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Office design: types, standards, functional layouts and interior design. A complete guide to optimal office space planning, together with practical examples, DWGs and a 3D model to download
A comfortable and well designed office is the “ideal” place where to work, because the employee’s well-being increases production quality and quantity. Furthermore, offices are environments where people spend most of their day. Therefore, designing an office is an important topic to address.
In addition to the specific standards, it is important to consider other design aspects, such as ergometry and workstations arrangement.
In this article we will provide an overview about how to design a smart workplace focusing on the following aspects:
types of offices
working environment comfort
electric power systems.
In addition, we’ll be taking a look at different types of office spaces by developing an open space office project, and produce the relating DWG drawings and the 3D model that you can download for free.
Safety standards and a series of provisions to protect workers’ health are envisaged at international level and must be taken into account when planning an office.
An organizational approach, premises, furnishings, technical equipment and the configuration of work stations should be functional according to the activities carried out and are key for the employees’ well-being. Standards promote sustainability in a workplace and their importance is evident
Let’s see some examples of rules and/or standards to follow.
ISO, The International Organization for Standardization, has developed some international standards, including:
It is fundamental to establish, already during the planning phase, which activities will be carried out within the premises and which are the requirements for a correct workstations configuration.
We can distinguish different types of office space:
cellular office layout – the floor plan is divided up into smaller or individual spaces, suitable for individual work and which do not require information exchange. This can be done by creating various separate rooms or cubicles by means of half-height dividing partitions within the larger floor plan.
open plan office – is a term for any floor plan which makes use of large, open and undivided space for multiple workstations. It is an option suitable for large groups of employees, whose work is largely divided and based on routine activities requiring low concentration levels.
activity-based office – spaces are designed to create opportunities for a varietyof workplace activities. It involves different types of meetings and interactive situations. Employees will change their workstation during the day according to the type of task that they need to complete.
team enclosures – team offices allow members of the same team to work together without losing concentration and getting distracted by people not in their immediate team. This is ideal for creative teams where brainstorming and discussion are a large part of the day routine.
How to design an office: space arrangements
A workplace must be well designed keeping in mind its final use and avoiding lack of movement for employees.
Office environment dimensions
Generally, when designing an office, the following minimum dimensions need to be considered for each environment:
net height 2,70 m
surface 9 m²
surface per employee at least 5 m²
Service areas are those that do not involvecontinues presence of people (such as corridors, warehouses and archives, changing rooms, toilets, possible shower rooms, etc).
Changing rooms and toilet areas cannot be in direct contact with the work environments, so a passageway must be provided.
Service areas can be:
obtained from aboveground, basement or semi-basement rooms;
ventilated both naturally or through ventilation systems.
Accessory and support environments
Accessory or support areas includes:
health facilities (medication rooms, clinics);
refectories or company canteens;
living and resting areas.
Accessory and support environments must be provided with the same ventilation and lighting characteristics that are intended for the other work spaces, even through plant installations when necessary.
Mezzanines used for office purposes
Typically, a stud and track partitioning system will be used to build the required room above or below the mezzanine floor. There are a certain number of aspects to consider when designing an office mezzanine floor. From building contol consideration, through to power and lighting requirements. In addition, when designing a mezzanine floor it is important that the correct loadings and deflection are calculated.
When designing an office, the comfort of the environment and of the workers, as already mentioned, is of fundamental importance. Other aspects that must be taken into account are:
Lighting design in a workplace is perhaps one of the most difficult aspects to manage, because it is connected to production capacity and it should also guarantee that psycho-physical conditions are best preserved, thus making the working environment a more comfortable and safe place.
Office environments ventilation
Ventilation in the office is an aspect that should not be underestimated, since microclimate conditions (including air speed, humidity and temperature) are very important to ensure the well-being of those who work there.
Many regulations worldwide state that, workplaces need to be adequately ventilated in the proper manner by which clean air is drawn from an external source outside of the workplace and circulated throughout the building. Whether by natural or mechanical means, it should dilute and remove humid air and provide sufficient air movement to give a feeling of freshness without causing a draught.
One of the elements that contribute to workers’ well-being is the control of acoustic requirements of the working environment.
When designing an office, in order to have good acoustic comfort, and always considering the type of activities that will be carried out, it is advisable to provide offices with closed compartments rather than areas with side wall partitions and false ceiling.
Project DWGs of an office open space
In this section you’ll have the opportunity to download the project drawings (floor plans and sections) in DWG and the 3D BIM model for free.
a short software presentation to show you how easy it is to use ACCA software solutions
a quick starter course, to discover the basic elements of the software, with lessons designed for progressive learning with minimum effort and to be immediately operational in a quick and correct way.
