The Global Biodiversity Framework can be leveraged to better manage transboundary watersheds
PNAS
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1M ago
The oomycetes are a diverse group of eukaryotic microbes that include devastating pathogens of plants. Oomycetes perceive, invade, and colonize plants in similar ways to fungi, in part because they acquired genes from fungi. Many of these ...Oomycete protists share phenotypic similarities with fungi, including the ability to cause plant diseases, but branch in a distant region of the tree of life. It has been suggested that multiple horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) from fungi-to-oomycetes ..read more
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Duplication and neofunctionalization of a horizontally transferred xyloglucanase as a facet of the Red Queen coevolutionary dynamic
PNAS
by
1M ago
The oomycetes are a diverse group of eukaryotic microbes that include devastating pathogens of plants. Oomycetes perceive, invade, and colonize plants in similar ways to fungi, in part because they acquired genes from fungi. Many of these ...Oomycete protists share phenotypic similarities with fungi, including the ability to cause plant diseases, but branch in a distant region of the tree of life. It has been suggested that multiple horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) from fungi-to-oomycetes ..read more
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Tweaking the NRF2 signaling cascade in human myelogenous leukemia cells by artificial nano-organelles
PNAS
by
1M ago
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are at the core of several chronic inflammatory pathologies, including fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders. The NRF2 signaling axis is a predominant player in restoring redox homeostasis ...NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2) is a key regulator of genes involved in the cell’s protective response to oxidative stress. Upon activation by disturbed redox homeostasis, NRF2 promotes the expression of metabolic enzymes to eliminate ..read more
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QnAs with Bruce W. Stillman, Roberta S. Fuller, and Jon M. Kaguni
PNAS
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1M ago
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are at the core of several chronic inflammatory pathologies, including fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders. The NRF2 signaling axis is a predominant player in restoring redox homeostasis ...NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2) is a key regulator of genes involved in the cell’s protective response to oxidative stress. Upon activation by disturbed redox homeostasis, NRF2 promotes the expression of metabolic enzymes to eliminate ..read more
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A sociocultural approach to voting: Construing voting as a duty to others predicts political interest and engagement
PNAS
by
1M ago
Between one-third and one-half of eligible voters in the United States fail to turn out for elections. We take a sociocultural approach to understand this lack of turnout, examining how people construe—or make sense of—the duty to vote. Our ...A representative democracy requires citizens to be politically engaged; however, a substantial portion of eligible United States voters do not vote. While structural (e.g., ease or difficulty of voting) and individual (e.g., political efficacy, civic ..read more
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Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation
PNAS
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2M ago
Informal verbal interaction is the core matrix for human social life. A mechanism for coordinating this basic mode of interaction is a system of turn-taking that regulates who is to speak and when. Yet relatively little is known about how this system ..read more
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Nonreciprocity and odd viscosity in chiral active fluids
PNAS
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2M ago
Active materials are composed of many individually driven entities and span many length-scales and many disciplines: from living systems such as cells or birds to metamaterials and swarms of robots. In recent years, chiral active materials ...Odd viscosity couples stress to strain rate in a dissipationless way. It has been studied in plasmas under magnetic fields, superfluid He3, quantum-Hall fluids, and recently in the context of chiral active matter. In most of these studies, odd terms in the ..read more
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QnAs with Katherine Freese
PNAS
by
2M ago
Active materials are composed of many individually driven entities and span many length-scales and many disciplines: from living systems such as cells or birds to metamaterials and swarms of robots. In recent years, chiral active materials ...Odd viscosity couples stress to strain rate in a dissipationless way. It has been studied in plasmas under magnetic fields, superfluid He3, quantum-Hall fluids, and recently in the context of chiral active matter. In most of these studies, odd terms in the ..read more
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Developing a predictive science of the biosphere requires the integration of scientific cultures
PNAS
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2M ago
Increasing the speed of scientific progress is urgently needed to address the many challenges associated with the biosphere in the Anthropocene. Consequently, the critical question becomes: How can science most rapidly progress to address large, complex ..read more
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor scales presynaptic calcium transients to modulate excitatory neurotransmission
PNAS
by
3M ago
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating synaptic physiology and contributes to the fundamental pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet its function at the presynaptic terminal remains poorly ...Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptic physiology, as well as mechanisms underlying various neuropsychiatric diseases and their treatment. Despite its clear physiological role and disease relevance, BDNF’s function at ..read more
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