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Global demand for coffee and cocoa is on the rise. Yet across the equatorial belt where these two crops are produced, the future is not looking bright. Climate change in the tropics is pushing coffee and cocoa closer to the limits of physiological tolerance and constraining the places where they can grow in the future.
Horseshoe crabs that have undergone biomedical bleeding tend to reside in deeper water and approach mating beaches less often, according to a new study published in The Biological Bulletin. In "Effects of the Biomedical Bleeding Process on the Behavior of the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus in Its Natural Habitat," Meghan Owings and her colleagues report the results of an investigation of the behavioral and physiological effects that the bleeding process has on horseshoe crabs that are released back into their natural environment. The findings suggest biomedical bleeding may impact the reproductive output of female horseshoe crabs during the season in which they were bled.
Adding vanilla to sweetened milk makes consumers think the beverage is sweeter, allowing the amount of added sugar to be reduced, according to Penn State researchers, who will use the concept to develop a reduced-sugar chocolate milk for the National School Lunch Program.
A team of University of Copenhagen researchers has compiled the first and only evidence that narwhals and beluga whales can breed successfully. DNA and stable isotope analysis of an anomalous skull from the Natural History Museum of Denmark has allowed researchers to confirm the existence of a narwhal-beluga hybrid.
The phrase "we're on the same wavelength" may be more than just a friendly saying: A new study by University of California, Berkeley, researchers shows that bats' brain activity is literally in sync when bats engage in social behaviors like grooming, fighting or sniffing each other.
From effective medicines to molecular sensors to fuel cells, metal clusters are becoming fundamentally useful in the health, environment, and energy sectors. This diverse functionality of clusters arises from the variability in size and type. Now, scientists led by Professor Yuichi Negishi, of the Department of Applied Chemistry at Tokyo University of Science, add to this ongoing tale by explaining the dynamics of the metal cluster thiolate-protected gold-silver alloy in solution. This helps in understanding the stability, geometry, and tenability of these clusters for their applications.
A total of 174 chicken breeds are described in a publicly accessible database which scientists from the University of Göttingen and the Friedrich Loeffler Institute in Neustadt-Mariensee have built up in recent years with numerous international partners. This database, the Synbreed Chicken Diversity Panel (SCDP), includes information about a large proportion of the available chicken species and their diversity. In the accompanying scientific study, the researchers genotyped 3,235 animals for nearly 600,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs are variations in separate genetic building blocks at specific regions of the genome that vary between individual animals. The researchers created a family tree of exceptional completeness and detail. The results have been published in the journal BMC Genomics.