An example of the new ACCA software training program with Edificius
Amongst other things, you can access Edificius Training page to attend free training courses on the use of BIM for 3D architectural design.
In the dedicated section there is a short course presentation, a 2-hour quick starter course.
To whom are Edificius courses addressed?
Courses are addressed to students, academics and professionals that want to be updated on BIM methodology applied to architectural design to find out more about the advantages that they can obtain from adopting it.
Most importantly, courses can be attended both by clients and by users that intend to first test the product. In this latter case, we suggest to either install the software Trial or Educational version so you can practise during the course.
Building renovation: types of renovation and definitions
There are various types of intervention, especially when it comes to an apartment renovation.
Let’s see them in detail:
“ordinary maintenance interventions“ are building interventions regarding repair, renovation and finishes replacement together with works necessary to integrate and maintain existing plant installations;
“extraordinary maintenance interventions“ are works necessary to renovate and replace structural parts of buildings, as well as to integrate sanitation and technological services;
“conservation and restoration of cultural heritage“ focuses on building interventions aimed at preserving the property unit and ensuring its functionality. These interventions include consolidation, restoration and renewal of the building’s constituent elements, inserting accessory elements and plant installations according to specific needs;
“building renovation“ involves interventions tha aim at, entirely or partially, transforming existing real estate units. These interventions include the restoration or replacement of some building elements, by removing, modifying and inserting new elements and installations. This process might also include demolition and reconstruction interventions.
Therefore, an intervention that modifies the distribution and architectural structure of an internal environment can be considered:
extraordinary light maintenance, if it involves the replacement of existing non-structural elements
heavy extraordinary maintenance, if it involves the replacement of existing elements, including structural ones
light building renovation, if new elements and systems are to be installed.
In short, the difference between building renovation and extraordinary maintenance is essentially the addition of new elements. In fact, restructuring can be considered as a series of works to transform the building with the aim of improving or modernising an old, damaged or defective building.
Building renovation and authorizations
Once the correct type of renovation has been identified, legal and regulatory authorizations are generally required to proceed with the start of works.
Each country adopts different types of procedures and documentation to be produced in order to obtain these authorizations.
Building renovation and design phases
An apartment renovation project includes different phases and interventions connected to each other within the unitary project. The first phase involves site inspection and accurate survey, with verification of the state of the main plant installations (water, thermal, electrical). Project drawings are produced during this stage.
Subsequently, according to the indications and requests of the client, the apartment is redesigned for functional and architectural purposes. During the progress of the three different project phases (preliminary, definitive and executive), the necessary elements are created for drafting a cost estimate and obtain the financial assessment of the entire intervention.
Finally, after proceeding with the choice of materials to be used for renovation (cladding, flooring, painting, etc.) construction works begin.
Consequently, the various phases of the design process for any type of intervention include:
Data and area view retrieval, approved projects
Metric, material and photographic survey of the state of sites
Preparation of the preliminary project
Final / executive project processing
Drafting of necessary documentation to begin works
Apartment renovation project cost
To estimate the complete cost of an apartment renovation project, it is necessary to prepare a detailed cost estimating that associates the work to be performed to the relative quantities and unit costs. The generic structure of a cost estimate can be articulated as follows:
Handling of material from demolitions and transportation to an authorized landfill;
Construction of new plant installations, new partitions, screeds, floors, claddings, plasters, false ceilings, painting;
Supply and installation of sanitary equipment, doors and fixtures
In the next focus insights we will provide in-depth information on the methodology to use in order to produce cost estimating by analyzing an apartment renovation project as a case study and providing a practical example to download.
In this section we’ll be analyzing the functional and architectural transformation of an apartment built during the 60s-70s that presents the typical spaces distribution designed around a long central hall. The entrance to the living unit opens directly on the shorter side of the central hall. On the left side you can access to the kitchen and kitchenette, then to the bathroom and the bedroom. On the opposite side you can access the living room, dining room and a second bedroom. Each environment is functionally independent from the other.
The objective of the project is to design a space in line with the current housing needs of an average family. For this reason, the living area has been completely redesigned by creating a single space that includes a living room and a dining area. The eat-in kitchen is connected to the open space through large glass sliding doors that allow greater privacy when needed. The hall is thus reduced to the minimum and equipped with hangers and bookcases to optimize spaces. The sleeping area, separated from the living area, preserves the original bedrooms unaltered, enhanced by the addition of service areas such as the walk-in closet and private bathroom.
This case is an example of building renovation, as it is planned to add installations ex novo that don’t exist at the current situation.
