Sea Ice Interannual Variability and Sensitivity to Fall Oceanic Conditions and Winter Air Temperature in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Peter S. Galbraith, Caroline Sévigny, Daniel Bourgault, Dany Dumont
17m ago
Abstract The Gulf of St. Lawrence has been nearly free of sea ice in the winter six times in its recorded history, four of which have occurred since 2010. This study examines the inter-annual variability of sea ice cover characteristics (1969–2024) and winter mixed layer heat content (1996–2024), their sensitivity to fall oceanic conditions (since fall of 1995) and to winter air temperatures. The study finds no relationship between fall oceanic conditions with either the first occurrence of sea ice, maximum seasonal estimated volume or winter mixed layer heat content. However, it shows that th ..read more
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A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Size, Density, and Shape on the Wave‐Induced Transport of Floating Marine Litter
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by R. Calvert, A. Peytavin, Y. Pham, A. Duhamel, J. van der Zanden, S. M. van Essen, B. Sainte‐Rose, T. S. van den Bremer
17m ago
Abstract Floating marine litter is transported by several mechanisms, including surface waves. In studies of marine litter transport, the wave-induced drift is set to be equal to the Stokes drift, corresponding to the Lagrangian-mean wave-induced drift of an infinitesimally small tracer. Large-scale experiments are used to show how the wave-induced drift of objects of finite size depends on their size, density, and shape. We observe increases in drift of 95% compared to Stokes drift for discs with diameters of 13% of the wavelength, up to 23% for spheres with diameters of 3% of the wavelength ..read more
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Quantifying Biogeochemical Controls of Open Ocean CDOM From a Global Mechanistic Model
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Kana Yamamoto, Tim DeVries, David A. Siegel, Norman B. Nelson
17m ago
Abstract Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important part of ocean carbon biogeochemistry with relevance to long-term observations of ocean biology due to its dominant light absorption properties. Thus, understanding the underlying processes controlling CDOM distribution is important for predicting changes in light availability, primary production, and the cycling of biogeochemically important matter. We present a biogeochemical CDOM model for the open ocean with two classes of biological lability and uncertainty estimates derived from 43 ensemble members that provide a range ..read more
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Internal Waves Force Elevated Turbulent Mixing at Barkley Canyon
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Kurtis J. Anstey, Jody M. Klymak, Steven F. Mihaly, Richard E. Thomson
17m ago
Abstract Submarine canyons are hot spots for topography-internal wave interactions, with elevated mixing contributing to regional water mass transport and productivity. Two velocity time series compare and contrast internal waves deep inside Barkley Canyon to a nearby site on the shelf-break slope of the Vancouver Island Continental Shelf. Elevation of internal wave energy occurs near topography, up to a factor of 10 above the slope and 100 in the canyon. All frequency bands display strong seasonal variability but weak interannual variability. Diurnal (K 1) energy is sub-inertial, trapped alon ..read more
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Spatial and Temporal Variability of Turbulent Mixing in the Deep Northwestern Pacific
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Qifan Song, Chun Zhou, Xin Xiao, Hao Xun, Zichen Tian, Qingxuan Yang, Wei Zhao, Jiwei Tian
2d ago
Abstract Small-scale turbulent mixing supplies potential energy for the upwelling of deep waters in the abyssal ocean, a key component of the global overturning circulation. This process is particularly significant in critical regions such as the Northwestern Pacific where the upwelling structure of deep waters remains poorly understood due to limited knowledge of deep ocean mixing. Here, we investigate the full-depth spatiotemporal variability of turbulent mixing in the deep Northwestern Pacific based on hydrographic data collected over repeated surveys. Nineteen-year-average diapycnal diffus ..read more
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Changes in Oceanic Radiocarbon and CFCs Since the 1990s
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by J. G. Lester, H. D. Graven, S. Khatiwala, A. P. McNichol
2d ago
Abstract Anthropogenic perturbations from fossil fuel burning, nuclear bomb testing, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) use have created useful transient tracers of ocean circulation. The atmospheric 14C/C ratio (∆14C) peaked in the early 1960s and has decreased now to pre-industrial levels, while atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 concentrations peaked in the early 1990s and early 2000s, respectively, and have now decreased by 10%–20%. We present the first analysis of a decade of new observations (2007 to 2018–2019) and give a comprehensive overview of the changes in ocean ∆14C and CFC concentration sin ..read more
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Intensified Currents Associated With Benthic Storms Underneath an Eddying Jet
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Si‐Yuan Sean Chen, Olivier Marchal, Wilford Gardner, Magdalena Andres
3d ago
Abstract Benthic storms are episodes of intensified near-bottom currents capable of sediment resuspension in the deep ocean. They typically occur under regions of high surface eddy kinetic energy (EKE), such as the Gulf Stream. Although they have long been observed, the mechanism(s) responsible for their formation and their relationships with salient features of the deep ocean, such as bottom mixed layers (BMLs) and benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs), remain poorly understood. Here we conduct idealized experiments with a primitive-equation model to explore the impacts of the unforced instability ..read more
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Riverine Influences and Seasonal Dynamics: Exploring Carbonate System Variations and Air‐Sea CO2 Fluxes in the Southern Yellow Sea and East China Sea
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Bing‐Han Li, Jiang‐Chen Gong, Chun‐Ying Liu, Jing‐Wen Hu, Gui‐Peng Yang
3d ago
Abstract In this work, the seasonal variations of the carbonate system and air-sea CO2 fluxes were investigated by two cruises in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS), which were significantly influenced by the Changjiang riverine inputs across seasons. Biological-mediated change of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was first quantitated through a three end-member mixing model from winter to spring. Our modeling results suggested that DIC addition through biological remineralization persisted in the SYS during winter and spring, while DIC removal was evident in the Changji ..read more
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Wind‐Enhanced Separation of Large‐Scale River Plumes From Coastal Corners
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Michael M. Whitney
4d ago
Abstract Idealized models are analyzed to quantify how large-scale river plumes interact with coastal corners with and without wind-driven currents. The configuration has a corner formed by two perpendicular shelves (with constant slope) that are joined with a coastal radius of curvature (r c ). The buoyant plume originates from an upstream point source. The r c and wind forcing are varied among runs. Steep- and gentle-slope runs are compared for some situations. Without winds, plumes separate from corners with r c smaller than two inertial radii (r i ); this threshold is twice the r c   ..read more
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Origins of Low‐Oxygen Bottom Water Influenced by Tide and ENSO on the Outer‐Edge Shelf of East China Sea: Multi‐Chemical Tracer Approaches
Wiley Online Library » JGR Oceans
by Wenjie Deng, Jing Zhang, Siteng Justin Zhu, Keiji Horikawa, Takahiro Endoh, Takeshi Matsuno, Yoshiko Kondo, Mutsuo Inoue, Seiya Nagao
4d ago
Abstract The East China Sea (ECS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the world with high primary productivity and a large area of low dissolved oxygen. This study observed the low-oxygen bottom water on the outer-edge shelf of ECS in summer seasons of 2018–2020. The contributions of various water masses to low-oxygen waters were quantified, and the interaction between low-oxygen water and Kuroshio water was validated by a mixing model using heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) together with potential temperature, and salinity. For further reliability verification, tracers such as δ34S and 226 ..read more
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