter into the Baptist ministry; and soon this mission would expand into offering courses and programs at college, high school and even preparatory levels, to both men and women.
In 1865, following the surrender of the Confederacy, branches of the “National Theological Institute” were set up in Washington, D.C. and Richmond, Virginia. The Washington institution received a $1,500 grant from the Freedman’s Bureau and met at various locations including: Judiciary Square; “I” Street; Louisiana Avenue and, finally, Meridian Hill. The school became known as Wayland Seminary; and it acquired a sterling reputation under the direction of its president, Dr. George Mellen Prentiss King. Dr. King administered Wayland for thirty years (1867-97) and stayed on as a professor for twenty additional years at both Wayland and at Virginia Union University. The King Gate which currently faces Lombardy Street and is situated between Ellison Hall and the Baptist Memorial Building was named in his honor shortly before he died in 1917. Among the notable students to grace Wayland’s halls were: Dr. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. the famous pastor of New York’s Abyssinian Baptist Church; Dr. Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee University and author of Up From Slavery; Reverend Harvey Johnson of Baltimore, Maryland – pastor and early civil rights activist; Kate Drumgoold, author of A Slave Girl’s Story: Being an account of Kate Drumgoold (1898); Henry Vinton Plummer, Civil War Naval combat hero and U.S. Army Chaplain to the “Buffalo Soldiers”; and Albert L. Cralle, inventor of the ice-cream scoop.
Virginia Seminary and College was organized in May 1886 during the 19th annual session of the Virginia Baptist State Convention at the First Baptist Church in Lexington, Va. The Rev. P.F. Morris, pastor of Court Street Baptist Church in Lynchburg, Va., offered the resolution that authorized the establishment of the institution. Just 21 years out of slavery, African American Baptist leaders founded Lynchburg’s oldest institution of higher education for men and women to meet the growing demands of our community for better-educated and trained ministers, missionaries, and public school teachers.
In July 1886, lawyer James H. Hayes of Richmond was appointed to obtain a charter for the school. During the 1888 session of the Virginia Baptist State Convention, the location of the school in Lynchburg, the plans and specifications for the first brick building, the letting of the contract for the erection of the building and the charter were approved. The cornerstone of the first building was laid in July 1888. The school was opened on Jan. 18, 1890, by Professor R. P. Armstead with an enrollment of 33 students.
Inspiration, determination, imagination, faith. All four have been pillar principles in Voorhees College's century-long history of changing minds and changing lives.
That history started with Elizabeth Evelyn Wright, who at 23 was only a little older than today's Voorhees students when she came to Bamberg County. A native of Georgia, Wright had found her inspiration while studying at Booker T. Washington's famed Tuskegee Institute. She said time at Tuskegee gave her a mission in life: being “the same type of woman as Mr. Washington was of a man." Knowing the importance of education, she moved to Denmark and started the first of several schools in the rural area She survived threats, attacks and arson.
Wright went back to Tuskegee to finish her degree before returning to South Carolina to try again. Undeterred and envisioning a better future for blacks through education, she founded Denmark Industrial School in 1897, modeling it after Tuskegee. New Jersey philanthropist Ralph Voorhees and his wife donated $5,000 to buy the land and build the first building, allowing the school to open in 1902 with Wright as principal. It was the only high school for blacks in the area.
Acts of the Legislature of West Virginia at its Twentieth Regular Session, commencing January 14, 1891.
AN ACT accepting the provisions of the act of congress approved August thirtieth, eighteen hundred and ninety, entitled "An act to apply a portion of the proceeds of the public lands to the more complete endowment and support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, established under the provisions of an act of congress approved July second, eight hundred and sixty-two," and providing for the apportionment of said endowment according to the provisions of said act. [Passed March 4, 1891.]
West Virginia State University - 125 Years of Passion and Purpose - YouTube
On September 14, 1927, the Houston Public School Board agreed to fund the development of two junior colleges: one for whites and one for African-Americans. And so, with a loan from the Houston Public School Board of $2,800, the Colored Junior College was born in the summer of 1927 under the supervision of the Houston School District. The main provision of the authorization was that the college meet all instructional expenses from tuition fees collected from the students enrolling in the college. The initial enrollment for the first summer was 300. For the fall semester, the enrollment dropped to 88 students because many of the 300 enrolled during the summer semester were teachers who had to return to their jobs once the school year began.
The Colored Junior College was established to provide an opportunity for African-Americans to receive college training. The Junior College progressed so fast that by 1931, it became a member of the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and was approved by the Southern Association of Colleges.
Tougaloo College is a private, coeducational, historically black four-year liberal arts, church related, but not church controlled institution. It sits on 500 acres of land located on West County Line Road on the northern edge of Jackson, Mississippi. In Good Biblical Style, one might say that the Amistad, the famous court case which freed Africans who were accused of mutiny after they killed a part of the captor crew of the slave ship Amistad and took over the vessel, begat the American Missionary Association, and the American Missionary Association begat Tougaloo College and her five sister institutions.