Apartment renovation project with DWGs
Below, you can find available for download, project drawings (floor plans and sections) and the 3D model of an apartment renovation example.
New highly specialized professionals and 3D printers in the AEC sector complete the ranking of the top 10 construction technology innovations that will be the most influential in 2019
Digital technology is an essential component of today’s construction landscape. In this fourth and final insight dealing with construction technology innovations we’ll be taking a look at new professionals that are highly specialized in 3D printing construction.
In our previous posts we have reviewed wearable technologies, augmented reality and green asphalt (article part 1).
In our second article we have particularly focused on drones for site surveying, self-healing concrete, robotics and self-driving vehicles (part 2).
Finally, our third article has addressed great opportunities offered by BIM platforms and the use of transparent aluminum in the construction sector (part 3) .
Below is our pick of the 10 most influential technological trends that will shape the AEC industry in 2019:
augmented reality in the design phase
green and eco-sustainable asphalt
drones and laser scanners for surveying
innovative self-healing concretes
robotics and building automation
new specialized professionals
3D printers for the construction industry
New specialized professionals
The transformation of the construction sector, determined by technological innovation, has increased the need to hire professionals with new skills that are specialized in the following areas of expertise:
ROBOTICS: mechanical / automation engineer, test engineer, robotics developer
Some of these new experts have actually obtained traditional degrees (computer / electronic / mechanical engineering, computer science), while others have undertaken training and professional courses of shorter duration.
Furthermore, there are other professional roles that are clearly regulated at international level and their employment is linked to direct work experience.
Let’s analyze some of the most innovative and less common roles.
Drones pilot and coordinator
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), commonly called drones, are now widely used to inspect sites, for example for surveying operations, and in many other sectors. Being a very practical and cost-effective tool, it is expected that the drone market will grow exponentially in the next 10 years and, therefore, there will be a strong request for specialized personnel.
Legal regulation should necessarily be applied together with appropriate training of professional figures capable of flying and coordinating drones, to guarantee safety through continuous monitoring and full control.
Drone pilot employed for monitoring a construction site
Since the rapid spread of drones can be a source of danger, but also of privacy concerns, many countries have already legislated on the matter, making the flight license mandatory for professional drone pilots.
On the contrary, if the drone is used for recreational purposes, no courses or certificates are required.
Robots pilot and developer
The robotic presence in the construction industry is growing and diversifying, urging for more adequate human control.
Automa used to make masonry walls
Robots’ potential is already evident when it comes to automating dangerous or highly repetitive activities, from brick and reinforced concrete walls construction, to site investigations and hazardous substances contact.
On the market, it is already possible to find fully automated vehicles and systems that can perform heavy work, such as levelling, cutting, filling, excavation, etc.
For certain tasks robots can be superior to humans in terms of the quality of the work that is produced in a single working day. At some point, 24-hour automated construction will, most likely, only require human supervision and machine control.
3D printing for construction
The process of converting a digital file into a physical object has been around since the end of the 1980s, but only in recent years the 3D printing has become a modelling tool in the design and construction sector.
This is the technological evolution of the traditional “models” used to analyze a new construction project in a more intuitive and immediate way.
Architectural model made with a 3D printer
AEC companies (architecture, engineering and construction) have placed great hopes in the integration of 3D printing with:
BIM – building information modelling
production/manufacturing of building components
3D printing works similarly to normal printing. The process starts with creating a file, specifically, a CAD or BIM model. Files are then sent to a dedicated software that is connected to the printer and that extracts file data by subdividing them into hundreds (or thousands) of levels.
Finally, the 3D printer produces the model layer by layer, that are cut to shape and joined together.
3D printing offers several advantages over traditional manufacturing techniques:
models are faster and cheaper to make
design life-cycles (planning / 3D model / verification) are shorter with faster iterations
total freedom in design (without limits in forms and structures associated with the traditional production)
Building prototype produced with a 3D printer
The most innovative and sometimes experimental uses for 3D printing in the AEC sector include:
design and implementation of details in small scales (even 1: 1)
BIM is just 3D modelling, it takes more time and it is only for big and complex projects: these are some common misconceptions about BIM that need to be dispelled
There are a lot of misconceptions and legends about what is BIM that discourage some professionals from adopting it. Technical experts, which are not well informed, still believe that BIM is just a 3D modeler to use for large projects and that it is a complicated process requiring long training time.
Without a doubt, BIM represents a great opportunity for all technical experts and the above-mentioned aspects aren’t always true.
1. BIM is just a 3D modelling tool
Producing information models doesn’t simply mean creating a 3D model of a building.
