General dry trends according to the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index in mainland Chile
Frontiers in Earth Science
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20h ago
Droughts are one of the main challenges affecting humanity in a global change context. Due to its spatial configuration, Chile experiences droughts of different severities, from arid to humid climates, ranging from sea level to elevations above 6,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.), but it is still unknown how this phenomenon behaves in distribution, duration and intensity. The goal of this study is to identify how droughts have affected the different climate regions of the country between 1979 and 2019. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), calculated for March and Septem ..read more
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Variable gearing at the ankle during walking in adults and young children: implications for foot development and evolution
Frontiers in Earth Science
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20h ago
Introduction: The human foot has evolved over the past seven million years from a relatively mobile, grasping appendage to a highly derived structure with a heel pad and longitudinal arch that can absorb shock at heel strike and weight-bearing yet also function as a powerful lever at toe-off. It has been proposed that the modern human foot evolved to allow our species to use “variable gearing” during walking and running. In this model, the gears of the human foot are defined relative to the ankle center of rotation as R, the distance from the ground reaction resultant vector, and r, the distan ..read more
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Exploring groundwater depletion and land subsidence dynamics in Taiwan’s Choushui river alluvial fan: insights from integrated GNSS and hydrogeological data analysis
Frontiers in Earth Science
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20h ago
The Choushui River Alluvial Fan (CRAF) is a major agricultural area in Taiwan with heavy groundwater usage. The extraction of groundwater here has caused land subsidence, which is now a significant global environmental issue. This study analyzes land subsidence in the CRAF by integrating hydrogeological data from 233 groundwater monitoring stations across four aquifers (CRAF Groundwater_NET) and data from 50 continuous GNSS stations (CRAF GNSS_NET). We developed an automated processing flow for GNSS static surveying within CRAF GNSS_NET, and further employed a time-series fitting method to exa ..read more
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Continental crust recycling in collisional zones: insights from Li isotope compositions of the syn-exhumation and post-collisional mafic magmatic rocks
Frontiers in Earth Science
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20h ago
Syn-exhumation and post-collisional mafic magmatism in continental collision orogenic belts may provide insights into the nature of orogenic lithospheric mantle and recycled continental components in continental subduction zones. Lithium and its isotopes have emerged as potentially valuable tools for shedding light on the origin of these magmas, given the contrast Li contents and isotopic compositions between the subducting continental crust and the mantle. Here, we present high-precision Li isotopes data for representative orthogneiss, continental eclogite, syn-exhumation and post-collisional ..read more
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Uncertainty of microseismic sources identification and probabilistic location in underground excavation
Frontiers in Earth Science
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20h ago
Microseismic (MS) source location is an integral component of MS technology and essential to understanding the rock failure mechanism and avoiding potential geological hazards in underground rock excavation. However, accurate location remains challenging owing to the complex geological conditions and unknown rock failure mechanisms. In this study, a novel location framework was developed to locate the MS source positions and their uncertainties based on probabilistic programming. Probabilistic programming was utilized to determine the coordinates of the MS source and its variation using the Ma ..read more
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Stress evolution of fault-and-thrust belts in 2D numerical mechanical models
Frontiers in Earth Science
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2d ago
We employed numerical models to examine the dynamics of fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs), particularly focusing on the spatial and temporal interplay between stress variations and fault development. Our study explores the effects of variables such as layer thickness, basal friction, and surface diffusivity on the FTBs’ structural development, emphasizing the conditions under which frontal thrusts form. We found that fault activities within FTBs exhibit a cyclic behavior characterized by phases of initiation, quiescence, and reactivation. For over 95% of the total cycle duration, the frontal thrust ..read more
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Unraveling the role of dextral faults in the formation of pull-apart basin structures and their implications on the genesis of ophiolites and pluto-volcanics
Frontiers in Earth Science
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2d ago
Rhombic structures have been observed in the Qom-Zefreh-Nayin-Dehsheir-Baft region, specifically along the direction of the dextral faults, which have caused significant changes in strike length. This study investigates the geological features and fault interactions in the region through the examination of aerial images, fault-lithology correlations, petrology, crustal thickness, and seismic studies. The analysis of aerial photos and geological correlations revealed the presence of ophiolites and pluto-volcanics associated with faults and rhombic structures. By conducting field geology and com ..read more
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Estimation of the dolomite content of carbonate rock outcrops based on spectral knowledge and machine learning
Frontiers in Earth Science
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2d ago
Accurately estimating the dolomite content in carbonate rocks is crucial for optimizing oil and gas exploration and production strategies. Hyperspectral techniques for estimating dolomite content have advantages in terms of efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and non-destructiveness compared with traditional laboratory methods. Despite the abundance of hyperspectral data, feature selection and extraction remain challenging. In this study, hyperspectral data collected from surface outcrop in the field using the analytical spectral device (ASD) were applied to construct model for estimating dolomite ..read more
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Turkish earthquake death tolls: lessons from downward counterfactual analysis and informal construction
Frontiers in Earth Science
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2d ago
Earthquake death tolls are a basic statistical measure of the capability of a country to manage seismic risk. The extremely high Turkish death toll of 50,000 from the Kahramanmaraş earthquake doublet of 6 February 2023 is the product of a cascade of detrimental factors. These need to be explained if lessons from this disaster are to be learned. This is the purpose and objective of this paper, which is a contribution to the interdisciplinary Frontiers research topic on integrated perspectives on the 2023 Turkey and Syria earthquakes: advancing understanding and preparedness across earth science ..read more
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UAV and field survey investigation of a landslide triggered debris flow and dam formation in Eastern Carpathians
Frontiers in Earth Science
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5d ago
In the May–August period of 2010, major heavy rains impacted the Eastern Carpathians (Northeastern Romania), leading to flash floods and triggering numerous landslides. The extreme weather conditions caused damage to the road network, extensive forest destruction, and lead to formation of impounded lakes. One of the hardest-hit areas was the mountain tributaries catchments of the Bistrița watershed. Particularly, the most significant landslide-triggered debris flow event occurred in the upper Iapa valley (Neamț County). The landslide process started near the top of the Drumul Chinezilor ridge ..read more
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