CARTA: Permanent Body Modification: Archaeological and Early Historical Evidence with Brea McCauley
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
6d ago
Today, permanent body modification (PBM) is very popular. Studies suggest that well over a billion living people have experienced one or more types of PBM. But what is the history of PBM? When did the different types originate? Were they invented recently, or do they have a long history? Did they appear simultaneously or at different times? This presentation examines evidence in non-human animals and extinct hominins, delving into early archaeological and historical records of seven main PBM types: tattooing, scarification, amputation, piercing, genital modification, dental modification, and b ..read more
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CARTA: Body Modification - Welcome and Opening Remarks
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2w ago
Permanent body modification is a unique and variable practice among humans, not observed in other mammals. Despite being costly and risky, it is regularly performed. Scientific understanding of this phenomenon is nascent, prompting a symposium aiming to assess current research status and prioritize questions for the next decade. The event brings together academics and industry practitioners, exploring historical and contemporary practices like tattooing, piercing, finger amputation, and cranial modification. The symposium aims to investigate the 'when' and 'where' of permanent body modificatio ..read more
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CARTA: The Recent History of Tattooing in Europe and North America with Matt Lodder
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2w ago
This talk presents a new account of the development of professional tattooing in Britain and America since the late 19th century. Research based exclusively in primary sources reveals that the story of what kickstarted the creation of commercial tattooing, and what sustained it, ultimately becomes intelligible as a small and interconnected network of transnational artists and – crucially – clients. These newly clarified networks problematise both the date and form of the customary notion of a “Tattoo Renaissance” in the 1970s and 80s. Moreover, this research presents a more diverse account of ..read more
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CARTA: Footbinding: A Gene-Culture Co-evolutionary Approach to a One Thousand Year Tradition with Ryan Nichols with Ryan Nichols
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2w ago
This talk explores the 1000-year practice of "footbinding" in ethnically Han Chinese families, involving modifying young girls' feet by wrapping the toes under the sole, often resulting in broken toes. Two main hypotheses—Labor Market and Evolutionary Social Sciences—are considered for explaining the origins, maintenance, and cessation of footbinding. This talk presents evidence from autopsy results, medical examinations, anthropological records, interviews, and historical texts. It argues that evolutionary social and psychological principles related to hypergyny, mate guarding, parental compe ..read more
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CARTA: CompAnth - Questions Answers and Closing Remarks
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
1M ago
Comparative Anthropogeny (CompAnth) is the study of distinctly human traits and characteristics in the context of comparisons with our closest living relatives, the “great apes.” This symposium, the third of CARTA's CompAnth series, will present a collection of distinctive human traits, ranging from molecular, cellular, and anatomical biology to behavioral, societal, and cultural features. Given the large number of human traits for which no counterparts have yet been described in nature, the limitations of the comparative method will also be addressed and alternative approaches to the singular ..read more
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CARTA: CompAnth - Welcome and Opening Remarks
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2M ago
Comparative Anthropogeny (CompAnth) is the study of distinctly human traits and characteristics in the context of comparisons with our closest living relatives, the “great apes.” This symposium, the third of CARTA's CompAnth series, will present a collection of distinctive human traits, ranging from molecular, cellular, and anatomical biology to behavioral, societal, and cultural features. Given the large number of human traits for which no counterparts have yet been described in nature, the limitations of the comparative method will also be addressed and alternative approaches to the singular ..read more
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CARTA: Comparative Anthropogeny - Language: Uniqueness Out of the Ordinary with Eva Wittenberg
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2M ago
Human language is a strong contender for the title of most often named species-specific feature in the literature. But why is that? In this talk, Eva Wittenberg explores what we could mean by "human language", and how different conceptions of language inevitably lead to different answers about whether it is species-specific. While syntax is a central feature, it is only one of several, and the uniqueness of human language is that it arose from a combination of, perhaps, ordinary ingredients. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny" [Humanities] [Science] [Sho ..read more
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CARTA: Comparative Anthropogeny - Did Humans Evolve Concealed Ovulation? with Pascal Gagneux
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2M ago
Human ovulation lacks visible signs, unlike chimpanzees and bonobos with conspicuous genital swellings during fertility. This led to the concept of "concealed ovulation," seen as a human adaptation. Proposed reasons include encouraging paternal investment, confusing paternity to deter infanticide, enabling secret mating and female choice, and reducing female rivalry. Many non-human primates also have unsignaled ovulation. While self-reported human mating doesn't match ovulation, debates persist on subtle reproductive cycle influences. Some cultures use menstrual taboos to disclose fertility st ..read more
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CARTA: Comparative Anthropogeny - The Evolution of Shorter Inter-birth Intervals in Humans with Corinna Most
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2M ago
Life history theory suggests that inter-birth intervals (IBIs) depend on a trade-off between maternal investment in current and future offspring, influenced by the mother's energy and somatic maintenance. Normally, IBI aligns with maternal and infant body size, larger relative infant size leading to slower breeding. In contrast, humans have relatively shorter IBIs due to cooperative breeding, support from the social group. Some other species with cooperative behaviors also exhibit shorter IBIs, possibly aided by factors like meat-eating enabling early weaning around 2.5 million years ago in th ..read more
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CARTA: Comparative Anthropogeny - Insight into Human-specific Adaptations to High Altitude with Tatum Simonson
Evolution (Audio)
by UCTV: UC San Diego
2M ago
High-altitude adaptation stands out as one of the most notable examples of evolution within our species. Despite similar challenges of decreased oxygen availability, human groups on different continents have followed unique evolutionary trajectories. I will discuss how genomic, molecular, and physiological discoveries reveal key insights into human-specific evolutionary changes, examine comparative findings and limitations, and consider alternative approaches for understanding distinct facets of this extraordinary human phenomenon. Series: "CARTA - Center for Academic Research and Training in ..read more
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