A 3D model is a three-dimensional shape or surface in a computer-generated virtual space. CAD programs can be used to define its geometry and assign various construction elements such as walls, columns and ceilings. Each construction element is a 3D model object.
We refer to BIM whenever we can associate data and information to every single element of a 3D model.
Specifically, each BIM model integrates several information. For example, it can contain information such as the room name, room number, component manufacturing, all maintenance operations, etc.
Building Information Modeling Modeling is, thus, a process and a methodology based on a 3D digital model (which requires 3D modeling capabilities); but this is only part of the larger process. The digital BIM model includes both graphical and non-graphical information published in a digitally shared space.
Therefore, models created with BIM technology are not simple representations of 3D buildings, but they also contain different types of data regarding different components of a building (geometry, material properties, supporting structure, systems, energy performance, site organization, maintenance operations, asset management). To work in this way, it will imply thinking about people, processes, technology and not just the 3D model.
2. BIM is just for large projects
Another big preconception about BIM is that it is used only for large projects.
On the contrary, BIM covers large, medium and small projects, all types and sizes of constructions, including buildings and infrastructure projects.
The dimension of the project is irrelevant; the advantages from using BIM are significant in many areas and for different AEC companies. It is evident that, this method reduces design errors, improves communication with clients, offers better documentation and cost control and increases productivity.
BIM is a “philosophy” to all effects that addresses a project and its execution and that is subject to any type of intervention with different dimensions.
Small organizations are very often in competition with much larger studios and need to offer equivalent solutions in order to be successful. Obviously, small organizations would not fit for competition by only presenting 2D project drawings, compared to those that, on the contrary, present 3D models, renderings etc.
It is largely proved that the use of BIM technology allows small, unstructured studios to demonstrate to clients that they are able to produce sophisticated solutions at a lower cost.
3. BIM is too complicated
Any process that involves new ways of working will undoubtedly imply uncertainty and careful considerations and BIM doesn’t exempt from that.
Building Information Modeling methodology is fundamental for the digital management of buildings. Certainly, the approach requires training, like everything that changes a specific work approach.
ACCA software, a company that plays a leadership role in BIM technology development, has been involved for many years in spreading methodologies and opportunities relating to BIM. ACCA software is also highly engaged in organizing meetings and trainingevents, online courses and webinar for users that want to deepen their knowledge and improve their use of BIM software solutions.
Investing in Building Information Modeling will bring many benefits such as cost reduction, safer delivery times, lower environmental impact, higher productivity.
4. It requires time
More than 75% of architectural studios and companies that use BIM have immediate positive return on investments, gaining shorter project life cycles and savings on office work and material costs, drastic reduction of errors and misunderstandings.
BIM requires a completely different way of working and thinking. Whereas a CAD software is used to design an object in 3D and creates schematics of that object for manufacturing, a BIM software applies CAD concepts to designing buildings, creating models that include not just the physical but also the intrinsic properties of a building.
This will take some more time on an initial phase, but it will surely save time later.
The complete guide to Sport facilities design with technical guidelines, rules and regulations, standard dimensions, DWG CAD drawings and 3D BIM models ready to download: tennis court and sport changing room projects
A sport and recreational facility is a place where to practice sports and, at the same time, improve mental, physical and social well-being. Typically, each type of structure has specific areas dedicated to different sports and integrated with common areas and changing rooms.
In our previous post we have seen how to address sport facilities design using an architectural BIM design software, specifically focusing on: a Futsal pitch and a Basketball court.
This time we’ll be taking a look at another common sport facility: the Tennis court.
Additionally, we’ll be also showing how to design a sport venue changing room.
Complete guide to a tennis court project
The aim of this guide is to provide some useful suggestions on how to design a tennis court, particularly focusing on the flooring types, general dimensions, court measurements and some relating reference standards. The guide comes together with a selection of project floor plans other DWG CAD resources and the 3D BIM model ready for download.
A series of specific parameters must be considered to plan the ideal tennis court. Some of them will be relevant in case of an indoor project design:
accessibility, well connected by public transport and roads, presence of parking lots
possibility of carrying out further expansion and renovation works (such as integration of other courts or venues)
environmental health, quiteness, green areas
absence of strong prevailing winds
absence of constraints of any kind that prevent courts to be covered with both seasonal or permanent solutions
environmental morphology, levels and tolerance of surface regularity
connections to technical systems, water, electricity networks.
The court surface must have suitable morphological and geological characteristics. In addition, it must be sufficiently flat, have good stability and absence of problems with standing water.
It is the designer responsibility to enhance the appearance of the court and prolong the life of the surface by preventing earth movements and reducing relating maintenance works.
