Gut Microbiota: Regulation of Whole Body Homeostasis
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
5M ago
Last Modified: February 27, 2024 Introduction to Human Intestinal Bacteria In trying to understand the epidemic of obesity much of the research has focused on two critical areas. The first is research driven by the notion that the biological and physiological interrelationships of the organ systems, primarily liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, are tightly connected and any disruption in the metabolic profile of one organ can exert a negative impact on the others. An additional avenue of more recent research is the use of modern genetic tools to scan the human genome for polymorphisms ..read more
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Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
6M ago
Last updated: January 12, 2024 Introduction to Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome (FCS) Familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) represents a family of related monogenic disorders that manifest with symptoms typical of the related, polygenic disorder simply termed chylomicronemia syndrome. FCS is primarily caused by autosoma recessive inheritance of mutations in the LPL gene which encodes the enzyme, lipoprotein lipase, LPL. This disorder is also referred to as one of the many forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. When the disorder results from mutations in the LPL gene it is also known as hyperlipopro ..read more
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MTOR Complexes
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
8M ago
Last Updated: November 20, 2023 Introduction to Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin: mTOR A central control complex that allows cells to respond and adapt to their particular environment is the Ser/Thr kinase identified as mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin). mTOR is the principal component of both the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 protein complexes. mTOR was originally referred to as mammalian target of rapamycin. The original designation for the protein now identified as mTOR was FRAP1 which stood for FK506-binding protein 12-Rapamycin-Associated Protein 1. Rapamycin was originally isola ..read more
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Hypoxia and Metabolism
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
9M ago
Last Updated: November 13, 2023 Introduction to Hypoxia and Hypoxia Induced Factors Hypoxia represents the pathological condition that exist when there is lower than normal oxygen content and pressure within cells. The response of cells to hypoxic conditions includes the activation of a family of transcription factors referred as hypoxia induced factors (HIF). There are three related HIF complexes identified as HIF-1, HIF-2, and HIF-3 that are defined by the particular α-subunit of the complex. The predominant HIF complex is HIF-1. The HIF-1 pathway, which is activated by conditions of hypoxia ..read more
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Regulation of Feeding Behaviors
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last Updated: June 23, 2023 The Brain as Master Regulator of Feeding Behaviors The brain, in particular the hypothalamus, plays highly critical roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning, and the control of feeding behaviors. The gastrointestinal tract is intimately connected to the actions of the brain in metabolic and appetite control, in a large part, through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. These gut-brain interactions occur via the release of gut peptides that exert responses within the brain as well as through neuroendocrine and sensory inputs f ..read more
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Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Excitability
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last Updated: June 6, 2023 Excitability of Muscle Cells Skeletal muscle cells are voluntary cells, meaning that one can make a muscle cell move in response to a voluntary command initiated within the central nervous system. The peripheral nerves that influence the function of skeletal muscle cells are referred to as motor neurons, specifically somatic alpha (α) and gamma (γ) motor neurons. Alpha motor neurons are the principal motor neurons controlling skeletal muscle (extrafusal muscle fibers) contraction while gamma motor neurons control the contraction of intrafusal skeletal muscle fibers ..read more
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Secreted Factors: Tissue “Kines”
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last Updated: June 2, 2023 Introduction to Tissue Kines Numerous tissues produce and secrete substances that act locally or at a distance but that are not defined by the classic definition of a hormone. These substances include metabolites, lipids, and bioactive peptides. These bioactive substances act as signaling molecules and influence systemic metabolism. The term coined to define these substances in “kine” such as in adipokine, myokine, lipokine, etc. Many tissue kines can also be classified as hormones. In most cases the tissue kines are produced and released in response to some stimulus ..read more
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Organic Acidurias/Acidemias
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last updated: May 5, 2023 Introduction to Organic Acidurias Organic aciduria (OAD) refers to a biochemically defined group of inherited metabolic diseases. The OAD can result from mutations in genes encoding enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, enzymes of amino acid metabolism, an enzymes involved in several other metabolic pathways such as the TCA cycle. Evidence is increasing that the progression of pathology in most OAD is best explained by mitochondrial dysfunction. The term organic aciduria originated from the measurement of organic acids, nonamino mono-, di- or tricarboxylic acids in the ur ..read more
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Vitamin B3: Metabolism and Functions
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last Updated: February 22, 2023 Introduction to Vitamin B3: Nicotinic Acid/Niacin Vitamin B3 is nicotinic acid, more commonly called niacin. Both nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM) can serve as the dietary source of the co-factor forms of vitamin B3, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). Synthesis and Salvage of NAD+ With the exception of neurons, human cells cannot transport NAD+ into the cell, therefore, they must synthesize it either de novo or through the pathway involving the amino acid tryptophan. How ..read more
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Herbal Therapeutics
The Medical Biochemistry Page
by mking
1y ago
Last updated: February 6, 2023 Introduction to Herbals as Therapeutics Plants have been used since the dawn of humanity for medical purposes. Plant extracts or derivatives are used in traditional healing systems such as Chinese herbal medicine, Indian (Ayurvedic), and Japanese (Kampo) medicine. Herbal medicine usage in Western industrialized countries serves as a basis for alternative and complementary approaches to medicine as well as often being integrated into conventional medicine. The therapeutic value of several herbal medicines has been established, however, for many others this is not ..read more
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