In 1869, the American Missionary Association of New York purchased five hundred acres of land from John Boddie, owner of the Boddie Plantation to establish a school for the training of young people "irrespective of religious tenets and conducted on the most liberal principles for the benefit of our citizens in general". The Mississippi State Legislature granted the institution a charter under the name of "Tougaloo University" in 1871. The Normal Department was recognized as a teacher training school until 1892, at which time the College ceased to receive aid from the state. Courses for college credit were first offered in 1897, and in 1901, the first Bachelor of Arts degree was awarded to Traverse S. Crawford. In 1916, the name of the institution was changed to Tougaloo College.
H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College was created through the consolidation of John M. Patterson State Technical College and H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College in April 2000. The Trenholm Campus was designated as the main campus of the combined institutions. Both institutions were accredited by the Council on Occupational Education, which granted approval for the merger in March 2002.
In December 2014, Trenholm State was granted initial accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC) to award associate degrees.
In May 2015, H. Councill Trenholm State Technical College officially became H. Councill Trenholm State Community College.
The John M. Patterson State Technical School was established as a result of the 1947 passage of Regional Vocational and Trade School Act 673 by the Alabama State Legislature. The Montgomery County Board of Revenue and the City of Montgomery purchased 43 acres of land at the junction of the Southern Bypass and U.S. 231 South in 1961. The school opened on September 4, 1962. Patterson was named a technical college by action of the State Board of Education in 1974.
Welcome to Tuskegee University- "the pride of the swift, growing south." Founded in a one room shanty, near Butler Chapel AME Zion Church, thirty adults represented the first class - Dr. Booker T. Washington the first teacher. The founding date was July 4, 1881, authorized by House Bill 165.
We should give credit to George Campbell, a former slave owner, and Lewis Adams, a former slave, tinsmith and community leader, for their roles in the founding of the University. Adams had not had a day of formal education but could read and write. In addition to being a tinsmith, he was also a shoemaker and harness-maker. And he could well have been experienced in other trades. W. F. Foster was a candidate for re-election to the Alabama Senate and approached Lewis Adams about the support of African-Americans in Macon County.
What would Adams want, Foster asked, in exchange for his (Adams) securing the black vote for him (Foster). Adams could well have asked for money, secured the support of blacks voters and life would have gone on as usual. But he didn't. Instead, Adams told Foster he wanted an educational institution - a school - for his people. Col. Foster carried out his promise and with the assistance of his colleague in the House of Representatives, Arthur L. Brooks, legislation was passed for the establishment of a "Negro Normal School in Tuskegee."
A $2,000 appropriation, for teachers’ salaries, was authorized by the legislation. Lewis Adams, Thomas Dryer, and M. B. Swanson formed the board of commissioners to get the school organized. There was no land, no buildings, no teachers only State legislation authorizing the school. George W. Campbell subsequently replaced Dryer as a commissioner. And it was Campbell, through his nephew, who sent word to Hampton Institute in Virginia looking for a teacher.
Booker T. Washington got the nod and he made the Lewis Adams dream happen. He was principal of the school from July 4, 1881, until his death in 1915. He was not 60 years old when he died. Initial space and building for the school was provided by Butler Chapel AME Zion Church not far from this present site. Not long after the founding, however, the campus was moved to "a 100 acre abandoned plantation" which became the nucleus of the present site.
The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) was chartered on March 16, 1962, as the College of the Virgin Islands — a publicly funded, coeducational, liberal arts institution — by Act No. 852 of the Fourth Legislature of the U.S. Virgin Islands. According to that law, UVI's cornerstone objective is to provide for "...the stimulation and utilization of the intellectual resources of the people of the Virgin Islands and the development of a center of higher learning whereby and where from the benefits of culture and education may be extended throughout the Virgin Islands."
The enabling legislation was the result of at least two years of preparation and planning. In 1960, the V.I. Legislature created a temporary body called the Virgin Islands College Commission, comprised of interested island residents, to survey the need for a territorial college. In April 1961, Governor Ralph M. Paiewonsky pledged to establish such a college in his inaugural address. And in July 1961, Governor Paiewonsky hosted a Governor's Conference on Higher Education, at which twenty educators observed and analyzed the Virgin Islands' educational scene, and made recommendations for the creation of the College of the Virgin Islands (CVI).
The first campus opened on St. Thomas in July 1963, on 175 acres donated by the federal government. The first Board of Trustees took office in August 1963. In 1964, the college founded a second campus on St. Croix, on 130 acres also donated by the federal government.
Written by Rev. Nita Byrd, University Chaplain
The patron Saint of Saint Augustine’s University is Augustine of Hippo. Saint Augustine was born on November 13, 354 CE in Thagaste, Numidia, a province in North Africa which is present day Algeria. Source: History
Topics: African Americans, Civil Rights, Education, Human Rights, Women's Rights
Saint Augustine’s University was chartered as Saint Augustine Normal School and Collegiate Institute on July 19, 1867, by the Reverend J. Brinton Smith, D.D., secretary of the Freedman’s Commission of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and the Right Reverend Thomas Atkinson, D.D., Bishop of the Diocese of North Carolina. Bishop Atkinson became the first president of the Board of Trustees and Dr. Smith was the first principal. The new school opened its doors for instruction on January 13, 1868.