Glare must be limited to avoid a decrease in visual performance. Therefore, the sun should have a lateral position with respect to the main axis of the field.
Tribunes and seats for the public should be arranged according to the edges of the field, with special attention to the longer sides.
The possible presence of surrounding buildings must not cast shadows on the courts that can affect the visibility of players. In case of strong winds presence, tree and hedge barriers must be installed.
The ideal environmental context for a tennis court should be set in green areas with the presence of plants and hedges. In this regard, we need to consider some design criteria:
the shade of the trees can cause poor visibility for players at certain times of the day
the presence of trees can force to constant and frequent cleaning and consequently may cause damage to the sport flooring surfaces
tall trees must be kept away from the fields, because the roots could jeopardize the flatness of the ground
for grass surfaces, watering and drainage systems must be provided
it may be important to use dividing hedges as field fence, for better sound insulation.
To prevent vegetation from spreading to the playing court, it is advisable to isolate it from the ground by creating a perimeter concrete curb. The curb should be at least 30 cm wide and approximately 80 cm deep.
The dimensions and technical characteristics of a tennis court are regulated by the International Tennis Federation and are written down in the Rules of Tennis document.
Shorter side width for single matches is 8,23 m (27 ft) /for double matches is 10,97 m (36 ft)
Longer side width is 23,77 m
Shorter side of the court including margin measures from 17,07 m to 20,11 m
Longer side of the court including margin measures from 34,77 m to 40,23 m
Standard measures of the court and margins
Rectangle «A» dimensions (centre mark) 8,23 x 5,485 m
Rectangle «B»dimensions (single sideline) 1,37 x 11,885 m
Rectangle «C» dimensions(centre service line) 4,115 x 6,40 m
Shorter side margin dimensions from 3,05 m to 4,57 m
Longer side margin dimensions from 5,50 m to 8,23 m
Distance between net and chair umpire 1,20 m
Shorter side of the court single 10,058 m / double 12.798 m
Lines width is between 2,5 and 5 cm, although the baseline can be double that in thickness. The serviceline should be at least 5 cm large and 10 cm long.
Net and posts size
The net is 0,914 m high in the centre and 1,07 m high at posts. The net are 0,91 m outside the doubles court. In detail:
Net width for single match 10,058 m
Net width for double match 12,798 m
Net height on the sides 1,07 m
Net height on the centre 0,91 m
Net mesh size (hemp or nylon) 4,4 x 4,4 cm
Net height (vinyl headband) da 5 a 6,3 cm
Round posts Ø 7,5 cm
Rectangular posts 10 x 10 cm
Tennis court construction: flooring materials
Tennis is played on a variety of surfaces. There are four main types of court depending on the material used for the court surface:
Clay (red) – clay courts are considered “slow” because the balls bounce relatively high making it more difficult for a player to deliver an unreturnable shot. They require a lot of maintenance.
Cement (Hardcourt) –concrete flooring is mainly used in small club fields or in municipal and school gyms for its reduced costs and because it does not require much maintenance.
Synthetic – for synthetic flooring, polyurethane enriched with rubber granules is generally used. The synthetic surface is very elastic and has the advantage of being durable and long-lasting without requiring continuous maintenance.
Grass carpet – are the fastest of all surfaces because the ball slides easily, and favour serve and colley players who can rush to the net. It is less common since it is expensive and requires a lot of maintenance.
Indoor tennis court
Minimum free heights must comply with the standards for national and international competitions:
9 – 10 m at the centre of the net
7 – 7,5 m above sidelines
4 – 5 m above the court corners
from 2/2,5 to 4,5 m from baseline.
The minimum temperature indoor to guarantee should be at least 10-15°C, with humidity levels not superior to 60-70%.
The playing surface should have dark colours. Normally, the colours preferred are green and blue and should be non-reflective.
Types of coverage
The below types of structures can be envisaged:
entirely or partially mobile: pressostatic and tensostatic covers
permanent, made with different construction systems: laminated wood, steel, reinforced concrete.
Changing rooms for a sport venues project with layouts
When planning changing rooms for sport and leisure centres, there are important aspects to consider such as minimum requirements to guarantee safety and hygiene to all users of the sports facility. Single-sex changing areas should be well-screened for privacy together with other equipment like lockers and benches, showers and adequate water-sanitary systems.
Below you can download the project drawings and 3D model produced with an architectural design BIM software.
9 tips to design a changing room for sport facilities
Sport facilities changing rooms must comply with the indications established by official regulations. However, the relevant legislation may vary depending on the country.
