Approaches of DNA Microarrays
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
2w ago
Approaches of DNA Microarrays Introduction: DNA Microarray is one of the molecular detection techniques which is a collection of microscopic characteristics (commonly DNA) affixed to a solid surface. Also termed as DNA chip or biochip. DNA spots can be probed with the target molecules to result either qualitative or quantitative data. Microarrays can be characterized on the basis of the nature of the probe, the solid support used and the specific technique used for target detection and/or probe addressing Approaches of DNA microarrays Some of the approaches of microarrays are; Printed micro ..read more
Visit website
Extraction of plant materials by solvent extraction method
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
3w ago
Extraction of plant materials by solvent extraction method What is extraction of plant? •Extraction can be defined as the treatment of the plant (or animal tissues) with solvent, where the medicinally active constituents are dissolved and most of the inert particles remain undissolved. • The process of extraction developed into a distinct area and contributes mainly to the progress of phytochemistry. • Extraction processes includes maceration, steam or hydro-distillation, pressing, decoction, infusion, percolation and Soxhlet extraction. • It is difficult to find a production process in the pe ..read more
Visit website
Bronchitis: Types, causes, pathophysiology, clinical features and diagnostic evaluation
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
3w ago
Bronchitis What is Bronchitis? Bronchitis is defined as persistent cough with sputum production for atleast 3 month in 2 consecutive years There are three types of bronchitis: simple chronic bronchitis: it Is a kind of bronchitis in which cough is present with no physiologic evidence of airflow obstruction. chronic asthmatic bronchitis: it is kind of bronchitis in which hyper reactive airways is present with intermittent bronchospasm and wheezing obstructive chronic bronchitis: it is a kind of bronchitis in which there is development of chronic airflow obstruction_ emphysema in a heavy smok ..read more
Visit website
Isolation of antibiotic producing microorganisms and Determination of antimicrobial spectrum of isolates
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
3w ago
Isolation of antibiotic producing microorganisms and Determination of antimicrobial spectrum of isolates Principle: Soil is the prime storage of the microorganisms producing antibiotics which are able to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Antibiotics have been implemented in one or other forms for centuries. The screening of wild isolates from the soil has yielded the broad majority of new antibiotics. Even if the purification of several hundred naturally produced antibiotics has been performed, only a few have been proved to be successful to be used in medical practice. Those which ..read more
Visit website
Spore staining technique: principle, requirements and procedure
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
3w ago
Spore staining technique: principle, requirements and procedure Principle: Members of the anaerobic genera Clostridium and Desulfotomaculum and the aerobic genus Bacillus are examples of organisms that have the capacity to exist either as metabolically active vegetative cells or as highly resistant, metabolically inactive cell types called spores. When environmental conditions become unfavorable for continuing vegetative cellular activities, particularly with the exhaustion of a nutritional carbon source, these cells have the capacity to undergo sporogenesis and give rise to a new intracellul ..read more
Visit website
Puerperium: physiological changes in reproductive system and other systems of the body after child birth
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
8M ago
Puerperium: physiological changes in reproductive system and other systems of the body after child birth What is Puerperium? Puerperium is a duration in which the reproductive organs and all the system of the body revert to their normal condition. It is followed by the delivery of the placenta and ends approximately 6 weeks later. Puerperium can also be defined as a period following childbirth in which the body tissues, particularly the pelvic organs return back approximately to the pre-pregnants state both anatomically and physiologically. Puerperium or post partum period is term given for t ..read more
Visit website
Biodiversity: Definition and Elements of Biodiversity
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
1y ago
What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is defined as the variations among living organisms from all possible sources. It includes the variability within or between the species and within or between ecosystems. According to the definition of the 1992 UN conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Convention, biodiversity includes all of its manifestations. Therefore, along with terrestrial biodiversity, it also covers marine as well as other aquatic biodiversity. As such biodiversity means the richness and variety of living things in the world as a whole or in any location within it. What a ..read more
Visit website
Dengue: Introduction
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
1y ago
Dengue: Introduction Dengue viruses (DENV) is a mosquito borne viruses, belongs to the family Flaviviridae, the genus Flavivirus. Dengue viruses consist of five serotype named dengue virus types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 (DENV-1, -2, -3, -4 and -5), that are responsible for diseases. These serotypes are closely related but antigenically distinct. DENV-5 is a new serotype which has recently been described from Malaysia. Hotta and Kimura were the first to isolate the virus in 1943, by intracranial inoculation of serum from an acutely ill patient into suckling mice. Morphology of Dengue virus: Dengue v ..read more
Visit website
E-cadherin signaling; role in cancer and signal pathways
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
1y ago
E-cadherin signaling Introduction on Cadherins Cadherins, which is a cell surface molecules were originally identified in Chinese hamster V79 cells by Takeichi. These adhesion proteins are involved in Ca2+-dependent cell–cell adhesion as well as modulating crucial morphogenetic and differentiation processes during development. Cadherins are Ca2+ sensitive proteins and are readily degraded by proteolysis in the absence of Ca2+. It is one of the best studied classical family of cadherins which has a primary structure of 723 to 748 amino acids, similar in different cadherins [1]. When cells conta ..read more
Visit website
Reproduction in Angiosperm and Reproductive structures
Online Biology Notes
by Gaurab Karki
2y ago
Angiosperm: Reproductive structures General features of reproductive structures: In Angiosperms, there is a wide range of morphology and structure of the reproductive organs of the plant. Flowers being the reproductive tissues of the plant comprises of both the male and female reproductive organs in it. They may be found at the termination of short lateral branches or the main axis or both. Flowers can be found either individually as in daffodils or in clusters termed as inflorescence as in sunflower. The floral parts of the angiospermic plants give fruits.  A complete flower comprises o ..read more
Visit website

Follow Online Biology Notes on FeedSpot

Continue with Google
Continue with Apple
OR