In 1893, the School’s name changed from Saint Augustine Normal School to Saint Augustine’s School. In 1919, the name changed to Saint Augustine’s Junior College, the first year in which postsecondary instruction was offered. The School became a four-year institution in 1927. In 1928, the institution was renamed Saint Augustine’s College. Baccalaureate degrees were first awarded in 1931.
The College further extended its mission by establishing St. Agnes Hospital and Training School for Nurses to provide medical care for and by African Americans. It was the first nursing school in the state of North Carolina for African-American students, and served as the only hospital to served African Americans until 1960. One most famous patients to be admitted to St. Agnes was Jack Johnson, the first African-American world heavyweight boxing champion. Johnson was admitted following an accident that ultimately led to his death in 1946.
St. Philip's College, founded in 1898, is a comprehensive public community college whose mission is to empower our diverse student population through educational achievement and career readiness. As a Historically Black College and Hispanic Serving Institution, St. Philip's College is a vital facet of the community, responding to the needs of a population rich in ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic diversity.
Stillman College, authorized by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States in 1875, held its first classes in 1876 and was chartered as a legal corporation by the State of Alabama in 1895. At that time, the name was changed from Tuscaloosa Institute to Stillman Institute. The Institute was a concept initiated by the Reverend Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church of Tuscaloosa. The mandate for the Institution expanded over the years and it acquired its present campus tract of over 100 acres.
Stillman College is a liberal arts institution with a historical and formal affiliation with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). It is committed to fostering academic excellence, to providing opportunities for diverse populations, and to maintaining a strong tradition of preparing students for leadership and service by fostering experiential learning and community engagement designed to equip and empower Stillman’s students and its constituents.
The history of Talladega College began on November 20, 1865 when two former slaves, William Savery and Thomas Tarrant, both of Talladega, met in convention with a group of new freedmen in Mobile, Alabama. From this meeting came the commitment: "...We regard the education of our children and youths as vital to the preservation of our liberties, and true religion as the foundation of all real virtue, and shall use our utmost endeavors to promote these blessings in our common country."
With this as their pledge, Savery and Tarrant, aided by General Wager Swayne of the Freedmen's Bureau, began in earnest to provide a school for the children of former slaves of the community. Their leadership resulted in the construction of a one-room schoolhouse, using lumber salvaged from an abandoned carpenter's shop. The school overflowed with pupils from its opening, and soon it was necessary to move into larger quarters.
Meanwhile, the nearby Baptist Academy was about to be sold under mortgage default. This building had been built in 1852-53 with the help of slaves including Savery and Tarrant. A speedy plea for its purchase was sent to General Swayne. General Swayne then persuaded the American Missionary Association to buy the building and 20 acres of land for $23,000. The grateful parents renamed the building Swayne School, and it opened in November of 1867 with about 140 pupils. Thus, a building constructed with slave labor for white students became the home of the state's first private, liberal arts college dedicated to servicing the educational needs of blacks.
Founded in 1912, Tennessee State University (TSU) is a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant institution. Our Nashville home offers two locations—the 500-acre main campus nestles in a beautiful residential neighborhood along the Cumberland River, and the downtown Avon Williams campus sits near the center of Nashville’s business and government district.
AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL NORMAL SCHOOL
In 1909, the Tennessee State General Assembly created three normal schools, including the Agricultural and Industrial Normal School, which would grow to become TSU. The first 247 students began their academic careers on June 19, 1912, and William Jasper Hale served as head of the school. Students, faculty, and staff worked together as a family to keep the institution operating, whether the activity demanded clearing rocks, harvesting crops, or carrying chairs from class to class.
The College’s history states that in the Spring of 1894, Texas College was founded by a group of ministers affiliated with the Christian Methodist Episcopal (CME) Church. The founding represented the start of the educational process for a group of disenfranchised individuals in the area of east Texas, City of Tyler.
The Charter as originally issued July 1, 1907, indicates that the name of the corporation was established as “Texas College,” with the purpose of an educational institution designed to operate under the supervision care and ownership of the CME Church in America. The exclusive educational direction was to include the education of youths, male and female, in all branches of a literary, scientific and classical education wherein [all] shall be taught theology, normal training of teachers, music, commercial and industrial training, and agricultural and mechanical sciences.
On June 12, 1909, the name of the college was changed from Texas College to Phillips University. The noted change was associated with Bishop Henry Phillips, as a result of his leadership and educational interests for mankind. The name change was short lived and reportedly lasted until actions for a name reversal occurred in 1910 at the Third Annual Conference of the church. In May 1912, the college was officially renamed Texas College.