Below we’ve listed 9 recommendations that are legally accepted by many countries worldwide:
the rooms used as changing rooms must be divided by gender, considering an equal number of men and women
in any case, the changing rooms provided must be at least two
the dimensions for the locker rooms must be established considering the surface per locker room to be not less than 1.60 m², including the passage and footprint spaces of cabinets and hangers
the number of seats must be proportionate to the number of users, considering the alternations of the different sports practices. For a capacity exceeding 40 seats, it is preferable to design smaller changing rooms
changing rooms must be accessible to disabled users, through special access doors. The corridors, the passages and the eventual halls should allow the transit and the possible rotation of the wheelchair
nei locali spogliatoi dovrà inoltre essere possibile l’utilizzo di panche della lunghezza di 0,80 m, di 0,50 m di profondità e con uno spazio laterale di 0,80 m dedicato alla sosta della sedia a rotelle
each changing room must have access to toilets and showers
locker room furnishings must be made with quality materials, durable, functional and easily washable. The number of metal lockers must not be less than the maximum number of facility users and must be made with resistant and easily washable materials.
Changing room project: areas and dimensions
Changing rooms must have separate accesses from the spectators during the events. Typically, they consist of 3 areas:
Sport activity area surface | changing room seats
250 m² | 20 locker room seats
over 250 m² up to 450 m² | 30 locker room seats
over 450 m² up to 1100 m² | 40 locker room seats
over 1100 m² | 60 locker room seats
Changing rooms for sports facilities must always be designed with accessibility in mind for people with disabilities.
Flooring and coating
Flooring must be made of anti-slippery materials. The walls must be covered preferably with exposed materials and to be possibly treated with resins or paints so to facilitate cleaning operations.
The two scholars examined a sample of 500 organizations (companies, architecture studios and Public Administrations) included in the lists of BIM service providers by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA). 178 organizations have directly participated to this study.
Summarizing the results of the surveys among the employees of these organizations, 10 benchmarks were identified:
internal communication system for companies / studios
top management support and the coordination it provides
size and organizational structure
“organizational culture” of companies and professionals
readiness and flexibility in changing and adapting to it
awareness of the benefits that comes from innovations
monitoring benefits / results obtained by innovation
compatibility of the innovation
limits and constraints to the adoption of innovation
rules and conventions
Commenting on the speed of BIM adoption by small businesses, the authors of the study stated that:
The large-sized organisations developed their ‘awareness’ and ‘intention’ quicker than the micro and small-sized organisations. However, despite this advantage at the awareness and intention stage, the adoption rates of the large-sized sample did not reach 100% earlier than that of the micro-sized organisations.
In fact, it was noted that small and medium-sized companies, even if they realized the importance of Bim, were also able to integrate it faster into their internal processes, thanks to a leaner and more flexible structure.
Researchers have added that:
“Indeed, the micro-sized organisations surpass the large-sized organisations and achieve full rates of adoption one year earlier … “
This trend can be justified by:
the high flexibility that characterizes micro-sized organizations in responding to changes compared to large organizations;
greater vulnerability of micro-sized organizations to the market and its changes compared to large organizations.
However, it was noted that small businesses that have adopted BIM only after 2016 may not have been fully prepared for the transition, so the authors advise:
after 2016, our analysis of micro-sized organizations showed a negative change between market demands and the availability of organizations. This suggests that the micro-organizations have taken the decision to adopt the BIM to respond to specific requests of clients / public tenders but not as a result of achieved readiness. When the market has slowed down, and the demand for Bim-oriented calls has decreased; small businesses have resumed using traditional processes.
It was also noted that very few companies have adopted BIM in 2011, the same year of the government mandate announcement: “This can be justified by the uncertainty around the country’s BIM vision and strategy at that early stage in the policy development and implementation”.
Dr. Kassem commented: “We are now trying to understand how the top drivers and factors affecting adoption decisions interact with each other to form causal relationship networks. These insights could inform the planning of tailored policy actions that improve BIM diffusion rate”.
Bed and Breakfast design floor plans: here is the complete guide with standard references, minimum dimensions, layouts, dwg examples and 3D BIM models to download
Bed and Breakfast design operations can occasionally result challenging, since they involve existing buildings and, thus, relating construction constraints.
In this guide we will provide in-depth information for a correct design, analyzing regulatory aspects and design criteria. In addition, we will provide an example of a Bed and Breakfast project with floor plan and section DWGs together with the 3D model, that can be downloaded and edited using a 3D architectural BIM design software.
A Bed and Breakfast (commonly shortened to B&B) is defined as a family-run non-entrepreneurial business, that typically provides accommodation and breakfast in an establishment with a limited number of rooms and beds.
The definition does not include the exact or maximum number of rooms and beds as it may vary from country to country.
Bed and Breakfast can ultimately be defined as ‘a home away from home’ and a pleasant alternative to more popular accommodation facilities.
Bed and Breakfasts differ from hotels because of the following characteristics:
small number of rooms, even compared to a medium-small-sized hotel
intimate ambience with areas for conversing with other guests.
In addition to the above features, other remarkable Bed and Breakfast aspects entail for the owner:
to maintain the residence in the same lodging establishment
to guarantee a certain income declaration resulting from typically small businesses
A bed and breakfast project, standard references
There are international differences in terms of regulations for Bed and Breakfasts that can considerably vary on a regional or local level.
The legal requirements imposed concern:
maximum number of rooms;
maximum number of beds;
As already mentioned, B&B accommodation facilities are regulated at regional or local level. Consequently, the standard number of rooms varies accordingly and typically as private family homes they have between four and eleven rooms, with six being the average.
Health and hygiene regulations cannot be avoided and the accomodation must meet specific requirements.
Regulations also specify obligations that the B&B should comply with and are relating to rooms function, size and furnishings, all aspects that need to be assessed during the design phase.
It should also go without saying that the fire regulations and other statutory notices required by current hotel and bed and breakfast regulations should be clearly displayed.
Bedroom furniture, functional requirements
Bedroom specifications in a B&B typically should include:
bedside table or equivalent
1 chair or equivalent
1 coffee table or equivalent
1 wardrobe with 2 doors
1 waste bin
1 bedside lamp or equivalent
Internet / wi-fi connection
1 tv and/or audio device
Project example of a Bed and Breakfast: description, DWG resources and 3D BIM model to download
The building structure that we have designed has a rectangular shaped floor plan of approximately 11,50 m x 13,50 m.
The entrance is located on the west side of the building and also serves as a reception and separates the owner’s private rooms from the guests’ common room.
From the common room, which also includes the kitchen, you can access:
on one side to the outdoor pergola and the area intended for relaxing and socializing
on the other side to the hallway that connects the various guest rooms.
Guest rooms are located on the eastern side of the building to benefit the morning sun and to avoid overheating in the afternoon (the ideal condition during summertime). Each room has a private bathroom and a balcony, adding more value to the Bed & Breakfast.
On the building northern side we have designed the owner’s sleeping area with services.
Regarding the materials selection, the rustic style of the façade has been re-proposed internally in the kitchen. We have opted for a choice of wooden material for the common areas flooring (kitchen, corridor, entrance and pergola), while a stone floor was preferred in the private rooms (bedrooms, bathrooms and balconies).
BIM collaboration platform and the transparent aluminum: the technological innovations that will transform the construction industry in 2019
As we look forward to another year of development and construction technology innovation in 2019, we have prepared our list with some major trends that are impacting the AEC sector. In our first post (part 1 of the article) we have taken a look at wearable technologies, augmented reality and green asphalt, while the second post focused on drones and their use for site surveying, self-healing concrete, robotics and driverless vehicles on construction sites (part 2 of the article).
This time we will explore other 2 technological innovations that, slowly but steadily, are spreading in the AEC industry: BIM collaboration platforms and transparent aluminum.
Before moving on to examine possible applications and the advantages for the AEC industry, here is our list of the main technology innovations to watch for in 2019.
augmented reality in the design phase
green and eco-sustainable asphalt
drones and laser scanners for surveying
innovative self-healing concretes
robotics and building automation
BIM collaborative platforms
new specialized professional figures
3D printers for construction
BIM collaboration platform
BIM is one of the “hottest” technological trends of the construction industry. This is not surprising considering that BIM has taken workflow optimization to new levels through open and highly collaborative ecosystems.
Needless to say, BIM technology will be a major catalyst for a substantial change in the way we design, manage and develop a building.
BIM is not only an innovative digital tool, but also an integrated management of a growing number of data, that contributes to a managerial sharing type of approach.
BIM can be defined as a “building information container” where to insert graphic data and technical specifications relating to a building lifecycle. The BIM model elements that represent the building have all the physical and logical characteristics of their real counterparts. Therefore, they are intelligent elements identifying the digital prototype of the physical elements (walls, columns, doors, windows, stairs, etc.) that allow to simulate and predict a building’s behaviour.
3D BIM model example produced with Edificius
Then of course there are the three-dimensional models that contains information regarding dimensions, material, appearance, technical features that are not lost during the communication between different platforms (designers).
The method becomes a collaborative approach since it allows to integrate useful information in every phase of the design into a single model: from architectural to structural, from plant engineering to energy performance and facility management.
Working with a BIM methodology offers numerous advantages to the designer. As a matter of fact, BIM is about a more efficient way of collaborating on construction projects. Through that efficient collaboration we can improve our design which removes a lot of the surprises and can help get those difficult decisions around details resolved earlier in the process.
Realistic model produced with Edificius
Thanks to BIM, the perception of the importance of collaboration and team work is growing, consequently improving results through a more adequate organization with special regard to clients’ needs.
Working with BIM methodology, in fact, means using technology to better integrate the different skills involved in the work in progress, allowing a profitable exchange of knowledge, a timely update of the information available, with the consequence of drastically reducing errors and achieving global improvement.
Collaboration between different sectors and stakeholders involved in a construction project is not possible without free access to all essential data that are stored in a BIM model.
Hence the need for suitable tools, collaborative platforms based on open systems.
A BIM collaboration platform must be able to support architecture, engineering, and more generally the construction industry professional, to create and properly manage BIM models under every functional aspect. Most of all, it necessarily needs to be easy to use and accessible to everyone.
Aluminum is becoming increasingly popular for engineering applications and recognized as one of the materials that are shaping the future.
This material, that in the past was used to build frames and windows, will soon be used to produce even glass balconies and truly fire-resistant glass window panes! Clearly, we are talking about transparent aluminum.
Two innovative aluminum derivatives are:
corundum, or aluminum oxide, is a mineral rich in aluminum trioxide, a substance that makes it one the most resistant materials in the world, after diamond. It is also contained in rubies and sapphires, and today is used for the creation of smartphone screens or sandblasting processes.
aluminum oxynitride, is instead a compound consisting of aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. It is characterized by its great transparency and resistance that make it ideal in the military and aerospace fields.
Aluminum oxy-nitride is widely used to replace glass because it is twice as resistant to impacts and atmospheric agents and can withstand temperatures up to 1200 ° C.
The steps of the transparent aluminum production process
The very high production costs have so far limited its commercialization, making it usable at the moment”only” for the glass of submarines and space stations. For this reason, universities and research institutes of different countries are trying to understand if it is possible to produce it with cheaper systems.
Despite clearly not being a metal, and not a glass either, its future application will be not only in technology.
Even the construction industry could benefit from these new glass treatments in the future to further improve the safety of our homes. In fact, important studies are aiming at making the processes less expensive and products of this type accessible to everyone.
From The Netherlands an innovative eco-sustainable school that uses for the first time solar energy as a source of renewable energy for both power and heating
The architecture studio Delft Cepezed has recently completed the project for a modern sustainable school design: the Graafschap College in Doetinchem (The Netherlands). Differently from any other school building in this country, the newly designed building avoids the use of natural gas in favor of a solar power supply that’s 100 percent electric.
The new school building has been designed for the students of the education departments Sport & Movement and Security & Craftmanship. The structure guarantees a healthy learning environment, maximizes natural light access and panoramic views.
As a tribute to the numerous oak trees that grow around the building, Delft Cepezed architects thought to partially wrap the structure with a tree shaped stainless steel mesh that also functions as solar shading.
Green is the project’s main colour. The building’s interiors are designed to have large openings and perspective views, creating a connection with the external park. The building also has terraces, roof gardens and both internal and external green areas.
Built to host more than 700 students, the eco-sustainable school of Graafschap is located in the Sportpark Zuid, a big park with sport equipments. The large central atrium is shaped as a cascading landscape, named The Midfield, in reference to sport and teamwork.
The entrance hall, a series of staircases interconnects to the open space, is used for informal encounters and a place where to read and study. Large strip windows on the roof open over the Midfield bringing in a lot of natural light, while the combination of LED lightings with smart sensors reduces the consequences of artificial lighting.
The Midfield is surrounded by a corridor that allows the access to classrooms and the cafeteria on the ground floor, encouraging student’s interaction.
To facilitate the view within the surrounding park and give an appearance of a pavilion structure immersed in a green environment, the school has been elevated on a basement and put on a raised floor. On the lower ground floor level there are parking spaces for bikes and cars, changing rooms and other services.
With regard to the façade, the architects alternated glass “voids” made by glass to black aluminium panels to create an elegant and modern look. A second skin of perforated Corten-steel with the shape of oak trees, has been placed on the east, west and south sides of the building reducing the excessive sunlight without completely preventing daylight from coming into the building.
The Cepezed interieur studio took care of the interior design and adopted a contemporary aesthetics using brighter colours and patterns that recall the concept of sport and movement (theme that recurs throughout the entire building).
In addition to solar panels on the roof, this first model of eco-sustainable innovative school also uses solar thermal heating for heating water: the building is totally autonomous and can be considered the first passive climate control school in the world.